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detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna in museum specimens of ixodes dammini ticks.in order to investigate the potential for borrelia burgdorferi infection before the recognition of lyme disease as a clinical entity, the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to examine museum specimens of ixodes dammini (deer ticks) for the presence of spirochete-specific dna sequences. one hundred and thirty-six archival tick specimens were obtained representing various continental u.s. locations; dna sequences characteristic of modern day isolates of b. burgdorferi were detected in 13 194 ...19902402635
reduced abundance of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) and lyme disease risk by deer exclusion.the effect of deer exclosures upon the numbers of immature ixodes scapularis say, the vector of lyme disease in the eastern united states, was examined at five sites in westchester county, ny. study areas ranged in size from 6 to 101 ha where deer had been excluded for a period of 25 yr by > 2.4-m-high fencing that surrounded each site. a total area of 40,506 m2 was drag-sampled during the study to measure tick abundance. nymphal densities (ticks per 1,000 m2) averaged 4.6 (range, 1.3-9.6) insid ...19938271246
relative importance of bird species as hosts for immature ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in a suburban residential landscape of southern new york state.abundance of birds and their tick parasites were estimated in a residential community located in westchester county, ny, where lyme disease is endemic. in total, 36 bird species (416 captures) were collected, of which 25 species (69%) were parasitized by ticks. ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin composed 96.4% of the 1,067 ticks found on birds. the bird species most heavily parasitized was house wren, troglodytes aedon vieillot (11.1 ixodes dammini per bird). relative density es ...19938360897
evaluation of ixodes scapularis, amblyomma americanum, and dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae) from georgia as vectors of a florida strain of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi.the ability of three common tick species from georgia to maintain and transmit the causative agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, was compared under laboratory conditions. a b. burgdorferi cotton rat isolate (mi-6) from florida was selected as a strain from the south, and the sh2-82 isolate from new york was used as a positive control. amblyomma americanum (l.) and dermacentor variabilis (say) did not transmit the mi-6 isolate from inoculated hamsters to naive laboratory mice, and nympha ...19957650697
cultivation of borrelia burgdorferi from human tick bite sites: a guide to the risk of infection.the risk of acquiring lyme disease has been evaluated by xenodiagnostic procedures with laboratory strains of borrelia burgdorferi and laboratory-reared ixodes ticks, or by clinical trials in which diagnosis was based on clinical findings, culture, or serologic tests.19957829700
transmission of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by host-seeking ixodus scapularis (acari:ixodidae) in southern new york state.ixodes scapularis say nymphs collected from a natural focus of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) in westchester county, new york, transmitted the hge agent to uninfected mice in the laboratory. infection was demonstrated in 3 of 8 mice by polymerase chain reaction analysis of whole blood and microscopic examination of blood smears for morulae. two of these mice were also positive by xenodiagnosis. positive xenodiagnostic larvae maintained infection through molting and transferred infection t ...19979220669
deer ticks (ixodes scapularis) and the agents of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in a new york city park.rodent trapping and drag sampling in van cortlandt park, new york city, yielded all stages of ixodes scapularis, the deer tick vector of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge). polymerase chain reaction analyses of the ticks showed borrelia burgdorferi and the ehrlichia sp. that causes hge.19979284380
antibodies to ehrlichia equi in dogs from the northeastern united states.to determine whether dogs living in tickinfested areas of the northeastern united states had been exposed to ehrlichia equi, an etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis.19979364226
a population genetic study of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto from eastern long island, new york, suggested frequency-dependent selection, gene flow and host adaptation.eastern long island, new york, is one of the major foci of lyme disease in the united states. as in almost all other parts of north america, lyme disease in this region is caused by a single genomic species of spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. for three consecutive years, natural populations of lyme borrelia in this region were sampled and studied for gene flow among different locations, changes in population structure over time, and selective forces. the genetic diversity of borre ...19979474903
coinfection of blacklegged ticks (acari: ixodidae) in dutchess county, new york, with the agents of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.adult blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, collected from forested sites in dutchess county, ny, were tested for infection with the etiologic agents of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge). rates of infection with the 2 pathogens were high and independent of one another, confirming prior findings and suggesting that a variety of hosts may be competent reservoirs of the hge agent.19989775627
estimation of the incidence of lyme disease.the incidence of lyme disease in most endemic areas is unknown but will be an important factor in determining the cost-effectiveness of lyme disease vaccines in those areas. the authors developed a deterministic model with nine components to estimate the frequency of ixodes scapularis tick bites and the resulting incidence of lyme disease in residents of endemic areas. for each component, best point estimates and plausible ranges of values were based on the published literature, unpublished data ...19989829875
geographic risk for lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in southern new york state.ixodes scapularis, the tick vector of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge), is prevalent in much of southern new york state. the distribution of this species has increased, as have reported cases of both lyme disease and hge. the unreliability of case reports, however, demonstrates the need for tick and pathogen surveillance in order to accurately define areas of high risk. in this study, a total of 89,550 m2 at 34 study sites was drag sampled in 1995 and a total of 51,540 m2 a ...19989835546
effects of acorn production and mouse abundance on abundance and borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence of nymphal ixodes scapularis ticks.risk of exposure to lyme disease is a function of the local abundance of nymphal ixodes ticks that are infected with the etiological agent, the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. we monitored abundance of white-footed mice (the principal b. burgdorferi reservoir in the eastern and central united states) and acorns (a critical food resource for mice), and ixodes scapularis ticks, as well as ambient temperature (cumulative growing degree days) and growing season precipitation, in a forested landscap ...200112653136
spatiotemporal variation in a lyme disease host and vector: black-legged ticks on white-footed mice.we monitored population density of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), burdens of immature black-legged ticks (ixodes scapularis) on mice, and infection prevalence of host-seeking ticks on six forest plots in southeastern new york state from 1995 through 1999. despite densities of mice that fluctuated two orders of magnitude, average larval and nymphal tick burdens per mouse remained remarkably constant. spatial variability in mouse density and tick burdens was modest. the total number of l ...200112653143
the effects of bird feeders on lyme disease prevalence and density of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in a residential area of dutchess county, new york.the effects of bird feeders on local densities of ixodes scapularis ticks and prevalence of lyme disease were examined in residential areas of dutchess county, ny. ticks were collected, counted, and analyzed for borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes in 2001-2002 on residential properties with and without bird feeders. tick densities and infection prevalence were not significantly different on properties with and without bird feeders. furthermore, analysis of a questionnaire, administered to 580 local ...200314680124
strategies for reducing the risk of lyme borreliosis in north america.the incidence of lyme borreliosis continues to increase in the united states. in 1991, when lyme borreliosis first became a nationally reportable disease to the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc), a total of 9470 cases were reported; in contrast, by 2002 a total of 23,763 cases were reported, >2.5x the total in 1991. area-wide acaricides can be highly effective in killing nymphal ixodes scapularis, with >95% of nymphs killed in studies using cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, or carbaryl. t ...200616524769
molecular analysis of microbial communities identified in different developmental stages of ixodes scapularis ticks from westchester and dutchess counties, new york.ixodes scapularis ticks play an important role in the transmission of a wide variety of pathogens between various mammalian species, including humans. pathogens transmitted by ticks include borrelia, anaplasma and babesia. although ticks may harbour both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microflora, little is known about how the diversity of the microflora within ticks may influence the transmission of pathogens. to begin addressing this question, we examined the composition of bacterial communities ...200616623735
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in small mammals in new york state.intensive small mammal trapping was conducted in 12 counties in new york state during 1998-2000 to investigate the prevalence and site specificity of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi in, and presence of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say on, the wild mice peromyscus leucopus rafinesque and peromyscus maniculatus wagner and other small mammal species. previously captured mice (1992-1997) from throughout new york state also were recruited into the study, providing a total ...200617017230
borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is clonal in patients with early lyme borreliosis.lyme borreliosis, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in north america, is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. given the extensive genetic polymorphism of b. burgdorferi, elucidation of the population genetic structure of the bacterium in clinical samples may be relevant for understanding disease pathogenesis and may have applicability for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccine preparations. in this investigation, the genetic polymorphism of the 16s-23s rrna (rrs- ...200818539816
surveillance for lyme disease--united states, 1992-2006.lyme disease is a multisystem disease that occurs in north america, europe, and asia. in the united states, the etiologic agent is borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a spirochete transmitted to humans by infected ixodes scapularis and i. pacificus ticks. the majority of patients with lyme disease develop a characteristic rash, erythema migrans (em), accompanied by symptoms of fever, malaise, fatigue, headache, myalgia, or arthralgia. other manifestations of infection can include arthritis, card ...200818830214
assessment of polymicrobial infections in ticks in new york state.ixodes scapularis ticks are clinically important hematophagous vectors. a single tick bite can lead to a polymicrobial infection. we determined the prevalence of polymicrobial infection with borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia microti, borrelia miyamotoi, and powassan virus in 286 adult ticks from the two counties in new york state where lyme disease is endemic, utilizing a masstag multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. seventy-one percent of the ticks harbored at least ...201019725770
Molting success of Ixodes scapularis varies among individual blood meal hosts and species.The blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) is an important vector of emerging human pathogens. It has three blood-feeding stages, as follows: larva, nymph, and adult. Owing to inefficient transovarial transmission, at least for the Lyme disease agent (Borrelia burgdorferi), larval ticks rarely hatch infected, but they can acquire infection during their larval blood meal. Nymphal ticks are primarily responsible for transmitting pathogens to hosts, including humans. The transition from uninfected ho ...201121845946
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