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cystic echinococcosis in italy from the 1950s to present.in italy the epidemiological pattern of cistic echinococcosis (ce) is incomplete and the information for most regions is out of date, contradictory, and almost exclusively limited to the intermediate hosts. the disease is found most frequently in particular social and economic conditions: widespread use of extensive or semi-extensive sheep farming, illegal slaughtering, and high numbers of sheepdogs and other types of dogs. the highest incidence in sheep is found in sardinia (70.6-92.8%), sicily ...200416044697
differentiation between field and vaccine strain of bluetongue virus serotype 16.in august 2000, bluetongue virus (btv) appeared for the first time in sardinia and, since then, the infection spread across sicily and into the mainland of italy involving at the beginning serotypes 2 and 9 and then, from 2002, 4 and 16. to reduce direct losses due to disease and indirect losses due to new serotype circulation, the 2004 italian vaccination campaign included the modified-live vaccines against btv-4 and 16 produced by onderstepoort biological product (obp), south africa. few month ...200616713688
ticks infesting livestock on farms in western sicily, italy.the results of a 2-year survey on ticks infesting livestock on farms in western sicily, italy, are reported. several dogs living in the same area were also examined for ticks. moreover, free-living ticks from one cattle farm were caught by co(2) traps and flagging. a total of 6208 specimens was collected belonging to 9 species: rhipicephalus bursa (32.4%), rhipicephalus turanicus (22.7%), rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.3%), hyalomma lusitanicum (12.0%), haemaphysalis punctata (7.8%), hyalomma marg ...200616550337
mass spectrometry for cultural heritage knowledge: gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of organic remains in neolithic potsherds. 200111333449
the effect of climate on the presence of culicoides imicola in italy.a model was developed to classify the italian territories in relation to their suitability to harbour populations of culicoides imicola and, as a consequence, also able to sustain a bluetongue (bt) epidemic. italy was subdivided into 3507 10 x 10 km cells. in 546 cells at least one collection was made. the cell was considered the unit for all subsequent analyses. culicoides were collected using onderstepoort-type blacklight traps. some traps were operated weekly at chosen sites; the remainder we ...200312667192
the distribution of culicoides imicola in italy: application and evaluation of current mediterranean models based on climate.in august 2000 bluetongue (bt) disease appeared amongst sheep on the island of sardinia spreading later to sicily and to mainland italy. the majority of areas affected by bt were surveyed for culicoides imicola, the only proven vector of the disease known to occur in the mediterranean region. the data from 1456 light-trap collections, made in months with a mean temperature of 12.5 degrees c, were used to test the accuracy of current models predicting the prevalence and abundance of c. imicola ac ...200312667191
cystic echinococcosis in equids in italy.between march 2003 and february 2007, the livers and the lungs of 2,231 horses from various italian regions were examined for cystic echinococcosis presence at the time of slaughter. hydatid cysts were found in six horses, namely four from sardinia, one from sicily, and one from tuscany. the location, number, morphology, and fertility of the cysts found were determined. dna was extracted from the germinal layers and protoscoleces of the fertile cysts and polymerase chain reactions (pcr) were per ...200818180956
characterization of anaplasma infections in sicily, italy.this study aimed to characterize infection with anaplasma marginale, a. phagocytophilum, a. ovis, and a. platys in humans, animals, and ticks in sicily, italy, during 2003-2006. serologic (competitive elisa [celisa]) and indirect immunofluorescence antibody [ifa]; n= 1990) and dna (polymerase chain reaction [pcr]; n= 2788) tests were conducted on horse, donkey, cattle, sheep, goat, pig, dog, cat, roe deer, wild boar, human, and tick samples. the results reported herein suggested that in sicily c ...200819120181
characterization of the geographical origin of pecorino sardo cheese by casein stable isotope ((13)c/(12)c and (15)n/(14)n) ratios and free amino acid ratios.the stable isotope ratios ((13)c/(12)c and (15)n/(14)n) of casein measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (irms) and some free amino acid ratios (his/pro, ile/pro, met/pro, and thr/pro) determined by hplc in samples of ewes' milk cheese from sardinia, sicily, and apulia were found to be parameters independent of ripening time. multivariate data treatments performed by applying both unsupervised (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) and supervised [linear discriminant analysis ( ...200111312872
in vitro susceptibilities of field isolates of mycoplasma agalactiae to oxytetracycline, tylosin, enrofloxacin, spiramycin and lincomycin-spectinomycin.the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of tetracycline, enrofloxacin, tylosin, spiramycin and a lincomycin:spectinomycin 1:2 combination, against 24 sicilian isolates of mycoplasma agalactiae, the causative organism of contagious agalactia were determined in vitro by a broth dilution method. enrofloxacin was the most effective antimicrobial in vitro with a range of mic values from 0.125 to 0.500 microg/ml and an mic(50) of 0.203 and mic(90) of 0.365 microg/ml. using the mic(50) and mic(90) ...200312801456
sarcocystis gracilis-like sarcocysts in a sheep. 200515786925
livestock production and animal health in sicily, italy.in sicily, as in other mediterranean areas, livestock represents one of the most important resources for the island economy. this sector involves more than 16,000 farms of cattle and 10,000 farms of sheep and goats (respectively 6% and 15% of national production) which are actually increasing their number. most livestock in sicily is owned by small holders and pastoralists. regional production of milk feeds some industries, which involve a large and increasing occupational area. due to its pecul ...199911071536
incidence of arbovirus antibodies in bovine, ovine and human sera collected in eastern sicily.the incidence of antibodies against 9 arboviruses in ovine, bovine and human sera collected in eastern sicily was studied. a high incidence of antibodies was found especially against bhanja virus in all sera and against sandfly fever sicilian in ovine sera only. the incidence was higher than that reported in 1971 for the western part of sicily. these findings suggest an increase in the circulation of arboviruses in this area; the causes are briefly discussed.19767946
persistence of human myiasis by oestrus ovis l. (diptera: oestridae) among shepherds of the etnean area (sicily) for over 150 years.from a study carried out in 22 townships of the etnean area, by interviewing 112 shepherds, it was confirmed that 90 of them (80.3%), once or more in their lives, had contracted myiasis by oestrus ovis l., habitual agent of estriasis in sheep. the most frequent sites of involvement were the pharynx (77 times), often extending to the larynx, the conjunctiva (56), followed by the nose (32) and rarely the ear (1). multiple simultaneous sites involvement was also frequent affecting 54.4% of the shep ...19979802104
an epidemiological updating on cystic echinococcosis in cattle and sheep in sicily, italy. 200416044707
epidemiological evaluation by rrna-dna hybridization of strains of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar abortusovis isolated in southern italy in the years 1981-1989.salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar abortusovis is a major agent of abortion of the sheep and is firmly established, although at low prevalence, in sicily. this paper describes the application rdna gene restriction pattern fingerprinting to investigate relatedness among 7 serovar abortusovis strains isolated at the "istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale" of sicily and 29 isolates identified at the southern italy centre of enterobacteriaceae between 1981 and 1989. although abortusovis ser ...19911727022
observed prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in domestic animals in sicily, italy during 2003-2005.the objective of this study was to characterize the observed prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (tbp) in domestic animals in sicily, italy during 2003-2005. serological (competitive elisa and indirect immunofluorescence antibody, n = 3299) and dna tests (polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot, n = 2565) were conducted on horse, donkey, cattle, sheep, goat, pig and dog samples. pathogens analysed included anaplasma, ehrlichia, rickettsia, babesia and theileria species, and coxiella burne ...200717359441
survey for arbovirus antibodies in domestic animals of western sicily. 19715153402
the hairless (hr) gene is involved in the congenital hypotrichosis of valle del belice sheep.congenital hypotrichosis in mammalian species consists of partial or complete absence of hair at birth. the hairless gene is often responsible for this disorder in men, mice and rats. recent experimental data on valle del belice sheep reared in sicily for milk production, support the genetic control of the ovine hypotrichosis as a mendelian recessive trait. the ovine hairless gene was chosen as the candidate gene involved in this disorder. blood samples were collected from valle del belice sheep ...200312927087
study of gastrointestinal nematodes in sicilian sheep and goats.parasitic gastroenteritis is one of the major causes of productivity loss in sheep and goats. this report records two studies of the helminth fauna from post-mortem examination. the first study, performed on the digestive tract of 72 sheep from a central part of sicily in a high hill village (1,360 meters above sea level), between april 1996 and march 1997, showed an infection rate of 78%. the second study targeted goats from the western part of sicily and showed an infection rate of 90%. for sh ...200415604491
toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in sicily, southern italy.the aim of the study was to determine the burden of toxoplasma gondii-infections in sheep in sicily, southern italy and the risk factors for infection. sera from 1961 sheep were collected just before slaughtering from 62 farms located in 8 out of 9 sicilian administrative districts. the sera were analysed for toxoplasma-specific igg antibodies using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. sheep less than 4 weeks old were further analysed by elisa for toxoplasma-specific igm-ant ...200717383099
updates on cystic echinococcosis (ce) in italy.an update on cystic echinococcosis (ce) diffusion in italy during 2003-2005 is reported. ce seems to have a sporadic diffusion in the northern part of the country where this disease plays a minor role (prevalence < 1%). recent investigations have shown the occurrence of ce cases in humans from the mountains between reggio emilia and modena, with an average year incidence between 9.4 and 5.6/100,000. in abruzzo prevalences in sheep and cattle are 20.2% and 15.3%, with a fertility of 4.6% and 1.3% ...200616881397
fluoro-edenite fibres induce lung cell apoptosis: an in vivo study.we previously showed that apoptosis in the lungs of sheep exposed to fluoro-edenite fibres is induced via the receptor pathway. the present study was performed to gain further insights into the mechanisms of activation of programmed cell death induced by the fibres. fluoro-edenite fibres are similar in size and morphology to some amphibolic asbestos fibres. they have been found in benmoreitic lavas, in the local stone quarry, in building materials and in road paving at biancavilla, a town in eas ...200818072089
[human cystic hydatidosis in italy: a public health emergency? past to present].starting from 1991 the central office of statistics istat, according to changed regulations on notification of infective diseases, stopped reporting official national data on human hydatidosis. on the other hand until then notified data, concerning only about a hundred cases per year in mean during the last decades and just 36 in 1991, appeared unreliable, suggesting a diffusion far from the actual. owing to specific studies on different research groups it is possible to try to describe a not ex ...200415305684
polymerase chain reaction method for leptospirosis, analysis on samples from an autochthon swine population in sicily, italy.we set a method targeting 16 rrna gene consisting in a single polymerase chain reaction of 40 cycles which is specific for pathogenic leptospira. negative polymerase chain reaction results were observed with nonpathogenic leptospira (serovar patoc) and other bacteria species. by this method a survey on a population of autochthon swine herds had been conducted in sicily particularly on kidney samples of slaughtered animals and on urine samples from live animals. the analysis showed that a prevale ...200517966471
prevalence of anaplasma species and habitat suitability for ticks in sicily. 200919416281
epidemiology of ovine oestrosis (oestrus ovis linné 1761, diptera: oestridae) in sicily.a survey for oestrosis was carried out in the slaughterhouse at messine (sicily) from may 1996 to april 1998. the heads of sheep from local flocks were collected each month. a total of 841 heads were examined according to a validated procedure. 469 (55.8%) were infested by oestrus ovis larvae. 4423 larvae were harvested: 1829 first instar larvae or l1 (41.4%), 1286 second instar larvae or l2 (29.1%) and 1308 third instar larvae or l3 (29.6%). the mean larval burden for infected sheep was 9.4 lar ...200010962161
identification of a novel bluetongue virus vector species of culicoides in sicily.the vectors of bluetongue virus are certain species of culicoides biting midges, and in the mediterranean area culicoides imicola has long been considered to be the only field vector. in sicily an entomological and serological surveillance programme has been in operation since the autumn of 2000, which has shown that the prevalence and abundance of c. imicola is lower than in many other italian regions. moreover, in 2002, there were outbreaks of bluetongue in the absence of c. imicola, and in th ...200312892265
isolation of thogoto virus from rhipicephalus bursa ticks in western sicily. 19724680821
investigation on arboviruses in western sicily: insect collection and virus isolation. 19714403373
epidemiology of boutonneuse fever in western sicily: isolation of spotted fever group rickettsiae from rhipicephalus sanguineus (fam. ixodidae).spotted fever group rickettsiae were isolated from dog ticks (r. sanguineus) removed from dogs in different areas of western sicily.19863951368
epidemiology of q fever in italy and in other mediterranean countries.the history of q fever in italy may be divided into three periods: epidemic in character after the second world war, endemic occurrence from 1960 to 1980, and sporadic occurrence at present. clinical symptoms are unspecific, and diagnosis must be confirmed by serology and isolation of the causative agent. the reported incidence is consequently underestimated. results are reported of a seroepidemiologic survey in animals and humans in the italian region and western sicily. in the mediterranean ar ...19873434014
serologic and molecular characterization of anaplasma species infection in farm animals and ticks from sicily.although anaplasma marginale was known to be endemic in italy, the diversity of anaplasma spp. from this area have not been characterized. in this study, the prevalence of anaplasma spp. antibodies in randomly selected farm animals collected on the island of sicily was determined by use of a msp5 celisa for anaplasma spp. and an immunofluorescence test specific for anaplasma phagocytophilum. genetic variation among strains of anaplasma spp. from animals and ticks was characterized using the a. m ...200516043300
[occupational brucellosis in slaughtering of sheep and goats: study of five cases from a municipal abattoir in south-eastern sicily].brucellosis is a world-wild zoonosis of bacterial origin. in italy, where reporting of the disease is mandatory, the incidence is 2.1 cases every 100,000 inhabitants, but tends to be higher in southern regions. however, the incidence decreased from 1999 to 2002.200516001513
pulmonary fibre burden in sheep living in the biancavilla area (sicily): preliminary results.in a national survey on mortality from malignant pleural neoplasms in italy, aimed at detecting geographic clusters of cases of the disease, the town of biancavilla, located in a volcanic area of eastern sicily, showed high risk of pleural mesothelioma in the absence of occupational asbestos exposure. an environmental survey suggested the stone quarries located in 'monte calvario', south-east of the town of biancavilla, as a possible source of asbestiform fibre exposure. a subsequent crystal-che ...200415144777
ovine catarrhal fever (bluetongue): analysis of culicoides species in seropositive farms.bluetongue (bt) is an orbiviral disease of wild and domestic ruminants, mainly sheep. in sicily, the first bluetongue outbreak occurred in october 2000; there have been 76 recorded outbreaks so far. the national surveillance plan, based on european union commission decision 138/2001/ce, establishes serological and entomological surveys. this plan consists of controls of seronegative cattle, called 'sentry' as indicators for the presence and circulation of virus in defined areas. to check the ser ...201020537094
prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks in sicily.the prevalence of anaplasma, ehrlichia, rickettsia and babesia/theileria species was analysed in questing and feeding adult ticks in sicily. a total of 678 ticks were collected and analysed in this study. of these, 29 were questing ticks and 649 were collected from infested cattle, sheep, goats or dogs. tick species analysed included rhipicephalus bursa, r. turanicus, r. sanguineus, hyalomma lusitanicum, h. marginatum, dermacentor marginatus, ixodes ricinus, r. (boophilus) annulatus and haemaphy ...201020537102
live nativity and brucellosis, sicily. 200617354346
anaplasma phagocytophilum intragranulocytic morulae in aborting sheep: a herd case in sicily.the present report describes the haematological and serological findings observed in a dairy sheep farm during an aborting outbreak. fifty ewes divided into two groups were included in the study: group a consisted of 35 healthy ewes and group b consisted of 15 ill subjects. from each ewe, blood samples were collected for microscopic examination and serological assay. after 3 months, all ewes were subjected to microscopic examination, serological and biochemical assay. morula-containing granulocy ...201121463497
microbiological quality of pecorino siciliano "primosale" cheese on retail sale in the street markets of palermo, italy.pecorino siciliano (ps) "primosale" is a traditional sicilian fresh soft cheese made from sheep's milk. short-ripening time and production from unpasteurized or raw milk can facilitate bacterial contamination of ps "primosale". the microbiological quality of "primosale" on retail sale in the street markets of palermo, italy was studied by detecting the common food pathogens listeria monocytogenes and staphylococcus aureus and indicator microorganisms, such as escherichia coli, enterobacteriaceae ...201121617830
[the return of anthrax. from bioterrorism to the zoonotic cluster of sciacca district].anthrax is a disease caused by bacillus anthracis which affects herbivorous animals. humans acquire the disease incidentally by exposure to infected animals, animal products or spores on soil. the infection is still endemic in many regions in developing countries. in italy animal clusters are very rare and human cases are exceptional. bacillus anthrax is also a potential source for acts of bioterrorism. in the natural human infection, cutaneous anthrax is the most widespread, while the other two ...201020610930
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