chromosomal evolution in malagasy lemurs. iii. chromosome banding studies in the genus hapalemur and the species lemur catta.the karyotypes of five malagasy lemurs are described and compared after the successive use of various banding methods. phylogenic relationships appear to exist between the respective ancestors of lemur catta, hapalemur simus, h. griseus occidentalis, h. griseus ssp, and h. griseus griseus. their karyotypes can be derived from that of l. fulvus fulvus by chromosomal rearrangements affecting mainly chromosomes 1 and x. intense staining of juxtacentromeric heterochromatin was detected among the dif ...197897055
population ecology of the ring-tailed lemur, lemur catta, and the white sifaka, propithecus verreauxi verreauxi, at berenty, madagascar, 1981.the diurnal lemurs propithecus verreauxi verreauxi and lemur catta at berenty in southern madagascar, have been studied for the last 30 years. the august 1981 census indicates that the population size of l. catta remains stable at 150 adults but that p. v. verreauxi troops have become fragmented and scattered and the population is apparently increasing. eight different vegetation types were classified within the reserve and their influence on the distribution of l. catta and p. v. verreauxi inve ...19863557229
troop continuity and troop spacing in propithecus verreauxi and lemur catta at berenty (madagascar). 19724673322
population and troop ranges of lemur catta and lemur fulvus at berenty, madagascar: 1980 census.the november 1980 census suggests that population size and troop ranges have remained stable since 1972 and in a small area since 1963. this prolongs the apparent stability described by some authors, remarkable in a 200-ha reserve containing a maximum of 300 lemur catta. however, inadvertent introduction of lemur fulvus rufus and apparent loss of tamarind trees, as well as general genetic and biogeographic considerations, imply this stability may not continue. berently underlines the need for lo ...19827141348
propithecus verreauxi population and ranging at berenty, madagascar, 1975 and 1980.propithecus verreauxi have been repeatedly censused in parts of the 200-ha reserve at berenty between 1963 and 1975. troop rearrangements in 1963 and 1975 showed that both males and females can change troop outside the breeding season. group sex ratio varies from 0.3 female/male to 5.0 female/male. usually, at berenty, groups defend highly exclusive territories, in contrast to ranging patterns elsewhere. in 1980 troops were censused during 2 weeks in november at a different season from earlier s ...19827141349
affiliative relationships between adult males and immature group members in naturally occurring ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta).affiliative relations between adult males and immature group members were studied in three naturally occurring groups of ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) over a 12-month period at beza-mahafaly reserve, southwestern madagascar. no statistically significant difference was found in rates of affiliative interactions between adult males and older immatures (juveniles and adolescents) over reproductive seasons. however, some of the adult males in two focal groups increased their rates of affiliative b ...19979209574
demographic and life-history patterns in a population of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at beza mahafaly reserve, madagascar: a 15-year perspective.over 15 field seasons (1987-2001), we collected census and life-history data on a population of individually identified ring-tailed lemurs at the beza mahafaly reserve, madagascar. no significant difference was found in population size over the study period, though a marked decline in the population occurred following a 2-year drought. the population rebounded rapidly after the immediate postdrought period. there was nearly a complete replacement of individuals over the study period. average gro ...200312541335
troop fission in wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at berenty, madagascar.a detailed fission process in a wild ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) troop was observed at berenty reserve, madagascar. the troop fission occurred as follows: 1) during the birth season in 2000, two adult females (mother and daughter) were evicted as a result of "targeted aggression" (i.e., intense and persistent aggressive behavior toward particular individuals). 2) two adult and three immature females in the same kin group as the evicted females spontaneously immigrated into the new group. 3) ...200616419123
lateral bias to the leading limb in an olfactory social signal by male ring-tailed lemurs.because ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) show handedness during feeding, i investigated whether they also show lateral preference in the limbs used by males during scent marking. during a bout of marking, a male alternates a variable number of shoulder rubs and arm marks. it is a complex social signal that has both olfactory and visual components and is frequently part of intrasexual agonistic interactions. i used all-occurrences behavior sampling, manually recorded all totally visible bouts, an ...200717245755
habitat use and social structure of a brown lemur hybrid population in the berenty reserve, madagascar.the population of brown lemurs has rapidly grown since their founders were introduced to the berenty reserve. the founders consist of two species (eulemur fulvus rufus and e. collaris). to characterize the behavior of the population and to examine whether these characteristics affect population growth, i investigated the habitat use and social structure of the population of brown lemurs at berenty (berenty eulemur). behavior data were collected focusing on horizontal and vertical habitat use, ac ...200717294429
assessing flavivirus, lentivirus, and herpesvirus exposure in free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs in southwestern madagascar.the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) is an endangered species found in southwestern madagascar, and understanding infectious disease susceptibility is an essential step towards the preservation of wild and captive lemur populations. lemurs are primates that are widely dispersed throughout the island of madagascar and may serve as hosts or reservoirs for zoonotic infections. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to west nile virus (wnv), simian immunodeficiency virus ...200717347392
body mass of wild ring-tailed lemurs in berenty reserve, madagascar, with reference to tick infestation: a preliminary 1999, we measured the body mass of 101 wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) inhabiting the berenty reserve, madagascar. in addition, we counted the number of ticks [haemaphysalis (rhipistoma) lemuris hoogstraal, 1953] infesting their facial skin and external auditory meatuses. for both males and females, the body mass appeared to increase until the age of 3 years. with the apparent exception of infants, there were no sexual differences in body mass. within a group, higher-ranked adult males ...200817632687
biomedical evaluation of free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) in three habitats at the beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.complete physical examinations and biomedical sample collection were performed on 70 free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) from three different habitats in the beza mahfaly special reserve (bmsr), in southern madagascar, to assess the impact of humans and habitat on lemur health. lemurs were chemically immobilized with ketamine and diazepam administered via blow darts for concurrent biomedical, morphometric, and behavioral studies. subsets of the animals had blood analyzed for hematology ...200717679503
survey and comparison of major intestinal flora in captive and wild ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) populations.a survey to identify the major intestinal species of aerobic bacteria, protozoa and helminths was conducted on captive and wild populations of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). samples were collected from 50 captive lemurs at 11 zoological institutions in the united states. in madagascar, 98 aerobic bacteria samples and 99 parasite samples were collected from eight sites chosen to cover a variety of populations across the species range. identical collection, preservation and lab techniques were ...200817854057
somatic variation in living, wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).while understanding somatic variability among wild primates can provide insight into natural patterns of developmental plasticity, published data for living populations are rare. here we provide such information for two distinct wild populations of lemur catta. variants observed include microtia, athelia, and female virilization. dental variants observed include individuals with supernumerary teeth, rotated teeth, maxillary incisor agenesis, and severe malocclusion. there was a sex bias in incis ...200817878733
multimodal signaling in wild lemur catta: economic design and territorial function of urine marking.urine marking has been neglected in prosimian primates. captive studies showed that the malagasy prosimian lemur catta scent marks with urine, as well as via specialized depositions. l. catta urine mark, a multimodal signal, differs from simple urination in terms of different design features, including tail configuration: the tail is held up during marking (ut-up) and down during urination (ut-down). we explore economy and function of ut-up in the female dominant l. catta. we collected 240 h of ...200919051254
the impact of fallback foods on wild ring-tailed lemur biology: a comparison of intact and anthropogenically disturbed habitats.fallback foods are often viewed as central in shaping primate morphology, and influencing adaptive shifts in hominin and other primate evolution. here we argue that fruit of the tamarind tree (tamarindus indica) qualifies as a fallback food of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the beza mahafaly special reserve (bmsr), madagascar. contrary to predictions that fallback foods may select for dental and masticatory morphologies adapted to processing these foods, consumption of tamarind fruit by the ...200919890872
the value of small size: loss of forest patches and ecological thresholds in southern madagascar.many services generated by forest ecosystems provide essential support for human well-being. however, the vulnerability of these services to environmental change such as forest fragmentation are still poorly understood. we present spatial modeling of the generation of ecosystem services in a human-dominated landscape where forest habitat patches, protected by local taboos, are located in a matrix of cultivated land in southern madagascar. two ecosystem services dependent on the forest habitats w ...200616711035
attacks on a wild infant ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) by immigrant males at berenty, madagascar: interpreting infanticide by orphaned infant ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) was attacked persistently by immigrant males and disappeared with severe wounds at berenty reserve, madagascar. prior to the attacks, two troop members disappeared. on 20 november 1998, the only resident male in troop c2b disappeared suddenly. after the disappearance, nine males from three neighboring troops approached, but only six males continued to shadow the troop. of the females, the one lactating female attacked the males the most frequent ...200516229008
population and territory stability of the lemur catta at berenty, madagascar.several lemur catta troops at berenty, madagascar have been censused repeatedly since 1963. in 1972, the entire reserve was censused. a recensus in 1975 showed that although some minor changes have occurred in the number of animals in individual troops, the population of the reserve as a whole, the core areas of the lemurs' territories, and their home range boundaries have all remained stable ever since the first complete census 3 years earlier.1979114464
condensed tannin intake in spiny-forest-dwelling lemur catta at berenty reserve, madagascar, during reproductive periods.primates vary in their choice or avoidance of plant foods high in condensed tannins (ct). our study focused on ct intake in two groups of lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during two reproductive periods. we examined whether l. catta in this habitat avoided plant foods high in ct, and whether reproductive females ingested lower concentrations of ct compared with males, since ct consumption compromises protein absorption. feeding data and plant food samples were collected during reprod ...200919864917
feeding outside the forest: the importance of crop raiding and an invasive weed in the diet of gallery forest ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) following a cyclone at the beza mahafaly special reserve, january 2005, a cyclone hit southern madagascar, including the beza mahafaly special reserve, disrupting the flowering/fruiting cycle of tamarindus indica, leaving lemur catta without its major food resource during reproductive periods. we studied two adjacent groups of l. catta during the late gestation period, and both groups ventured outside the reserve to feed. the red group (rg) fed daily on cultivated sweet potato (ipomoea batatas) leaves in a nearby field, and both groups consumed leav ...200919776607
assessment of organochlorine pesticides and metals in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at beza mahafaly special reserve, most of madagascar's endemic primates, ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) face a number of threats to their survival. although habitat loss is of greatest concern, other anthropogenic factors including environmental contamination may also affect lemur health and survival. in this study, we examined ring-tailed lemurs from the beza mahafaly special reserve (bmsr), southern madagascar for exposure to organochlorine (oc) pesticides and metals and examined differences in contaminant concentration ...200919746443
behavioral responses to tooth loss in wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.severe dental wear and tooth loss is often assumed to impede the processing, breakdown, and energetic conversion of food items, thereby negatively impacting individual health, reproduction, and survival. ring-tailed lemurs at the beza mahafaly special reserve demonstrate exceptionally high frequencies of severe dental wear and antemortem tooth loss, yet often survive multiple years with these impairments. to test the hypothesis that these lemurs mitigate tooth loss through behavioral adjustments ...200919373842
coat condition of ringtailed lemurs, lemur catta at berenty reserve, madagascar: i. differences by age, sex, density and tourism, index of coat condition can be a non-invasive tool for tracking health and stress at population level. coat condition in ringtailed lemurs, lemur catta, was recorded during september-november birth seasons of 1996, 1997, 1999, and 2001-2006 at berenty reserve, madagascar. condition was scored on a scale from 0: full, fluffy coat with guard hairs present, to 5: half or more of body hairless. adult males did not differ overall from adult females. coats were worse in adults than in 2-year-old su ...200919051320
coat condition of ringtailed lemurs, lemur catta, at berenty reserve, madagascar: ii. coat and tail alopecia associated with leucaena leucocepahala, 2001-2006.fur condition in wild ringtailed lemurs, lemur catta, was recorded during september-november birth seasons 2001-2006 at berenty reserve, madagascar. body coat condition was scored on a scale from bs 0: full, smooth coat with guard hairs, to bs5: half or more of back and limbs hairless. tail condition was scored from ts 0: full, to ts 5: half or more hairless. where troop core areas included stands of leucaena leucocephala, alopecia was dramatically more frequent than in similar areas without leu ...200919051314
a comparison of salivary ph in sympatric wild lemurs (lemur catta and propithecus verreauxi) at beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.chemical deterioration of teeth is common among modern humans, and has been suggested for some extinct primates. dental erosion caused by acidic foods may also obscure microwear signals of mechanical food properties. ring-tailed lemurs at the beza mahafaly special reserve (bmsr), madagascar, display frequent severe tooth wear and subsequent tooth loss. in contrast, sympatric verreaux's sifaka display far less tooth wear and infrequent tooth loss, despite both species regularly consuming acidic t ...200818157845
coprophagy by wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) in human-disturbed locations adjacent to the beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.coprophagy occurs in a number of animal species, including nonhuman primates. during the 2003-2004 dry seasons at the beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar, we observed wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) consuming dried fecal matter from three different species. ring-tailed lemurs consumed human feces on 12 occasions, cattle feces twice, and feral dog feces once. coprophagy in this population may be a behavioral adaptation that provides animals access to energy and nutrients and may be an ...200717253614
severe wear and tooth loss in wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta): a function of feeding ecology, dental structure, and individual life history.the ring-tailed lemurs at beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar, exhibit a high frequency of severe wear and antemortem tooth loss. as part of a long-term study, we collected dental data on 83 living adult ring-tailed lemurs during 2003 and 2004. among these individuals, 192 teeth were scored as absent. the most frequently missing tooth position is m1 (24%). as m1 is the first tooth to erupt, its high frequency of absence (primarily a result of wear) is not remarkable. however, the remaining ...200616962643
effects of reproductive and social variables on fecal glucocorticoid levels in a sample of adult male ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the beza mahafaly reserve, madagascar.glucocorticoids, a group of adrenal hormones, are secreted in response to stress. in male primates, variables such as breeding seasonality, dominance hierarchy stability, and aggressive and affiliative interactions can affect glucocorticoid levels. in this study, we examined interindividual differences in mean fecal glucocorticoid (fgc) levels among males in three groups of wild ring-tailed lemurs to better understand the physiological costs of group living for males in a female-dominant species ...200516163722
long-term changes in dominance ranks among ring-tailed lemurs at berenty reserve, madagascar.a study was conducted between 1989 and 2001 to monitor changes in the dominance ranks among adult ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at berenty reserve, madagascar. adult females were observed to be dominant over adult males. their rank fluctuated greatly. however, in some troops, female rank orders were fairly stable over a period of several years. in general, male ranks were more unstable than female ranks. most young females aged 3 years occupied the lowest ranks among adult females. however, s ...200516142423
does female dominance facilitate feeding priority in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata) in southeastern madagascar?although many malagasy lemurs are thought to be female dominant and to have female feeding priority, to date the relationship between these behaviors has been rigorously established only in lemur catta, and other ways that females might achieve feeding priority have not been examined closely. erhart and overdorff [international journal of primatology 20:927-940, 1999] suggested that one way female primates achieve feeding priority is to initiate and lead groups to food, thereby gaining access to ...200515898069
biomedical evaluation of free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) in tsimanampetsotsa strict nature reserve, madagascar.complete health assessments were performed on 20 adult ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), 10 males and 10 females, free ranging within the tsimanampetsotsa strict nature reserve in southwest madagascar. each animal was anesthetized using tiletamine and zolazepam, weighed, and given a thorough physical examination. blood was collected for hematology, determination of plasma total protein concentration, serum chemistry, determination of fat-soluble vitamin and trace mineral concentrations, assessme ...200312723796
analysis of dentition of a living wild population of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) from beza mahafaly, madagascar.detailed descriptions of the dentition of many strepsirhine primate taxa are rare, despite their importance in understanding primate evolutionary biology. while several researchers have provided detailed morphological descriptions of ring-tailed lemur dentition (e.g., schwartz and tattersall [1985] am. mus. nat. hist. anthropol. pap. 60:1-100; tattersall and schwartz [1991] am. mus. nat. hist. anthropol. pap. 69:2-18), there are few studies (e.g., eaglen [1986] am. j. phys. anthropol. 71:185-201 ...200111241187
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