paratuberculosis (johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a rocky mountain goat in colorado.between may, 1972 and february, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (johne's disease) caused by mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) and one rocky mountain goat (oreamnos americanus) on or near mt. evans in colorado. diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of m. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. the clinical signs and pathologic changes se ...1979480512
an epizootic of pneumonia in captive bighorn sheep infected with muellerius epizootic of pneumonia in 20 captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) is described. the sheep were maintained in large paddocks for about 9 months after which, in the late summer, the entire herd died within a three week period. large numbers of muellerius adults, eggs and larvae were in the lungs of all sheep. first stage larvae were widely disseminated throughout the lungs and apparently elicited a granulomatous pneumonia. pasteurella sp. and other bacteria were isolated from ...1977864843
polioencephalomalacia in feedlot lambs. 19751133076
epidemiologic factors involved in perinatal lamb mortality on four range sheep operations.four shed-lambing operations in western colorado were monitored during the 1984 spring lambing season to determine the causes and rates of perinatal lamb mortality. the number of lambing ewes per flock ranged from 513 to 1,712, and lambing percentages ranged from 131 to 180%. overall perinatal lamb mortality ranged from 8.2 to 12.2%. most lamb deaths occurred during parturition or within 24 hours after parturition. more than 85% of all lamb deaths were in lambs born to ewes having 2 or more lamb ...19921575396
genotypic transitions among bluetongue viral isolates from domestic ruminants in colorado during 1981-1984.two predominant electropherotypes of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 11 isolates from cattle during a 1981-1984 field study in eastern colorado were characterized. the genomes of strains isolated from the first 2 years of the study had 1 predominant electropherotype (co81), with the exception of 1 isolate that differed only in the migration of segment 3. a second electropherotype (co83), with differences in the migration of 4 segments, coexisted in the same region during 1983 and 1984 with strai ...19892562197
isolation and characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus from sheep and cattle in colorado.epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus was isolated from cattle and sheep in northeastern colorado during july and august 1984. the isolates were identified as serotype 2 by plaque-inhibition serotyping, genome electropherotyping, and protein analysis.19882844106
identification and characterization of bahia grande, reed ranch and muir springs viruses, related members of the family rhabdoviridae with widespread distribution in the united states.sixteen virus isolates with similar biological characteristics were obtained from salt-marsh mosquitoes collected in south texas in 1974. when compared antigenically, these and 13 other isolates from mosquitoes collected between 1972 and 1979 in west texas, new mexico, louisiana, colorado and north dakota were shown to be related but not identical. three distinct serotypes were determined: bahia grande (prototype strain tb4-1054), reed ranch (tb4-222) and muir springs (76v-23524). when examined ...19862872270
research on the control of bluetongue in livestock by vector suppression.from 1979-83, research has been conducted along the south platte river drainage system northeast of denver, co, to develop and evaluate techniques of wide-area vector suppression for the control of bluetongue (bt) disease in ruminant livestock. water management and chemical treatment at larval development sites have resulted in a decrease in the activity of culicoides variipennis (coquillett) in the 100 km2 treatment area, and there is some correlation between levels of vector activity (as refle ...19852989910
rates of diseases and their associated costs in two colorado sheep feedlots (1985-1986).data related to rates of disease and their associated costs were collected for 12 months from 2 sheep feedlots in northern colorado. there was an apparent seasonal occurrence of many of the diseases. pneumonia, enterotoxemia, acidosis, and transport tetany accounted for most of the diseases seen in these feedlots and were responsible for most of the economic losses. there was a large difference in the incidence of diseases between the 2 feedlots and in the expenditures for disease prevention bet ...19883215810
isolation and serologic evidence of a respiratory syncytial virus in bighorn sheep from colorado. 19863735590
isolation of non-o1 vibrio cholerae associated with enteric disease of herbivores in western colorado.non-o1 vibrio cholerae was isolated from a horse (equus caballus), a lamb (genus ovis), and two american buffalo (bison bison) suffering from enteric disease in the western part of colorado. in 1981, a foal died of apparent respiratory failure. necropsy findings included heart failure and gastroenteritis. v. cholerae serovar 347 (smith) was isolated from the colon of this animal. v. cholerae serovar 27 (smith) was isolated in 1983 from the intestine of a feedlot lamb suffering from pneumonia and ...19854077968
an overwintering population of culicoides in colorado. 19674318486
an epizootic of malignant catarrhal fever in feedlot cattle. 19734353453
a serological survey for selected viral infections of rocky mountain bighorn sheep. 19744363568
relationship of management and nutrition to salmonellosis in feedlot lambs. 19724638502
redescription of elaeophora schneideri wehr and dikmans, 1935 (nematoda: filarioidea). 19685761122
a survey of lamb health in feedlots. 19676067826
polyarthritis in colorado feedlot lambs. 19676067912
analysis of the genomes of bluetongue viruses recovered from different states of the united states and at different times.the ribonucleic acid (rna) genomes of the original representatives of the four serotypes of bluetongue virus (btv) isolated from the united states (btv-10, btv-11, btv-13 and btv-17) have been analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. ten double-stranded rna species were resolved for each virus and categorized into the size classes of large (l segments #1-3), medium (m segments #4-6) and small (s segments #7-10). minor electrophoretic mobility differences were observed for the m5 and s10 r ...19826278927
analysis of the genomes of bluetongue virus serotype 10 vaccines and a recent btv-10 isolate from washington.the 10 double-stranded rna gene segments of 2 vaccinal strains of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 10 that are used in the united states (btv ca8 california and bt-8 colorado), and a btv-10 isolate recently obtained from infected sheep in washington (state) were characterized by oligonucleotide fingerprint analyses. it was determined that although the 2 btv-10 vaccinal strains are genotypically distinct, they are closely related both to each other and to the united states prototype btv-10 virus. ...19836299144
experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.hand-reared mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. all four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with ...19836685778
cryptic epidemic of q fever in a medical school.pregnant sheep used in perinatel research were the source of a large outbreak of q fever in 1980 among the faculty and staff of a medical school. complement-fixation tests with phase ii coxiella burnetii antigen were positive in 81 persons, of whom 58 (71.6%) had q fever during the first eight months of 1980. microagglutination and/or indirect immunofluorescence tests of 485 sera were positive in an additional 56 persons. only 41 of the 137 seropositive persons were involved in caring for or wor ...19817276623
an epizootic of contagious ecthyma in rocky mountain bighorn sheep in colorado. 19817338983
quality assurance/quality control procedures for chlorinated hydrocarbons in human breast adipose tissue.extensive literature exists supporting the accumulation of organochlorine pesticides such as ddt [2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane], and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) in human adipose tissue. debate has surfaced concerning the link between these environmental contaminants and human breast cancer. accurate residue analysis and proper analytical procedures are critical in determining the extent to which these compounds play a role in human breast cancer. further, adequate quality a ...19968977626
culicoides variipennis (diptera:ceratopogonidae) host selection in colorado.drop traps containing either steer or ewe bait were used to investigate host selection and crepuscular period host seeking activity of culicoides spp. at 2 farms in colorado. of the 1,103 culicoides spp. collected, 755 were culicoides variipennis (coquillett). of these, 86% were collected from steers and 14% from ewes. the engorgement rate of c. variipennis was 31% on steers and 6% on ewes. culicoides crepuscularis malloch was the 2nd most abundant species. of the 253 collected, 39% were from th ...19979103772
public veterinary medicine: public health. serologic evaluation of vesicular stomatitis virus exposure in horses and cattle in determine potential risk factors for vesicular stomatitis (vs) in colorado livestock in 1995 and evaluate vs virus (vsv) exposure of colorado livestock in 1996.19989810380
polymerase chain reaction techniques for differentiating cytotoxic and noncytotoxic pasteurella trehalosi from rocky mountain bighorn evaluate 2 polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based methods for differentiating cytotoxic and noncytotoxic pasteurella trehalosi from rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis).199910328428
management factors affecting the risk for vesicular stomatitis in livestock operations in the western united identify management factors affecting the risk of animals developing vesicular stomatitis (vs).199910553436
epizootic malignant catarrhal fever in three bison herds: differences from cattle and association with ovine herpesvirus-2.three bison herds in colorado experienced high mortality from malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). in comparison with cattle, the bison had a more rapidly progressive disease, fewer clinical signs, and milder inflammatory histologic lesions. there was consistent association with ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2). contact with sheep was not consistent. of 17 animals in herd a, 15 died of acute mcf; 1 was slaughtered while healthy; and 1 developed clinical signs of mcf, was treated with corticosteroids and ...200011108448
chronic wasting disease of cervids.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has recently emerged in north america as an important prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervids (species in the deer family). cwd is the only recognized transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting free-ranging species. three cervid species, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), are the only known natural hosts of cwd. endemic cwd is well established in southern wyomin ...200415148993
molecular epidemiologic features of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from characterize isolates of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from horses, cattle, and sheep in colorado, kentucky, utah, and california in samples collected during perceived epidemics of infection (increased numbers of cases identified) in 2002 and 2003, and determine how closely isolates were related and their possible source.200415631043
studies on overwintering of bluetongue viruses in insects.bluetongue viruses (btvs) are economically important arboviruses that affect sheep and cattle. the overwintering mechanism of btvs in temperate climates has eluded researchers for many years. many arboviruses overwinter in their invertebrate vectors. to test the hypothesis that btvs overwinter in their vertically infected insect vectors, culicoides sonorensis larvae were collected from long-term study sites in northern colorado, usa, and assayed for the presence of btv rna by nested rt-pcr. sequ ...200515659765
molecular epidemiology of bluetongue virus in northern colorado.the molecular epidemiology of bluetongue virus serotype 11 (btv11) in an enzootic focus in northern colorado was investigated. viruses isolated up to 12 years apart, from both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, were compared by phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence data from three genome segments: l2, s7, and s10. for each segment, viruses isolated from ruminants in the 1980s were more similar to one another than to viruses isolated from culicoides spp. insects in the 1990s. nearly identi ...200616337708
q fever in the southern california desert: epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment.despite the absence of a natural reservoir for q fever in the desert of southern california, six cases have been identified during the past 32 years. during that period of time, two areas have been used by northern sheep ranchers from idaho and wyoming to import sheep to an area in the coachella valley through 1985. thereafter, because of housing development, the sheep area was moved to blythe along the colorado river. all but two of these patients probably acquired infection by coxiella burneti ...200616837704
levels of abnormal prion protein in deer and elk with chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) of deer and elk is a widespread health concern because its potential for crossspecies transmission is undetermined. cwd prevalence in wild elk is much lower than its prevalence in wild deer, and whether cwd-infected deer and elk differ in ability to infect other species is unknown. because lymphoid tissues are important in the pathogenesis of some transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as sheep scrapie, we investigated whether cwd-affected elk and deer diffe ...200717553219
cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with recreational water use--five states, 2006.cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal illness caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus cryptosporidium and can produce watery diarrhea lasting 1-3 weeks; one or two cases per 100,000 population are reported annually in the united states. fecal-oral transmission of cryptosporidium oocysts occurs through ingestion of contaminated drinking or recreational water, consumption of contaminated food, and contact with infected persons or animals (e.g., cattle or sheep). unlike bacterial pathogens, cry ...200717657205
malignant catarrhal fever associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 in free-ranging mule deer in colorado.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) was diagnosed in four free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in january and february of 2003. diagnosis was based on typical histologic lesions of lymphocytic vasculitis and pcr identification of ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2) viral genetic sequences in formalin-fixed tissues. the animals were from the uncompahgre plateau of southwestern colorado. deer from these herds occasionally resided in close proximity to domestic sheep (ovis aries), the reservoir host of ...200717699095
molecular characterization of the rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) prnp putative promoter.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting deer (odocoileus spp.), moose (alces alces), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). leucine homozygosity at elk prnp codon 132 has been associated with reduced cwd susceptibility. however, naturally acquired cwd has been detected in elk possessing the 132 leu/leu genotype. recent human and bovine studies indicate that prnp regulatory polymorphisms may also influence tse occurrence. therefore, we ...200718032463
epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.a pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (kenosha mountains, sugarloaf mountain, twin eagles) that inhabited the kenosha and tarryall mountain ranges in central colorado, usa. the onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (ovis aires) on the sugarloaf mountain herd's winter range in december 1997. although o ...200818436671
development of a syndromic surveillance system for detection of disease among livestock entering an auction develop a syndromic surveillance system based on visual inspection from outside the livestock pens that could be used for detection of disease among livestock entering an auction market.200919250046
a bighorn sheep die-off in southern colorado involving a pasteurellaceae strain that may have originated from syntopic cattle.we investigated a pasteurellosis epizootic in free-ranging bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) wherein a pasteurellaceae strain carried by syntopic cattle (bos taurus) under severe winter conditions appeared to contribute to pneumonia in affected bighorns. twenty-one moribund or dead bighorn sheep were found on the "fossil ridge" herd's winter range, colorado, usa, between 13 december 2007 and 29 february 2008. eight carcasses examined showed gross or microscopic evidence of acute to subacute fibrin ...201020966277
pasteurellaceae from colorado bighorn sheep herds.we compared phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of 88 pasteurellaceae isolates from bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in the course of exploring epizootiologic relationships. based on our observations, adopting contemporary taxonomic conventions and using molecular methods to detect and compare pasteurellaceae may help improve understanding of bighorn respiratory disease epizootiology and management.201121719858
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