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correlates of human immunodeficiency virus infection in intravenous drug users: are treatment-program samples misleading?using a community-based sample of 1632 intravenous drug users in baltimore, maryland, usa, this study evaluated a possible selection bias faced when studying risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (hiv-1) in intravenous drug users drawn solely from treatment programs. consenting subjects, recruited by extensive distribution of brochures and word-of-mouth, underwent confidential interviews about drug use behaviors in a setting that was independent of community service agencies. of ...19921311973
effect of chronic substance abuse on the neuropsychological performance of intravenous drug users with a high prevalence of hiv-1 seropositivity.limited data are available on cognitive performance in populations of intravenous drug users during the early, asymptomatic stages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection. between 1988 and 1990, 151 participants from the aids link to intravenous experience (alive) study in baltimore, maryland, were evaluated neuropsychologically on a semiannual basis. this analysis focused on whether history of substance abuse influenced neuropsychological test performance. at baseline, 102 part ...19921362630
increased hiv/aids mortality among residents aged 25-44 years--baltimore, maryland, 1987-1989.from 1987 through 1989, overall mortality among baltimore residents aged 25-44 years increased from 380.7 deaths per 100,000 residents to 452.6 deaths per 100,000, reflecting the substantial impact of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). to better characterize this increase in mortality, the baltimore city health department analyzed information on death certificates from the baltimore city bureau of vital statistics for persons aged 25-44 ye ...19921522837
new evidence on intravenous cocaine use and the risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.to examine whether recent intravenous use of cocaine might be associated with increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv) infection, the authors studied 2,597 active intravenous drug users: 2,399 with recent cocaine injection and 198 with recent injection of heroin or other drugs but not cocaine. these subjects were adult residents of baltimore city and the surrounding maryland counties, recruited via outreach into the community between february 1988 and march 1989. in contrast t ...19911746528
attitudes toward condom use and aids among patients from an urban family practice center.as part of an effort to better educate patients about using condoms, a survey was done to assess the sexual practices, attitudes toward acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and condom use by patients who visit an urban family practice center. a self-administered questionnaire was given to 126 patients of whom the majority were black and single. seventeen percent indicated they had sex with more than one person in the 3 months before the survey. within the last 5 years, 10% had sex with an i ...19911942110
antibody to human t-lymphotropic virus type i/ii (htlv-i/ii) among male inmates entering maryland prisons.serum specimens that had been obtained for routine operational procedures from consecutive entering male inmates during spring 1987 and the same calendar period in 1988 were tested to identify prevalence and risk groups for antibody to htlv-i/ii. specimens were assayed for antibody to htlv-i/ii using elisa, ripa, and western blot techniques. demographics were compared by serostatus using chi 2 and fisher's exact tests. of the 1,932 inmates entering prison, 49.3% were 25 years of age or older, 70 ...19901969961
assessment of the prevalence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection among college students using three survey methods.to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection among undergraduate college students, the authors simultaneously conducted three types of surveillance on a large university campus (27,902 undergraduates) in the baltimore-washington metropolitan area: a voluntary hiv-1 serosurvey with a linked risk assessment questionnaire (n = 3,394), a blinded serosurvey using blood specimens collected for routine purposes in the student health center (n ...19911983894
hiv antibody seroprevalence among childbearing women surveyed in maryland.because blood specimens from newborns reflect the antibody status of the mother, seroprevalence rates among childbearing women are obtainable from analysis of the specimens. a blinded survey of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) antibody seroprevalence among childbearing women was conducted in maryland. the survey used 31,273 dried filter paper blood spot specimens obtained from newborns screened for hereditary disorders. overall, 99 specimens were positive on two enzyme-linked immunoassays and ...19902124356
association of drug injection patterns with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among intravenous drug users in baltimore, maryland.during 1988 and 1989, intravenous drug users recruited through extensive community outreach efforts in baltimore, maryland, were interviewed about drug injection and sex practices in the prior 11 years, with screening for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1). neither interviewers nor subjects were aware of hiv-1 serostatus until 2 weeks after the interview. among 2,616 intravenous drug users who last injected drug within the same calendar year as screening, hiv-1 seroprevalenc ...19902239899
delayed hypersensitivity skin testing and anergy in a population of gay men.anergy is almost universal among patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). to determine the prevalence and correlates of anergy in a population at risk for aids, we performed skin tests in 1120 gay men who were enrolled in a prospective study of the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. anergy, defined as no induration to any of four intradermal antigens, was present in 12%. individually, no induration was detected in response to tetanus toxoid (41%) ...19872822314
human immunodeficiency virus infection among patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases.to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in patients attending inner-city clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in baltimore, we screened 4028 patients anonymously, of whom 209 (5.2 percent) were seropositive for hiv. hiv-seropositivity rates were higher among men (6.3 percent) than women (3.0 percent) (p less than 0.001) and among blacks (5.0 percent) than whites (1.2 percent) (p less than 0.02). among men, but not women, hiv sero ...19883336411
human immunodeficiency virus infections among civilian applicants for united states military service, october 1985 to march 1986. demographic factors associated with seropositivity.during the six months from october 1985 through march 1986, blood samples from 306,061 civilian applicants for military service from the united states were tested for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). four hundred sixty subjects were positive for the antibody as determined by western (immune) blot reactivity. the mean prevalence of hiv infection in this population of teenagers and young adults was thus 1.50 per 1000. according to multivariate analysis, the following demographic ...19873474519
voluntary testing for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in a prison population with a high prevalence of hiv.this study evaluated voluntary testing for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in a prison population with a high hiv seroprevalence. data on demographic variables and participation in voluntary testing were linked to a blinded hiv serosurvey of consecutive maryland prison entrants (april-july 1991). among 2,842 entrants, hiv seroprevalence was 8.5% (men, 7.9%; women, 15.3%). voluntary testing was accepted by 47% of the entrants, and it identified 34% of the hiv-seropositive inmates detected by s ...19948166142
socially desirable responding and self-reported hiv infection risk behaviors among intravenous drug users.this study examined the extent to which self-report of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) risk behaviors might depend upon socially desirable response tendencies, and whether socially desirable responding might serve as a confounding variable in the study of risk behaviors and hiv serostatus. the subjects were 2885 intravenous drug users participating in the alive study in baltimore, maryland. participants completed an interview and were tested for hiv serostatus. the interview covered hiv risk ...19938485429
natural history of opportunistic disease in an hiv-infected urban clinical cohort.to determine the effect of contemporary clinical care on the natural history of opportunistic disease in an urban population infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv).19968607591
challenges and rewards of involving community in research: an overview of the "focus on kids" hiv risk reduction program.acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) continues to be a significant concern for adolescents, especially in minority populations. there is a scarcity of knowledge of the cultural context of sexual behavior in this age group and the influences that lead to early initiation of sex and unsafe sex. few efforts targeting young adolescents have been community based, although there has been an increased awareness of the need for such research and intervention programs. four key processes have been d ...19968841821
drug network characteristics as a predictor of cessation of drug use among adult injection drug users: a prospective study.few studies have examined recovery from opiate and cocaine dependence without treatment, referred to as "natural recovery," "spontaneous recovery," and "spontaneous remission." the present study examined the relationship between network characteristics and cessation of heroin, cocaine, and crack use in a sample of underclass inner-city injection drug users in baltimore, maryland. participants were enrolled in an experimental human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) preventive intervention. between the ...199910473009
self-reported legal needs of women with or at risk for hiv infection. the her study group.women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection are often poor and members of racial or ethnic minorities. in addition to legal concerns that might be common among persons with similar sociodemographic characteristics, hiv infection adds the potential of possible stigma and discrimination, as well as the prospect of illness and increased mortality. to determine women's perceptions of need for and access to legal services and whether such perceptions are affected by hiv infection, ...199910609593
comorbidity-based payment methodology for medicaid enrollees with hiv/aids.managed care organizations (mcos) may be incurring financial losses from persons with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) (pwha). this study developed a statistical model to examine which specific comorbidities are important contributors to the variations in health care costs of pwha. individuals were classified into cost groups to simulate biased selection in mcos. capitation payments for various cost groups under different methodologies were compared ...200112500338
prevalence of hiv, syphilis, hepatitis b, and hepatitis c among entrants to maryland correctional facilities.although high prevalence of hepatitis c virus (hcv) in correctional institutions has been established, data are sparse regarding the comorbidities of hepatitis b virus (hbv), hcv, and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), all of which may complicate the management of hcv. this study sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates associated with hcv prevalence among entrants into the maryland division of correction and the baltimore city detention center. participants included all newly incarcera ...200415047781
highly active antiretroviral therapy and the incidence of hiv-1-associated nephropathy: a 12-year cohort study.to assess temporal changes in the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus-1-associated nephropathy (hivan), and the association with use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart).200415090808
decreasing nicu costs in the managed care arena: the positive impact of collaborative high-risk ob and nicu disease management programs.costs for preterm and critically ill neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (nicu) can be astronomical related to the number of inpatient day's accrued and professional ancillary fees. nicu births are often associated with maternal risk factors such as previous preterm or low birth weight delivery, maternal infections, chronic disease states, substance abuse and/or human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. accordingly, johns hopkins healthcare provides a disease management approach for t ...200515931048
hiv infection is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, independent of smoking.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected persons have an elevated risk for lung cancer, but whether the increase reflects solely their heavy tobacco use remains an open question.200717554710
david d. derse, 1949-2009.david d. derse, ph.d., head of the retrovirus gene expression section in the hiv drug resistance program at the national cancer institute-frederick (nci-frederick), passed away on october 9, 2009, a scant six weeks after being diagnosed with liver cancer. it was with great sadness that family, friends, and colleagues gathered together for his memorial service on saturday, october 17, 2009, at the middletown united methodist church in maryland. as a nci scientist since 1986, dave studied the mole ...200919951436
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