Publications

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typhoid fever in children: some epidemiological considerations from karachi, pakistan.the morbidity of typhoid fever is highest in asia with 93% of global episodes occurring in this region. southeast asia has an estimated incidence of 110 cases/100,000 population, which is the third highest incidence rate for any region. pakistan falls into this region. there is also a considerable seasonal variation of typhoid fever, carrying significant public health importance. children are worst affected. population-based data from pakistan are scarce.200616431148
antibacterial activity in spices and local medicinal plants against clinical isolates of karachi, pakistan.context: development of resistance in human pathogens against conventional antibiotic necessitates searching indigenous medicinal plants having antibacterial property. twenty-seven medicinal plants used actively in folklore, ayurvedic and traditional system of medicine were selected for the evaluation of their antimicrobial activity for this study. eleven plants chosen from these 27 are used as spices in local cuisine. objective: evaluation of the effectiveness of some medicinal plant extracts a ...201121501041
incidence of typhoid bacteremia in infants and young children in southern coastal pakistan.the burden of typhoid fever in preschool children is not well recognized. the purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of typhoid bacteremia in pakistani children <5 years of age, with a focus on children younger than 2 years of age. this will help to inform prevention policies in highly endemic countries.201021046701
risk factors for typhoid fever in children in squatter settlements of karachi: a nested case-control study.typhoid fever remains a major public health problem in developing countries such as pakistan. a great majority of cases occur in children living in poor sanitary conditions in squatter settlements in large cities. we conducted a case-control study to identify risk factor for typhoid fever in children under the age of 16 years residing in squatter settlements of karachi. we enrolled 88 typhoid fever patients, diagnosed by positive blood culture or typhidot test, between june 1999 and december 200 ...200820701852
quinine is bactericidal.to determine the antibacterial properties of quinine dihydrochloride and its mic.200919402279
culture-confirmed typhoid fever and pregnancy.the relationship between pregnancy and typhoid fever is not well defined. the objective of this study was twofold: to assess the effect of the pregnant and postpartum host on typhoid disease expression, and to explore the relationship between typhoid fever and pregnancy outcome.200717321180
enhanced detection rate of typhoid fever in children in a periurban slum in karachi, pakistan using polymerase chain reaction technology.yield of blood culture in clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever is low, whereas indirect serological diagnostic tests are unreliable. hence, polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based detection of salmonella enterica serovar typhi was used as an aid for diagnosis of typhoid fever in addition to other diagnostic tests. two periurban communities in karachi were selected for an epidemiological study of typhoid fever. the aim of the study was to assess whether pcr increased the detection rate of ty ...200616901852
enhanced disease surveillance through private health care sector cooperation in karachi, pakistan: experience from a vaccine trial.in research projects such as vaccine trials, accurate and complete surveillance of all outcomes of interest is critical. in less developed countries where the private sector is the major health-care provider, the private sector must be included in surveillance systems in order to capture all disease of interest. this, however, poses enormous challenges in practice. the process and outcome of recruiting private practice clinics for surveillance in a vaccine trial are described.200616501718
present status of antibiotic susceptibility pattern of salmonella typhi isolates at a tertiary care hospital in karachi. 200011191447
risk factors for typhoid fever in an endemic setting, karachi, pakistan.we conducted a study to evaluate risk factors for developing typhoid fever in a setting where the disease is endemic in karachi, pakistan. we enrolled 100 cases with blood culture-confirmed salmonella typhi between july and october 1994 and 200 age-matched neighbourhood controls. cases had a median age of 5.8 years. in a conditional logistic regression model, eating ice cream (odds ratio [or] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [ci] 1.2-4.2, attributable risk [ar] = 36%), eating food from a roadside ...19989593481
therapeutic aspects of typhoidal salmonellosis in childhood: the karachi experience.we evaluated the response to therapy in a series of 876 children consecutively admitted to the aga khan university hospital with culture-proven typhoid, including 281 cases infected with multi-drug-resistant (mdr) strains. among sensitive isolates there was no significant difference in cure rates, failure rates and time to defervescence with either ampicillin or chloramphenicol. of the 217 children with mdr typhoid who received therapy with third-generation cephalosporins, the outcome was signif ...19968985527
epidemiology of salmonellosis and its sensitivity in karachi.over the past five years 25,000 blood cultures were screened for septicaemia. of these 6.7% were positive for salmonella species, the commonest being salmonella typhi accounting for 92% of total salmonella isolates. over the years, s. typhi showed a gradual decline ranging from 96.7 to 87%. while salmonella paratyphi a has shown a gradual increase ranging from 2.5% to 11.4%. salmonellosis peaked in the year 1990 suggesting an epidemic. the antibiotic sensitivity pattern showed a gradual increase ...19938283597
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