dutch paratuberculosis programme history, principles and development.organised disease control started in the netherlands in the 18th century with governmental attempts to eradicate cattle plague. at the beginning of the 20th century, the dairy industry and cattle breeding organisations initiated a programme to control infectious diseases by means of a complex system of rewards and penalties. this was also the reason for establishing the animal health service in friesland in 1919. the history of programmes to control paratuberculosis in sheep, goats, and cattle i ...200011118725
infection rates of borrelia burgdorferi in different instars of ixodes ricinus ticks from the dutch north sea island of ameland.between 1988 and 1993, a total of 7173 i. ricinus ticks, predominantly, were collected from the vegetation on the dutch north sea island of ameland. a proportion of the ticks (n = 547) was screened for the presence of borrelia by immunofluorescence. infection rates of borrelia varied, in nymphs (n = 347) from 13% to 46% and in adults, (n = 122) from 20% to 43%. the infection rate in larvae (n = 84) collected in 1993 was 21%, showing that transovarial transmission of b. burgdorferi occurs in the ...19947628258
blood parasites of sheep in the netherlands. ii. babesia motasi (sporozoa, babesiidae).a large babesia species occurs in sheep on the north sea islands of the netherlands. the tick haemaphysalis punctata is a vector. its pathogenicity appears to be low. it is morphologically similar to a turkish strain, considered to be b. motasi, which is also transmitted by haemaphysalis ticks. it differs from the turkish parasite serologically as well as in cross-immunity tests and in not being effective to goats. there may be a group of morphologically similar parasites with serological differ ...19807352333
blood parasites of sheep in the netherlands. i. anaplasma mesaeterum sp.n. (rickettsiales, anaplasmataceae).on two occasions an anaplasm was isolated from sheep on the dutch island of ameland. the organism proved to be highly pathogenic for splenectomised sheep; a non-splenectomised animal recovered spontaneously after the packed cell volume had decreased by 40%. treatment with oxytetracycline was effective. its pathogenicity for goats appeared to be low, and the organism was apparently not infective to splenectomised cattle. this anaplasm differs from anaplasma ovis in that less than 30% of the organ ...1979419513
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