epidemiologic and clinical aspects of animal bite injuries.during 1975, 332 animal bite injuries accounted for 1.2% of all surgical problems treated at the ucla hospital emergency department. data on 307 bite injuries were available and analyzed for environmental, animal, human, interaction, and clinical factors. more than half of the dog bites and almost three fourths of the cat bites-scratches happened at or near the victims' homes. dog bites were almost twice as common among men, while cat bites-scratches were twice as common among women. of the inci ...1979430939
serologic observations during an outbreak of rat borne plague in the san francisco bay area of california.results of a serologic study of a plaque outbreak among rats (rattus norvegicus) and associated wild rodents are presented. bacteriologic and serologic evidence points toward mutual exchange of fleas and plaque infection between the intermingled rat and wild rodent populations. results emphasize the value of serologic methods for epizootiologic studies of plague in north american rat populations.19751097744
serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx pallas, 1776).tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (taif, riyadh and mahazat as said, saudi arabia; san diego, united states of america [usa]; shaumari, jordan; qatar; and bahrain). no antibodies to pasteurella multocida type e or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. antibodies to brucella abortus, p. multocida type b, p. multocida type d, lumpy skin disease virus and akabane virus were ...19921305861
molecular epidemiology of pasteurella multocida in turkeys.pasteurella multocida isolated from turkeys during an outbreak of fowl cholera was characterized by serotype and heterogeneity of genes encoding rrna (ribotype) to investigate the epidemiology of the organism. isolates were collected between october 1985 and july 1986. the m9 or clemson university fowl cholera vaccine-like strain was detected in 17% of the flocks with fowl cholera. one particular strain, isolated only from breeder flocks, was recovered from 7 of the 10 breeder flocks examined in ...19911718191
mass screening of cattle sera against 14 infectious disease agents, using an elisa system for monitoring health in livestock.mass screening elisa methods were developed for testing cattle serum for antibodies against 14 common livestock diseases simultaneously. the absorbance values were transformed to a %elisa (spectrophotometric antibody end point) by a computer interfaced with a microplate reader. a histogram indicating a cutoff point and a report for the veterinarian also was generated. the computer program produced a print-out of the antibody profile for each animal tested, the antibody concentration against each ...19911767993
case control study of fowl cholera in meat turkeys in california from august 1985 through july 1986 [corrected].from aug 1985 through july 1986, 720 meat turkey flocks on 160 california premises were monitored and outbreaks of fowl cholera (pasteurella multocida) were investigated. data from 43 outbreak (case) flocks were compared with data from 43 nonoutbreak (control) flocks. outbreak flocks, compared with control flocks, were more likely to be located on premises with higher maximal bird capacity and history of fowl cholera outbreaks. the overall impression was that flocks in larger, newer, more intens ...19912012330
homogeneity of characteristics of pasteurella multocida isolated from turkeys and wildlife in california, 1985-88.five hundred twenty isolates of pasteurella multocida, collected in california from september 1985 to november 1988, were characterized in the laboratory. characteristics examined included serotype, capsular type, biotype (subspecies), and possession of plasmid dna. three hundred thirty-three isolates recovered from turkeys dying from fowl cholera, 88 isolates from liver turkeys in flocks with fowl cholera outbreaks in the recent past, and 99 isolates from wildlife captured on fowl cholera-outbr ...19902196044
fowl cholera in california multiplier breeder turkeys: hundred twenty-nine multiplier breeder turkey flocks on 45 premises in california were monitored for outbreaks of fowl cholera (fc) (pasteurella multocida) for 1 year (aug. 1, 1985, through july 31, 1986). fourteen (11%) flocks on 10 (22%) premises experienced outbreaks. nine (64%) outbreaks occurred in the fall or winter. fc-outbreak flocks had significantly shorter lay cycles (24.6 weeks vs. 27.9 weeks) and correspondingly lower total egg production per hen (84 eggs vs. 103 eggs) than non- ...19902282022
pasteurella anatipestifer infections in california turkey flocks: circumstantial evidence of a mosquito vector.outbreaks of pasteurella anatipestifer infections in california turkey flocks were investigated and found to have a seasonal distribution, with a peak incidence in fall, coinciding with peak culex mosquito populations. an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that mosquitoes may serve as vectors for p. anatipestifer infections in turkeys. four 7-week-old turkey poults were exposed for 7 days to mosquitoes captured from turkey barns during a field outbreak of p. anatipestifer serotype 1 ...19892619669
epidemiology and financial impact of fowl cholera in turkeys: a retrospective analysis.a retrospective study of the epidemiology and financial impact of fowl cholera (fc) in california meat turkeys during 1984 was performed. data were collected from 64 flocks--23 fc-outbreak flocks and 41 controls (non-outbreak)--raised in the central valley of the state. mean flock age at the time of the fc outbreak was 11.3 weeks. flocks that reported a colibacillosis outbreak had increased odds (p = 0.11) of also having an fc outbreak. (this association may or may not indicate a cause-effect re ...19883382374
pasteurella multocida in wild mammals and birds in california: prevalence and virulence for turkeys.samples collected from the oropharynx of wild mammals and birds trapped on 36 turkey farms in california were evaluated for the presence of pasteurella multocida. a total of 966 animals were collected from 18 premises that had experienced an outbreak of fowl cholera within the past 2-8 months; samples were collected from 16 of these 18 premises within 2-8 weeks of outbreak notification and while the infected flock was still present. a total of 939 animals were trapped from an additional 18 premi ...19883382384
pasteurella anatipestifer infection in commercial meat-type turkeys in california.a disease outbreak characterized by respiratory signs, occasional neurologic signs, and increased mortality in commercial meat turkeys from four separate companies in central california was investigated in the late summer and early fall of 1986. the disease syndrome affected turkeys from 6 to 15 weeks of age and caused a severe fibrinous pericarditis, perihepatitis, and airsacculitis. bacteriologic and serologic examinations as well as virus- and chlamydia-isolation attempts initially failed to ...19873442544
survival of pasteurella multocida in soil and water in an area where avian cholera is enzootic. 19863712649
the effect of flea control on yersinia (pasteurella) pestis antibody rates in the california vole, microtus californicus, and its epizootiological implications.the effects of flea control on the prevalence of (pasteurella) pestis antibody rates in the california vole, microtus californicus, were studied in san mateo county, california, usa. in this area, which had shown antibody prevalence rates of 50% or more during epizootics in previous years, continuous flea control measures reduced the antibody rate to virtually zero and held it at that level for 12 months, although a nearby area showed an incidence of 40-80% seropositive voles for 5 months during ...19715316910
serum antibody responses in a population of microtus californicus and associated rodent species during and after pasteurella pestis epizootics in the san francisco bay area. 196414270072
the detection of inapparent infections with pasteurella pestis in a microtus californicus population in the san francisco bay area. 196414270073
fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep.during 1979-1980 acute fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia resulted in high mortality or total loss of herds of bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in california and washington. contact with domestic sheep occurred shortly before the onset of disease in each case. circumstantial evidence indicated that the apparently healthy domestic sheep transmitted pathogenic bacteria to the bighorns, resulting in mortality. pasteurella multocida and corynebacterium pyogenes were isolated from pulmonary tissue of de ...19827047767
the 1970-71 avian cholera epornitic's impact on certain species. 19725007903
an ecologic study comparing distribution of pasteurella trehalosi and mannheimia haemolytica between sierra nevada bighorn sheep, white mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.the prevalence and phenotypic variability of pasteurella and mannheimia isolates from sierra nevada bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis sierrae), white mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (ovis aries) from california, usa, were compared. the white mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the sierra nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. the domestic sheep flocks ...200919901369
clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging features, and outcome after surgical and medical treatment of otogenic intracranial infection in 11 cats and 4 dogs.brainstem dysfunction resulting from central extension of infection is a life-threatening complication of otitis media/interna (omi) that has been described infrequently in dogs and cats. we review the clinical signs of disease, diagnostic findings, and results of surgical and medical treatments of brainstem disease attributable to otogenic intracranial infection in cats and dogs. eleven cats and 4 dogs were examined because of acute, subacute, or chronic clinical signs of brain disease includin ...200616734103
associations between water quality, pasteurella multocida, and avian cholera at sacramento national wildlife refuge.we studied patterns in avian cholera mortality, the presence of pasteurella multocida in the water or sediment, and water chemistry characteristics in 10 wetlands at the sacramento national wildlife refuge complex (california, usa), an area of recurrent avian cholera epizootics, during the winters of 1997 and 1998. avian cholera outbreaks (>or=50 dead birds) occurred on two wetlands during the winter of 1997, but no p. multocida were recovered from 390 water and 390 sediment samples from any of ...200516107662
avian cholera on north coast california: distinctive epizootiological features.between 1945 and 2001, avian cholera (pasteurella multocida infection) was confirmed at 27 epizootics in 18 different years on northcoastal california. estimated mortality ranged from 1 to 6750 birds per site, with a median total mortality of about 1000 birds per year. eight epizootics involved < 150 birds; thus, minor epizootics were common. annual total wildfowl mortality ranged from 0.4% to 7.0% of estimated live populations; median annual mortality for american coots (fulica americana) (11.5 ...200212381596
assessment of spatial and temporal clustering of ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant strains of pasteurella multocida and p haemolytica isolated from cattle in determine whether ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant strains of pasteurella multocida and p haemolytica isolated from california cattle with pneumonia were spatially and temporally clustered and to compare overall estimates of percentages of these isolates resistant to these antimicrobials with estimates obtained on the basis of regional and temporal information.19989540872
lesions associated with pasteurella multocida infection in raptors.several case reports attest to the pathogenicity of pasteurella multocida in raptors; however, the pathologic syndromes have not been fully described. we describe here the lesions encountered in 22 avian cholera cases in raptors. besides septicemia-related lesions, a unique syndrome of esophageal abscesses was noted in 8 of the 11 (73%) buteo hawks that succumbed to avian cholera. esophageal abscesses were not noted in birds belonging to the order strigiformes (owls) or family falconidae (falcon ...19979087338
herpesvirus particles associated with oral and respiratory lesions in a california desert tortoise (gopherus agassizii).a 60-year-old captive california desert tortoise (gopherus agassizii) which died in august 1990 at the university of california, davis, california (usa), during treatment for colonic impaction had marked caseous necrosis of the oral cavity, choana, trachea, and lungs. numerous intranuclear inclusion bodies and a large number of syncytial giant cells were seen in the oral cavity and respiratory tract along with bacterial granulomas. pasteurella testudinis, streptococcus veridans, and coagulase-ne ...19968827680
esophageal trichomoniasis in chickens.esophageal trichomoniasis has been rarely reported in chickens. at the california veterinary diagnostic laboratory system-turlock branch, this disease was recently diagnosed in two cases submitted from backyard chicken flocks. the esophageal lesions observed were similar to those seen in several other important diseases of chickens. the causative trichomonad organisms were readily demonstrated on wet smears and by histologic studies. in both cases, the investigated flocks were afflicted with sev ...19958719231
recovery of pasteurella multocida from experimentally-exposed freshwater snails.we determined how long pasteurella multocida could survive in experimentally-exposed freshwater snails. physa virginea were collected from the sacramento national wildlife refuge, glenn county, california (usa), an enzootic site for avian cholera. exposure to water containing up to 10(7) p. multocida per ml did not produce observable changes or mortality in snails. a minimum of 84 p. multocida per snail was necessary for detection among the normal snail bacterial flora. when snails were exposed ...19958592357
lead concentrations in liver and kidneys of snow geese during an avian cholera epizootic in california.during an avian cholera epornitic, between december 1982 and january 1983, 58 dead, 23 sick, and 106 hunter-killed lesser snow geese (chen caerulescens caerulescens) were collected at delevan national wildlife refuge, colusa county, california, usa. fifty-one of the dead and sick geese were infected with pasteurella multocida. lead concentrations in the livers ranged from < 1 to 253 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight). lead concentrations in the kidneys ranged from < 1 ppm to 547 ppm (dry weigh ...19938258858
survey of desert bighorn sheep in california for exposure to selected infectious diseases.from february 1983 to june 1985, 188 desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni, = 161 and oc cremnobates, = 27) from 18 herds in 17 mountain ranges and one captive herd were caught, marked, and had blood, fecal, and nasal mucus samples collected. nasal swab specimens were cultured bacteriologically and virologically specifically for parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus. bacterial flora differed from herd to herd. pathogenic pneumophilic bacteria (eg, pasteurella sp) seldom were found. parainfluenza- ...19853878356
a descriptive study of fowl cholera in california meat turkeys: august 1985-july hundred sixty meat-turkey premises in california were monitored for outbreaks of fowl cholera from august 1985 through july 1986. nearly 27 million turkeys in 720 flocks were at risk during the year. fifty-three flocks of approximately 3 million turkeys on 34 different premises experienced confirmed fowl cholera outbreaks. the epidemic curve for the year indicated that the majority of outbreaks occurred in the late summer and fall, particularly in october. the incidence of outbreaks during t ...19873442531
epizootiological features of avian cholera on the north coast of avian cholera (pasteurella multocida) epizootic was observed among wildfowl at the centerville gun club, humboldt county, california (usa) in january 1978. compared to their live populations and use of the area, coots (fulica americana) died in proportionately greater numbers than any other species. coots collected by gunshot were evaluated for sex and age composition, and morphometry from november 1977 through mid-january 1978 at this site. there was no substantial difference in the sex, age ...19892716104
correlations of daily activity with avian cholera mortality among wildfowl.we tested the hypothesis that wildfowl activities can influence the risk of avian cholera (pasteurella multocida infection) for susceptible birds at centerville, humboldt county, california (usa). avian cholera mortality characteristics from past epizootics were correlated with variations in flock size, habitat use and 11 feeding and nonfeeding behaviors among six empirically defined groups of wildfowl: american coots (fulica americana), tundra swans (cygnus columbianus), american wigeon (anas a ...19911758019
transmission of pasteurella multocida on california turkey premises in 1988-89.restriction endonuclease analysis (rea) of whole-cell dna was used to determine possible sources of pasteurella multocida for each outbreak of fowl cholera occurring in turkey flocks in eight commercial poultry companies in california from october 1988 to september 1989. over this period, 179 isolates of p. multocida were obtained from dead turkeys in 80 meat and breeder flocks on 43 premises. p. multocida was isolated from wildlife on five premises. isolates were characterized by subspecies, se ...19921627098
the january 1977 avian cholera epornitic in northwest california.a total of 844 birds were observed dead at three sites in humboldt county and an estimated 6750 birds died at three sites in del norte county, california. coots were the primary species affected. the isolation of pasteurella multocida from a snowy egret (egretta thula) is the first reported case of avian cholera in this bird. there was evidence for a distinct sequence in the bird species dying at one site; american coots (fulica americana) appeared to be the first species to die.1978691123
the 1975-76 avian cholera outbreaks in humboldt county, california.the 1975-76 avian cholera outbreaks were observed from 25 november 1975 to 17 february 1976 at three sites in humboldt county, california. this is the first known occurrence of avian cholera on one of the sites (city of arcata oxidation ponds).1978650790
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