PMID(sorted ascending)
concurrent outbreaks of influenza a and influenza b.during the winter of 1982 concurrent outbreaks of influenza a and influenza b occurred. the epidemiology and clinical features of 151 cases referred during this time are described, and patients are discussed according to age and presenting clinical syndrome: croup was the commonest presentation in young children, a typical influenza syndrome predominated in young adults, while older patients were more likely to have lower respiratory tract infection. there was no significant difference between t ...19854008920
presumptive summer influenza a: an outbreak on a trans-tasman cruise.a number of recent reports from the northern hemisphere have drawn attention to the occurrence of summer outbreaks (may to august) of influenza a among cruise ship passengers and their contacts. in cases amongst passengers returning to canada from alaska, exposure appears to have occurred during the land-based alaskan tour with illness developing during the subsequent cruise. a late summer outbreak of influenza a among passengers and crew on the return leg of a 14-day sydney-new zealand-sydney c ...200010812749
summer outbreak of respiratory disease in an australian prison due to an influenza a/fujian/411/2002(h3n2)-like outbreak of influenza a occurred in a prison system in new south wales, australia in january 2003 during the southern hemisphere summer. this report documents only the third confirmed outbreak of influenza in a prison environment. the outbreak investigation included case ascertainment, state-wide surveillance, a case-control study and interventions to limit the outbreak such as infection control, quarantine, cohorting of cases, and the use of antiviral medication for prophylaxis. a total of 3 ...200515724717
an australian perspective of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic.the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic stands as one of the greatest natural disasters of all time. in a little over a year the disease affected hundreds of millions of people and killed between 50 and 100 million. when the disease finally reached australia in 1919 it caused more than 12,000 deaths. while the death rate was lower than in many other countries, the pandemic was a major demographic and social tragedy, affecting the lives of millions of australians. this paper briefly assesses the impact ...200617136138
preparing for the next influenza pandemic: a new south wales perspective.pandemic influenza is one of a small number of infectious diseases that pose a significant global threat. pandemic preparedness has accelerated around the world in recent years in response to the perceived increased risk of a pandemic developing following the emergence of h5n1 avian influenza in domestic poultry flocks in asia, africa and europe. there is a hierarchy of pandemic plans - international, national, state, and local - and harmonisation of all of these is imperative for a coordinated ...200617136141
pandemic planning at the coal face: responsibilities of the public health unit.responding to an infectious disease pandemic requires a coordinated approach from all essential services. public health units across nsw will play an important role in a range of control activities. these include: surveillance, education, communication, case ascertainment, case management (excluding clinical management), infection control, contact tracing, monitoring contacts in home quarantine, surveillance at borders, epidemiological studies and immunisation. public health units are currently ...200617136142
factsheet: pandemic influenza. 200617354329
annual report of the national influenza surveillance scheme, 2007.the year 2007 saw the most severe influenza season since national reporting of influenza began in 2001. early in the season the national incident room was activated to provide effective national surveillance, reporting and management of the 2007 seasonal influenza outbreak. a surveillance team were tasked with establishing enhanced surveillance for the 2007 season and investigating unusual events in this outbreak. key data required to comprehensively describe the number of cases, morbidity, mort ...200818767420
h1n1 swine origin influenza infection in the united states and europe in 2009 may be similar to h1n1 seasonal influenza infection in two australian states in 2007 and 2008.the population-based impact of infection with swine origin influenza a (h1n1) virus infection was not clear in the early days of the epidemic towards the end of may 2009. australia had seven confirmed cases by 22 may 2009. we aimed to compare available data on swine origin influenza a (h1n1) virus infection overseas with seasonal influenza a (h1n1) virus infection in australia to assist with forward planning.200919627376
swine flu update: bringing home the 6 weeks, swine influenza a(h1n1) virus has spread from 10 to 74 countries. australia has the fifth highest number of cases and the third highest rate of infection among the top five affected nations. people who are hospitalised with or die from this novel virus are more likely to have predisposing risk factors. there is a predilection for younger age groups and sparing of older age groups. this may be a property of influenza a viruses in general rather than being specific to swine influenza a ...200919645640
epidemiological characteristics of pandemic influenza h1n1 2009 and seasonal influenza infection.the median age of patients with pandemic influenza h1n1 2009 infection was reported as 20-25 years in initial case series from europe and the united states. this has been lowered to 13 years in the us after testing of more patients, but this may reflect differential increased testing of school-aged children as part of the pandemic response. the median age of patients with seasonal influenza a(h1n1) infection identified through sentinel surveillance in western australia and victoria in 2007-2008 ...200919645642
critical care services and 2009 h1n1 influenza in australia and new zealand.planning for the treatment of infection with the 2009 pandemic influenza a (h1n1) virus through health care systems in developed countries during winter in the northern hemisphere is hampered by a lack of information from similar health care systems.200919815860
extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 2009 influenza a(h1n1) acute respiratory distress syndrome.the novel influenza a(h1n1) pandemic affected australia and new zealand during the 2009 southern hemisphere winter. it caused an epidemic of critical illness and some patients developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ards) and were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ecmo).200919822628
laboratory test performance in young adults during influenza outbreaks at world youth day 2008.the performance of influenza laboratory diagnostics in young adults and in the setting of outbreaks during mass gatherings has not been well studied.200919828366
evaluation of alternative respiratory syndromes for specific syndromic surveillance of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus: a time series analysis.syndromic surveillance is increasingly being evaluated for its potential for early warning of increased disease activity in the population. however, interpretation is hampered by the difficulty of attributing a causative pathogen. we described the temporal relationship between laboratory counts of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) detection and alternative groupings of emergency department (ed) respiratory diagnoses.200919943970
quantifying the risk of pandemic influenza in pregnancy and indigenous people in australia in increased relative risk of infection with the 2009 pandemic h1n1 influenza virus associated with pregnancy and indigenous status has been a common finding in many countries. using publicly available data from may to october 2009 in australia, we estimated the relative risk of hospitalisation, admission to intensive care unit and death as 5.2, 6.5 and 1.4 respectively for pregnant women, and as 6.6, 6.2 and 5.2, respectively for indigenous australians. pregnancy and indigenous status were asso ...200920070939
the changing phases of pandemic (h1n1) 2009 in queensland: an overview of public health actions and epidemiology.a graded public health response was implemented to control the pandemic (h1n1) 2009 outbreak in queensland. public health measures to contain the outbreak included border control, enhanced surveillance, management of cases and contacts with isolation or quarantine and antivirals, school closures and public education messages. the first confirmed case in australia was notified on 8 may 2009, in a traveller returning to queensland from the united states. in queensland, 593 laboratory-confirmed cas ...201020078411
an influenza prophylaxis clinic in a primary school: 24 hours from notification to protection.a public health clinic was established to provide antiviral prophylaxis to school contacts during the pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza outbreak in nsw, australia. children (n = 74) and staff (n = 9) were provided with antiviral (oseltamivir) prophylaxis following exposure to a confirmed case of pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza. the success of the clinic included attention to infection control and quarantining of potentially infectious children and staff, attendance at the clinic of pharmacists to en ...201020374689
pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza vaccine roll-out in nsw.the roll-out of the pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza vaccine in nsw was significantly different to that envisaged for a pandemic vaccination program. pre-pandemic planning had focused on the urgent roll-out of a vaccine through mass vaccination clinics in a time of high demand due to a virulent influenza virus. instead the situation was less urgent, with the vaccine available only after the peak of incidence of infections in nsw. consequently mass vaccination clinics were considered to be a less a ...201020374692
pig in a china shop: a personal perspective of how pandemic (h1n1) 2009 affected the work of intensive care units in nsw.intensive care support of patients with severe respiratory failure has improved over recent years and with improved methods of ventilation fewer of these patients now die. however despite these improvements, a significant number of patients still die with acute respiratory failure. the outbreak of pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza presented nsw intensive care units with many critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory failure. three case studies and summary data illustrate the impact of t ...201020374694
pandemic influenza h1n1 2009 in north queensland--risk factors for admission in a region with a large indigenous population.this study describes the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza h1n1 within north queensland, australia. we collected data on all specimens tested for influenza (including h1n1) by polymerase chain reaction between may and august 2009 at townsville hospital. patients requiring admission to hospital and a proportion of non-admitted patients had clinical characteristics recorded. multi-variable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors for admission. ...201020677419
flutracking provides a measure of field influenza vaccine effectiveness, australia, 2007-2009.we reviewed flutracking's (an australian weekly online survey of community members) performance in estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness using new south wales data for participants aged 18-60 years of age from 2007, 2008 and 2009. flutracking results were consistent with previous findings that the 2009 seasonal influenza vaccine was ineffective in preventing the dominant ph1n109 strain of influenza, and that 2007 and 2008 vaccine strains were considered well matched to the circulating virus ...201020732464
comparison of pandemic (h1n1) 2009 and seasonal influenza, western australia, 2009.we compared confirmed pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza and seasonal influenza diagnosed in western australia during the 2009 influenza season. from 3,178 eligible reports, 984 pandemic and 356 seasonal influenza patients were selected; 871 (88.5%) and 288 (80.9%) were interviewed, respectively. patients in both groups reported a median of 6 of 11 symptoms; the difference between groups in the proportion reporting any given symptom was < or =10%. fewer than half the patients in both groups had > or ...201020735922
all-cause mortality during first wave of pandemic (h1n1) 2009, new south wales, australia, temperate countries, death rates increase in winter, but influenza epidemics often cause greater increases. the death rate time series that occurs without epidemic influenza can be called a seasonal baseline. differentiating observed death rates from the seasonally oscillating baseline provides estimated influenza-associated death rates. during 2003-2009 in new south wales, australia, we used a serfling approach with robust regression to estimate age-specific weekly baseline all-cause death r ...201020735923
influenza a (h1n1) 2009 antibodies in residents of new south wales, australia, after the first pandemic wave in the 2009 southern hemisphere winter.the first wave of pandemic influenza a(h1n1)2009 (ph1n1) reached new south wales (nsw), australia in may 2009, and led to high rates of influenza-related hospital admission of infants and young to middle-aged adults, but no increase in influenza-related or all-cause mortality.201020830210
comparison of the incidence of influenza in relation to climate factors during 2000-2007 in five countries.relatively few international comparisons of the incidence of influenza related to climate parameters have been performed, particularly in the eastern hemisphere. in this study, the incidence of influenza and climate data such as temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall, from cities at different latitudes with contrasting climates: singapore, hong kong (china), ulaanbaatar (mongolia), vancouver (canada), and three australian cities (brisbane, melbourne and sydney) were examined to determine w ...201020872724
pandemic a(h1n1) 2009 influenza: review of the southern hemisphere experience.we sought to systematically review the published literature describing the epidemiological aspects of the first wave of pandemic a(h1n1) 2009 influenza in the southern hemisphere. fifteen studies were included in this review, originating from south america, australia or new zealand, and africa. across the different studies, 16·8-45·3% of the laboratory-confirmed cases were admitted to hospital, and 7·5-26·0% of these cases were admitted to intensive care units (icus). the fatality rate was 0·5-1 ...201020920380
lessons from the swine flu: pandemic, panic and/or pandemonium?the 2009 pandemic of swine-origin a/h1n1 influenza (swine flu) spread rapidly in australia and there was a prolonged winter outbreak lasting 18 weeks. for australian children, the case fatality rate of swine flu was no higher than for severe seasonal influenza. because of the high number of children infected with swine flu, however, there were more children admitted to hospital than usual and more children died. health-care services (emergency departments, medical wards and intensive care units) ...201021121084
[epidemic of influenza a(h1n1) 2009 in reunion island: epidemiological data.]in reunion island, a french subtropical island located in the southern hemisphere, the monitoring of the epidemiological dynamics of the epidemic linked to the emergence of pandemic virus a(h1n1) 2009 was achieved through the regular influenza surveillance system which has been reinforced on that occasion. it was mainly based on a network of sentinel physicians, combined with virologic monitoring, and on surveillance of severe cases and deaths. the data were analyzed and retroinformation was dis ...201021181328
cross-reacting antibodies against the pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza virus in older assess background pre-pandemic cross-reacting antibodies to the pandemic (h1n1) 2009 virus in older populations in australia.201121449863
pandemic (h1n1) 2009 risk for frontline health care determine whether frontline health care workers (hcws) are at greater risk for contracting pandemic (h1n1) 2009 than nonclinical staff, we conducted a study of 231 hcws and 215 controls. overall, 79 (17.7%) of 446 had a positive antibody titer by hemagglutination inhibition, with 46 (19.9%) of 231 hcws and 33 (15.3%) of 215 controls positive (or 1.37, 95% confidence interval 0.84-2.22). of 87 participants who provided a second serum sample, 1 showed a 4-fold rise in antibody titer; of 45 pati ...201121749760
determinants of mortality in naval units during the 1918-19 influenza 1918, two waves of epidemic influenza arose with very different clinical phenotypes. during the first wave, infection rates were high but mortality was low. during the second wave, high numbers of deaths occurred and mortality differed 30-100 times among seemingly similar groups of affected adults, but the reason for this variation is unclear. in 1918, the crews of most warships and some island populations were affected by influenza during both waves of infection and had no or very few deaths ...201121958582
chronic disease and hospitalisation for pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza in indigenous and non-indigenous western australians.indigenous and non-indigenous western australians with pandemic (h1n1) 2009 influenza (ph1n1) infection were compared for risk factors, influenza vaccination history, symptoms, use of antiviral medications, and hospitalisation. data were collected systematically on 856 notified cases with laboratory confirmed ph1n1 infection during the first 10 weeks of ph1n1 virus transmission in western australia in 2009. indigenous people with ph1n1 were approximately 3 times more likely to be hospitalised an ...201122010511
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