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an exploration of the drivers to bio-security collective action among a sample of uk cattle and sheep farmers.at present, collective action regarding bio-security among uk cattle and sheep farmers is rare. despite the occurrence of catastrophic livestock diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) and foot and mouth disease (fmd), within recent decades, there are few national or local farmer-led animal health schemes. to explore the reasons for this apparent lack of interest, we utilised a socio-psychological approach to disaggregate the cognitive, emotive and contextual factors driving bio- ...200818692923
bluetongue--where are we now? 200818931359
within-holding prevalence of sheep classical scrapie in great britain.data from the compulsory scrapie flocks scheme (csfs), part of the compulsory eradication measures for the control of scrapie in the eu, have been used to estimate the within-holding prevalence of classical scrapie in great britain (gb). specifically data from one of the testing routes within the csfs have been used; the initial cull (ic), whereby two options can be applied: the whole flock cull option by which the entire flock is depopulated, and the genotyping and cull of certain genotypes.200919133119
expression and identification of folate-sensitive fragile sites in british suffolk sheep (ovis aries).an investigation to understand the dynamics and biological significance of fragile site expression, and identification of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (fudr) induced chromosomal gaps/breaks, were carried out in an experimental flock of 45 suffolk sheep. the statistical comparison revealed, highly significant variation in the frequency of chromosomal fragile site expression between control and fudr cultures. mean (+/- s.d.) values for cells with gaps and breaks, or aberrant cell count (ac), and the numbe ...200819147906
microbiological surveillance of private water supplies in england: the impact of environmental and climate factors on water quality.a passive surveillance system captured information on 34,904 microbiological samples from 11,233 private drinking water supplies within england as well as the associated constructional, climatic and environmental variables. escherichia coli was detected in 6588 (18.87%) of samples and at least one positive sample was detected from 3638 (32.39%) of sites. however, this estimate of supplies failing to meet the european drinking water e. coli standard was probably an underestimate as the more sampl ...200919303126
two unusual bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases detected in great britain.bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) was first identified in great britain (gb) in 1986 and was subsequently detected in many other countries, worldwide. a decade after the start of the bovine epidemic, the first cases of new variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease (vcjd) in humans were linked to probable ingestion of bse infected tissue, highlighting a new zoonotic disease. an abnormal protease-resistant protein (prp(res)) in a diseased subject, derived from a post-translational change of a normal ...200919497088
statistical modeling of holding level susceptibility to infection during the 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic in great britain.an understanding of the factors that determine the risk of members of a susceptible population becoming infected is essential for estimating the potential for disease spread, as opposed to just focusing on transmission from an infected population. furthermore, analysis of the risk factors can reveal important characteristics of an epidemic and further develop understanding of the processes operating.201019647465
mapping risk foci for endemic sheep scab.psoroptic mange in sheep, resulting from infestation by the astigmatid mite psoroptes ovis, is increasingly prevalent in europe and other parts of the world. as a step towards improved national control, regional or local scab management programmes that target high-risk areas and aim to maintain the number of outbreaks below an acceptable level may be an effective initial use of time and resource. to facilitate such a management approach, in this paper scab outbreak farms are identified using a q ...200919713045
farmers' practices and factors associated with the prevalence of all lameness and lameness attributed to interdigital dermatitis and footrot in sheep flocks in england in 2004.the aim of this study was to investigate whether the risk factors associated with all causes of lameness in sheep differed from those associated with the lesion specific causes of lameness, interdigital dermatitis (id) and footrot (fr). a total of 809 randomly selected english sheep farmers participated in a postal survey in 2005. data were requested on their management of lameness in 2004 and whether this had changed from 2003 and the prevalence of all lameness, and lameness caused by id and fr ...200919735953
temporal and farm-management-associated variation in the faecal-pat prevalence of campylobacter jejuni in ruminants.in a 2-year longitudinal study of adult animals on 15 dairy farms and four sheep farms in lancashire, uk. c. jejuni was isolated from all farms, although not on every occasion. faecal samples were collected and cultured using standard techniques for isolation of campylobacter. assignment to species was via pcr assays. peak prevalence of c. jejuni in both cattle and sheep was observed during the summer and in cattle this apparent seasonality was associated with grazing pasture [odds ratio (or) 2. ...201019845998
surveillance: parasitic and tickborne diseases in cattle and sheep in england. 201020081176
investigation of farms linked to human patients with cryptosporidiosis in england and wales.the study investigates farms suspected of being sources of zoonotic human cryptosporidiosis. a variety of implicated farm animal species were sampled and tested to detect cryptosporidium oocysts and investigate genetic linkage with human patients. risk factor information was collected from each farm and analysed by multivariable logistic regression to detect significant associations between factors and cryptosporidium in animals. the results showed that average sample prevalence of cryptosporidi ...201020096944
assessment of lameness prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy herds in england and wales.visits were made to 205 dairy farms in england and wales between october 2006 and may 2007 by 1 or more of 4 researchers. at each visit, all milking cows were locomotion scored (lameness scored) using a 4-point scale (0=sound locomotion, 1=imperfect locomotion, 2=lame, 3=severely lame). the mean prevalence of lameness (scores 2 and 3) across the study farms was 36.8% (range=0-79.2%). on each farm, the presence within the housing and grazing environments of commonly reported risks for increased l ...201020172213
the spread of bluetongue virus serotype 8 in great britain and its control by vaccination.bluetongue (bt) is a viral disease of ruminants transmitted by culicoides biting midges and has the ability to spread rapidly over large distances. in the summer of 2006, btv serotype 8 (btv-8) emerged for the first time in northern europe, resulting in over 2000 infected farms by the end of the year. the virus subsequently overwintered and has since spread across much of europe, causing tens of thousands of livestock deaths. in august 2007, btv-8 reached great britain (gb), threatening the larg ...201020179768
comparison of traps for the control of sheep blowfly in the u.k.the ability of three commercially available trap types to catch lucilia (diptera: calliphoridae) blowflies was assessed on three sheep farms in southwest england in 2008. the aim was to evaluate their relative value for the control of ovine cutaneous myiasis (sheep blowfly strike) on farms. there was a highly significant difference between the total number of female lucilia caught per day by the traps, with an agrilure trap (agrimin ltd, brigg, u.k.) catching more than the other trap types (resc ...201020202108
mycobacterium bovis causing clinical disease in adult sheep. 201020208083
q fever outbreak in cheltenham, united kingdom, in 2007 and the use of dispersion modelling to investigate the possibility of airborne spread.we describe the investigation of an outbreak of q fever in the town of cheltenham, england. the outbreak was detected in june 2007, and prospective and retrospective case finding identified 30 confirmed or probable human cases. the investigation identified windborne spread of coxiella burnetii from nearby sheep farms as the most likely source of infection. a telephone survey was conducted to identify risk practices at local farms. subsequently the atmospheric dispersion model name was used to id ...201020350497
of sheep and scribbling: women and writing in (mostly) early modern england. 199920583374
footrot and interdigital dermatitis in sheep: farmer satisfaction with current management, their ideal management and sources used to adopt new strategies.the aims of this research were to identify management practices that sheep farmers currently use to treat and prevent footrot in sheep and whether they consider that these are successful management tools and to find out how sheep farmers would ideally like to manage footrot in their flock. over 90% of lameness in sheep in the uk is caused by dichelobacter nodosus, which presents clinically as interdigital dermatitis (id) alone or with separation of hoof horn (fr). a questionnaire was sent to 265 ...201020594602
the influence of host number on the attraction of biting midges, culicoides spp., to light traps.a preliminary study was undertaken to investigate how the number of sheep below a light-suction trap affects the number of female culicoides obsoletus meigen (diptera: ceratopogonidae) caught. as the number of sheep increased from zero to three, the number of midges caught increased, but there appeared to be no further increase when six sheep were used. the lack of increase between three and six sheep is attributable to different activity rates on certain nights, perhaps in response to weather, ...201120704653
molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of campylobacter jejuni in ruminants.summarymulti-locus sequence typing was performed on 1003 campylobacter jejuni isolates collected in a 2-year longitudinal study of 15 dairy farms and four sheep farms in lancashire, uk. there was considerable farm-level variation in occurrence and prevalence of clonal complexes (cc). clonal complexes st61, st21, st403 and st45 were most prevalent in cattle while in sheep cc st42, st21, st48 and st52 were most prevalent. cc st45, a complex previously shown to be more common in summer months in hu ...201021134320
zoonotic cryptosporidiosis from petting farms, england and wales, 1992-2009. 201121192888
comparison of arcobacter isolation methods, and diversity of arcobacter spp. in cheshire, united kingdom.the aims of this study were, firstly, to compare five published methods for the isolation of arcobacter spp. from animal feces in order to determine the most sensitive and specific method. second, we analyzed the resulting isolates by multilocus sequence typing (mlst) in order to investigate the diversity of the isolates recovered. third, we investigated the ability to recover arcobacter spp. from frozen fecal samples. seventy-seven fecal samples from cattle, sheep, and badgers were subjected to ...201021193675
cost effectiveness of nitrate leaching mitigation measures for grassland livestock systems at locations in england and wales.as much as 60% of the nitrate in water in england is thought to derive from agriculture. legislation aims to improve water quality by limiting nitrate concentration in surface and groundwaters to 50 mg l(-1). the uk government responded to the requirements of the ec nitrate directive by delineating nitrate vulnerable zones (nvzs) to cover 55% of england in 2002 and increased it to 70% in 2009. in this study we assessed the cost-effectiveness of measures for implementation in livestock systems to ...201121211821
trends in bovine viral diarrhoea in scottish cattle.review of bovine viral diarrhoea virus-related disease, 1996 to 2009. diverse range of respiratory diseases diagnosed in cattle. caseous lymphadenitis confirmed in a suffolk ram lamb aged only four months. extramedullary haematopoiesis of unknown cause in a pig. coccidiosis diagnosed frequently in pheasants and partridges. these are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for july from sac consulting: veterinary services (sac c vs).201021257395
european field study of the efficacy and safety of the novel anthelmintic monepantel in sheep.during 2007, a large-scale controlled, multicentre, blinded and randomised field study was conducted in scotland, england and france to assess the efficacy and safety of monepantel, the first molecule to be developed from the recently discovered amino-acetonitrile derivatives class of anthelmintics, in sheep. monepantel was administered orally, at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight, for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep maintained at pasture in a range of commercial producti ...201021257441
fasciolosis prevalent among cattle in england and wales. 201021257462
faecal egg count reduction test to detect lack of efficacy of triclabendazole. 201021257517
assessing the consequences of an incursion of a vector-borne disease. ii. spread of bluetongue in scotland and impact of vaccination.bluetongue is a viral disease of ruminants transmitted by culicoides biting midges, which has spread across europe over the past decade. the disease arrived in south-east england in 2007, raising the possibility that it could pose a risk to the valuable scottish livestock industry. as part of an assessment of the economic consequences of a bluetongue virus incursion into scotland commissioned by scottish government, we investigated a defined set of feasible incursion scenarios under different va ...201021352784
assessing the consequences of an incursion of a vector-borne disease i. identifying feasible incursion scenarios for bluetongue in scotland.following the arrival of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (btv-8) in southeast england in september 2007, the scottish government commissioned research to assess the economic consequences of a btv-8 incursion to scotland. here we present the first component of the assessment, which entailed identifying feasible incursion scenarios for the virus. our analyses focused on three routes of introduction: wind-borne dispersal of infected vectors, import of infected animals and northwards spread of btv from ...201021352785
modelling the impact of climate change on spatial patterns of disease risk: sheep blowfly strike by lucilia sericata in great britain.understanding the spatial scale and temporal pattern of disease incidence is a fundamental prerequisite for the development of appropriate management and intervention strategies. it is particularly critical, given the need to understand the elevated risks linked to climate change, to allow the most likely changes in the distribution of parasites and disease vectors to be predicted under a range of climate change scenarios. using statistical models, the spatial distribution and climatic correlate ...201121397606
bluetongue serotype 8 vaccine coverage in northern and south-eastern england in 2008.a postal survey of all registered cattle and sheep farmers in east anglia was carried out from july 2008 to determine bluetongue virus serotype 8 (btv-8) vaccine uptake in the region. the vaccine was available to farmers in this region from may 2008. the survey was repeated in cumbria and northumberland at the beginning of 2009. in these regions, the vaccine was not available until september 1, 2008. holding-level vaccine uptake was estimated to be 85 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval [c ...201121493449
verocytotoxin-producing and attaching and effacing activity of escherichia coli isolated from diseased farm livestock.between may 2005 and june 2008, strategically selected isolates of escherichia coli obtained from clinical submissions to veterinary laboratories agency (vla) regional laboratories in england and wales were serogrouped and examined by pcr for verocytotoxin (vt) production and attaching and effacing (eae) genes, both of which are zoonotic determinants. vt-encoding genes were detected in 54 (5.3 per cent) of the 1022 isolates examined. only one isolate (0.1 per cent) was identified as verocytotoxi ...201121546408
severe taenia ovis outbreak in a sheep flock in south-west england. 201121642295
skin disease in sheep farmers.background: an unusual inflammation of the pinna has been reported to occur in some sheep farmers at the time of lambing. aims: to explore the prevalence of this disorder and its possible causal associations. methods: while on attachment to sheep farms during lambing, veterinary students used a standardized questionnaire to interview a sample of farmers about their work and about symptoms of skin inflammation in their hands, face and ears. results: interviews were completed by 76 (67%) of the fa ...201121652573
emergence of suspected type d botulism in ruminants in england and wales (2001 to 2009), associated with exposure to broiler litter.scanning surveillance by the veterinary laboratories agency revealed the emergence of suspected botulism in ruminants in 2003, presented as flaccid paralysis. from 2003 to 2009, 168 cattle and 19 sheep incidents were recorded, with mortality between 5 and 80 per cent. all sheep incidents and 95 per cent of cattle incidents had proximity to broiler litter. from july 2006, the gut contents collected from 74 affected cattle and 10 affected sheep were tested for clostridium botulinum toxins using mi ...201121652657
risk-targeted selection of agricultural holdings for post-epidemic surveillance: estimation of efficiency gains.current post-epidemic sero-surveillance uses random selection of animal holdings. a better strategy may be to estimate the benefits gained by sampling each farm and use this to target selection. in this study we estimate the probability of undiscovered infection for sheep farms in devon after the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak using the combination of a previously published model of daily infection risk and a simple model of probability of discovery of infection during the outbreak. this a ...201121674022
evaluation of risks of foot-and-mouth disease in scotland to assist with decision making during the 2007 outbreak in the uk.an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred in surrey on august 3, 2007. a great britain-wide ban on livestock movements was implemented immediately. this coincided with the start of seasonal sheep movements off the hills in scotland; the majority of these animals are sold via markets. the ban therefore posed severe economic and animal-welfare hardships if it was to last through september and beyond. the scottish government commissioned an analysis to assess the risk of re-opening marke ...201121730033
Investigation of the presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in the North Wales and West Midlands areas of the UK in 2007 to 2008 using scanning surveillance.Between November 5, 2007 and November 4, 2008, faecal samples from cattle and sheep submitted for diagnostic purposes to the Aberystwyth and Shrewsbury Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA) (now AHVLA) regional laboratories (covering North Wales and the West Midlands) were screened for the presence of Escherichia coli that produces CTX-M extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) using the selective medium CHROMagar CTX. Samples from 113 farms were tested and eight ESBL-positive farms identified. Of th ...201122021063
Index selection in terminal sires improves early lamb growth.The use of terminal sires (TS) for crossbreeding is integral to the UK sheep industry where approximately 71% of market lambs are sired by TS rams. Early growth of these crossbred lambs affects profitability. The objectives of this study were: (i) to evaluate the effectiveness of index selection among TS on the BW and ADG of their crossbred offspring; and, (ii) to compare the efficacy of that selection within TS breeds. The most widely used TS breeds in the UK are Charollais, Suffolk and Texel. ...201122021813
[2011: a wave of chimeras in england]. 201121922727
Endemic sheep scab: Risk factors and the behaviour of upland sheep flocks.Since the deregulation of sheep scab in 1992, the number of scab outbreaks per year in the UK has increased rapidly; there has been an estimated 60-fold increase in outbreak incidence between 1992 and 2007. How best to focus management or eradication efforts has therefore been an issue of ongoing debate. Previous work has shown that scab outbreaks occur repeatedly on some farms whereas others never or rarely experience outbreaks. Here, to consider why this pattern occurs, and to quantify the ris ...201122079030
husbandry risk factors associated with subclinical coccidiosis in young cattle.this paper describes an observational longitudinal study of cattle farms in england and wales, which aimed to identify management practices associated with the presence of eimeria spp. infection in young cattle. thirty cattle farms situated in england and wales were selected and one group of more than 20 young cattle aged 5-18months of age was monitored on each farm. three variables were identified as significantly associated with status in a multivariable model. the odds of finding eimeria spp. ...201122082508
a survey of congenital reproductive abnormalities in rams in abattoirs in south west england.congenital abnormalities of the reproductive tract of male sheep were surveyed at three abattoirs in the south west of england during the period june 2000-january 2004. a total of 7307 rams were examined [6521 lambs (prepubescent) and hoggets (aged from their first autumn after birth until first shorn) and 786 adult rams mature rams that had been exposed to ewes]. a total of 156 congenital lesions were detected, 87 of which occurred in lambs. testicular hypoplasia was the most common lesion occu ...201122136299
Bacteriophage lysis of enterococcus host strains: a tool for microbial source tracking?This paper describes the isolation of Enterococcus host strains, for potential use as simple bacteriophage (phage)-based microbial source tracking (MST) tools. Presumptive Enterococcus host strains were isolated from cattle feces, raw municipal wastewater, agricultural runoff, and waters impacted by farms or wastewater treatment works (WWTW) in southern England, United Kingdom (UK). All enterococcal host strains (n = 390) were first screened for their ability to detect phage in samples of ra ...201122047499
oestrus ovis infestation of a dog in the uk.in march 2011, a dog on a sheep farm in the cotswolds, uk, expelled a mature live third-stage larva of the sheep nasal botfly, oestrus ovis, after a violent and traumatic sneezing episode. the dog had been infected with first-stage larvae deposited by an adult fly the previous autumn; larval development had progressed throughout the winter and spring with few apparent clinical signs and possibly masked by ongoing immunotherapy for an unrelated condition. identification of the parasite at the liv ...201122122385
observations on the epidemiology of autumn nematodirosis in weaned lambs in a scottish sheep flock.nematodirosis was diagnosed in the south-east of scotland during two consecutive autumns in lambs which were grazed on the same field. the problem was unpredicted based on the knowledge of the pasture and animal management, and rudimentary understanding of the behaviour of free-living stages of nematodirus battus in the region. unlike the epidemiology that has been described in the south of england, whereby autumn infection of lambs is believed to arise from autumn hatching of eggs shed during t ...201222266686
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