plasmid encoded multi-drug resistance in salmonella typhi from pakistan.twenty-five isolates of salmonella typhi made from cases of typhoid fever during 1990-1991 in rawalpindi and islamabad, were examined. all isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim, but were sensitive to nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and cefotaxime. a single large 98 mda plasmid was identified in all the isolates. the plasmid was self-transferable and encoded resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicil ...19938250628
cockroaches (blattodea: blattidae): a reservoir of pathogenic microbes in human-dwelling localities in lahore.this study focuses on isolation of pathogenic bacteria from external and internal surfaces of cockroaches collected from houses and hospitals in lahore. in total, 240 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by hand or using sticky traps and food-bait traps. cockroach species were identified, and microbial screening was done for external surfaces and gut tracts of cockroaches. jaccard's index of similarity, bray-curtis' index of dissimilarity, and shannon-wiener's diversity ind ...201627744361
antibacterial and antioxidant potential of stem bark extract of bombax ceiba collected locally from south punjab area of pakistan.ethnic medication systems have been used extensively by humans since their origin. now a day, in the developing countries these systems are being used due to their effectiveness and affordability. especially inhabitants of rural areas still rely on these systems as first line of treatment against diseased conditions. till now, majority of medicines is derived from the natural origin particularly plants owing to their little side effects and cost effectiveness.201728573217
changing trends in drug resistance among typhoid salmonellae in rawalpindi, pakistan.we analysed the record of blood cultures carried out at the armed forces institute of pathology, rawalpindi between 1996 and 2003. we isolated 477 salmonella typhi and 410 s. paratyphi a from blood of patients suffering from typhoid fever. we observed a significant shift in the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of typhoid salmonellae. the isolation rate of s. typhi fell significantly while s. paratyphi a is emerging as a major pathogen. resistance to conventional antityphoid drugs in ...200516761675
detection of vi-negative salmonella enterica serovar typhi in the peripheral blood of patients with typhoid fever in the faisalabad region of pakistan.the synthesis and transportation proteins of the vi capsular polysaccharide of salmonella enterica serovar typhi (serovar typhi) are encoded by the viab operon, which resides on a 134-kb pathogenicity island known as spi-7. in recent years, vi-negative strains of serovar typhi have been reported in regions where typhoid fever is endemic. however, because vi negativity can arise during in vitro passage, the clinical significance of vi-negative serovar typhi is not clear. to investigate the loss o ...200516145086
ciprofloxacin treatment failure in typhoid fever case, pakistan.we report a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure in a typhoid fever patient at a tertiary care hospital in rawalpindi, pakistan. this case shows not only the emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in typhoid salmonellae but also the inadequacy of the current laboratory guidelines for detection of this resistance.200314720407
birth weight predicts response to vaccination in adults born in an urban slum in lahore, pakistan.substantial evidence exists linking small size at birth to later-life susceptibility to chronic disease. evidence is also emerging that some components of immune function may be programmed in early life. however, this evidence is limited and requires confirmation.200415277170
characterization of multi-drug resistant salmonella typhi isolated from pakistan.thirty-nine strains of salmonella typhi, isolated in 1995 from four districts in pakistan, rawalpindi, islamabad, kharian and jehlem, were catalogued and examined. chromosomal dna from each isolate was digested with xbai restriction endonuclease and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. three clonal variants comprising of 17-19 dna fragments were identified. antibiotic susceptibility testing identified that 37 of the s. typhi were resistant to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and ampicilli ...200010722124
faecal excretion of entero-pathogens in a pakistani family returning to the u.k. after a visit to rawalpindi.the family consisted of two parents and five children. while the father remained in cardiff, the mother and all the children visited rawalpindi, pakistan, for 6 weeks to stay with relatives. travel was by flight from heathrow airport to pakistan and by a short road journey to rawalpindi. mrs m. - the mother - as a guest, did no cooking on the holiday. the house which they were living in had a piped water supply, thought to be treated. there was no flush toilet but a commode was available and was ...19807005329
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