prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatoid factor in women: evidence for a secular determine the current prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (ra) and rheumatoid factor positivity in the united kingdom middle aged female population and to compare this with previous estimates to assess whether the disease is becoming less prevalent.19938484689
is mad cow disease caused by a bacteria?transmissible spongioform enchephalopathies (tse's), include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also called bse or "mad cow disease"), creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) in humans, and scrapie in sheep. they remain a mystery, their cause hotly debated. but between 1994 and 1996, 12 people in england came down with cjd, the human form of mad cow, and all had eaten beef from suspect cows. current mad cow diagnosis lies solely in the detection of late appearing "prions", an acronym for hypothesized, ge ...200415325025
a comparison of antimicrobial susceptibilities in nontyphoidal salmonellas from humans and food animals in england and wales in 2000.a joint study by the public health laboratory service and the veterinary laboratories agency of resistance to antimicrobials in isolates of salmonella enterica serotypes enteritidis, typhimurium, hadar, and virchow from humans and food-producing animals in england and wales in 2000 has demonstrated that resistance was most common in typhimurium, particularly in strains of definitive phage type (dt) 104. however resistance was also common in other phage types, particularly dts 193 and 208 and pha ...200312820804
footrot in sheep. 200314627244
ivermectin resistance in a terminal sire sheep flock. 200415470974
development and validation of a simulation model for blowfly strike of sheep.a comprehensive simulation model for sheep blowfly strike due to lucilia sericata (meigen) (diptera: calliphoridae), which builds on previously published versions but also incorporates important new empirical data, is used to explain patterns of lamb and ewe strike recorded on 370 farms in south-west, south-east and central england and wales. the model is able to explain a significant percentage of the variance in lamb strike incidence in all four regions, and ewe strike in three of the four reg ...200212510885
risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, african swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the animal by-products regulations. this paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. th ...200415311800
phosphorus dynamics along a river continuum.changes in phosphorus concentration and form along 110 km of the river swale in northern england were examined over a 2-year period during 1998-2000. this study aimed to use these data to identify the importance of within-channel storage on phosphorus dynamics and to determine the changes in longitudinal transport of phosphorus along a river continuum. the catchment was divided into three contrasting zones: the upland, dominated by sheep farming; a transitional zone, and an intensively-farmed lo ...200312922071
seasonal and spatial changes in blowfly production from small and large carcasses at durham in lowland northeast england.colonization by blowflies (diptera: calliphoridae) of mouse carcasses exposed in open agricultural land near durham (54 45'n) changed from early spring monopolization by calliphora vicina r.-d. to a summer pattern of multiple species exploitation by this species together with lucilia caesar l., l. illustris mg., l. silvarum mg., l. sericata mg. and l. richardsi collin. in a garden at the edge of durham, mouse carcasses were dominated by c. vicina from spring to autumn. difference in mouse coloni ...199910514049
idiopathic mouth ulcers in sheep. 200111486776
fmd and the contiguous cull. 200415508849
where have all the flowers gone? are our woodland flowers disappearing?the owner of a wood in norfolk once told me that he thought that the lily of the valley has declined over the last 20 years. in wytham woods near oxford the dense bramble patches i studied in the 1970s didn't seem so thick ten years later. were these slips of the memory or did pete seeger have a point with his 1961 song - where have all the flowers gone?200111509765
the gubernaculum testis hunteri: testicular descent and maldescent. arris and gale lecture delivered at the royal college of surgeons of england on 27th october 1959. 196414172018
early dissemination of foot-and-mouth disease virus through sheep marketing in february 2001.the results of epidemiological investigations suggest that livestock on up to 79 premises, spread widely throughout the british isles, may have been exposed to infection by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus by the movement of infected sheep before the first case of the disease was confirmed at an abattoir in essex on february 20, 2001. a further 36 premises may have been infected by this route before the national livestock movement ban was imposed on february 23.200312885212
risk factors associated with the prevalence of interdigital dermatitis in sheep from 1999 to part of an investigation into improving the treatment and control of lameness in sheep flocks in england and wales, a postal survey was conducted in november 2000. farmers were asked to estimate the prevalence of footrot and interdigital dermatitis in their flocks. in the ewes the prevalence of interdigital dermatitis remained relatively stable throughout the year, but there was a large increase in lambs during late spring and early summer. logistic regression models were used to assess stati ...200415143999
antimicrobial susceptibility of streptococcus suis isolated from swine in france and from humans in different countries between 1996 and 2000.the susceptibility of 135 streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs (n = 110) and from humans (n = 25) to 13 antimicrobial agents was studied by microdilution and disc diffusion methods using mueller-hinton agar ii (mh) supplemented with either defibrinated sheep blood (mhsb) or horse serum (mhhs). results were similar for both methods used except for penicillin g whose zone diameters were reduced with mhsb compared with mhhs. when mh was supplemented with sheep blood, 39% of s. suis strains ...200212161400
ovine placentitis and abortion associated with a verotoxigenic strain of escherichia coli. 200111787784
prevention of blowfly strike on lambs with the insect growth regulator three multicentered field trials run during 1995 to 1997, involving a total of 12,928 lambs, the preventive effects on blowfly strike of a ready-to-use 5 per cent dicyclanil pour-on formulation and of a ready-to-use 6 per cent cyromazine pour-on formulation were compared with untreated controls for periods of up to 22 weeks. their efficacy was assessed by calculating the consolidated cumulative strike rate for each treatment group and the consolidated percentage reduction of flystrike achieve ...200011095393
richard lower, m.d., physician and surgeon (1631-1691).richard lower (1631-1691) was a follower of william harvey and conducted extensive studies of the physiology of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. he employed surgery as a key component of his experimental work. he described and employed cardiac massage and maintained arterial oxygenation through positive-pressure respiration. making good use of these procedures, he established the role of the lungs in the "admixture of air" to the blood. lower performed exchange transfusion in dogs and ...200415593472
fasciolosis causes losses in cattle, sheep and camelids. 200312620032
detection of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in pasteurella-vaccinated sheep flocks with respiratory disease in england. 200314682543
validation of a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of campylobacter fetus.a monoclonal antibody (mab)-based antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was compared with the routine culture methodology for the detection of campylobacter fetus subspecies from bovine and ovine field samples inoculated into clark's transport enrichment medium (tem). the work was a collaboration between two different diagnostic laboratories, one in canada and the other in england. in both labs, tem samples were incubated for 4 days at 35 degrees c and then tested by culture ...200516275938
the effects of altitude, aspect, grazing and time on the proportion of cyanogenics in neighbouring populations of trifolium repens l. (white clover).the proportion of cyanogenic individuals of white clover amongst 200 individuals in each of 32 neighbouring populations in northumberland, uk were recorded. sites differed for four altitude zones, two aspects, and were either sheep pasture or ungrazed meadow. the proportion of cyanogenics showed a striking reduction with increasing altitude. below 100 m, north-facing sites contained more cyanogenics than south-facing sites, but aspect did not affect higher sites. grassland management had no effe ...200212180084
tyre wire disease causes further losses in cornish cattle in june. 200415384502
polymorphism and transcription at the p44-1/p44-18 genomic locus in anaplasma phagocytophilum strains from diverse geographic regions.a polymorphic multigene family (p44) of anaplasma phagocytophilum encodes the immunodominant 44-kda major outer membrane proteins. with p44-specific pcr and gene-specific probes, p44-1 was found in all human isolates from new york state but not in isolates from minnesota, whereas p44-18 and two other p44 species were found in isolates from both regions. we therefore sequenced the genomic locus corresponding to the p44-1/p44-18 tandem locus of a. phagocytophilum hz in 14 other geographically dive ...200415385454
survey of parasite control on sheep farms in south-west england. 200616415233
the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in dumfries and galloway, 2001. 1: characteristics and control.the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in dumfries and galloway in south-west scotland comprised 177 infected premises (ips) in 24 geographical clusters, and ran from march 1 until may 23, 2001. initial seeding of infection was by livestock (predominantly sheep) that had passed through longtown market in adjacent cumbria. thereafter, spread within existing, and to new, clusters was associated with the movement of personnel and vehicles, with further transmission by longtown market contacts and acro ...200515751571
genetic diversity among pasteurella multocida strains of avian, bovine, ovine and porcine origin from england and wales by comparative sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene.genetic diversity among 86 pasteurella multocida isolates was investigated by comparative sequence analysis of a 1468 bp fragment of the 16s rrna gene. the strains included 79 field isolates recovered from birds (poultry) (22), cattle (21), pigs (26) and sheep (10) within england and wales, four asian isolates associated with bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia, and the type strains of the three subspecies of p. multocida. dulcitol and sorbitol fermentation patterns were also determined to establish ...200415583172
characteristics, prevalence and aetiology of lesions of the oral mucosa in adult sheep.a total of 214 sheep with lesions of the oral mucosa were recorded at the veterinary laboratories agency regional laboratories between march 15, 2002 and february 28, 2003. using denominator data from the scrapie abattoir survey a prevalence of 0.95 per cent (95 per cent ci 0.82 to 1.10 per cent) was recorded, and using the fallen stock survey a prevalence of 1.15 per cent (95 per cent ci 0.64 to 1.91 per cent) was recorded. the lesions varied widely and included dental pad lesions in 20 per cen ...200616714432
prevalence and regional distribution of scab, lice and blowfly strike in great britain.the prevalence of psoroptic mange (sheep scab), louse infestation and blowfly strike in sheep in great britain between march 2003 and february 2004 was investigated by means of a retrospective postal survey, stratified by region. of the 3530 questionnaires sent out, 1067 were returned completed, a response rate of 30.2 per cent. overall, 9 per cent of the farmers reported at least one outbreak of scab, 10.7 per cent reported an outbreak of lice and 75 per cent reported at least one case of blowf ...200616751308
descriptive spatial analysis of scrapie-affected flocks in great britain between january 1993 and december 2002.the spatial distribution of sheep flocks in great britain with confirmed clinical scrapie between january 1993 and december 2002 inclusive was investigated by using kernel density estimation and a cluster scan test statistic. six statistically significant clusters were identified: three were lower risk, and were centred on the north-western coast of scotland, the north-western coast of wales and the south yorkshire/pennine region; three were of higher risk, and were centred in the central south, ...200616891423
modelling the initial spread of foot-and-mouth disease through animal movements.livestock movements in great britain (gb) are well recorded and are a unique record of the network of connections among livestock-holding locations. these connections can be critical for disease spread, as in the 2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the uk. here, the movement data are used to construct an individual-farm-based model of the initial spread of fmd in gb and determine the susceptibility of the gb livestock industry to future outbreaks under the current legislative requir ...200617015320
entrepreneur, sheep farmer, midwife. 200515690885
fmd control strategies. 200314567668
the detection and characterisation of dichelobacter nodosus from cases of ovine footrot in england and wales.footrot, caused by the strictly anaerobic bacterium dichelobacter nodosus, is the most common cause of lameness in sheep in great britain but problems exist in association with its diagnosis and control. the fastidious nature of d. nodosus means that complex media and several weeks are required for characterisation. an alternative method to simplify and enhance the detection of d. nodosus in clinical samples is therefore highly desirable. in terms of control, anecdotal evidence from the farming ...200515917134
testing initiative for sheep ectoparasites. 200314682548
bovine digital dermatitis and severe virulent ovine foot rot: a common spirochaetal pathogenesis.a potential pathological role for spirochaetes in bovine digital dermatitis (bovine dd) and severe virulent ovine foot rot (svofr) has been considered and a treponeme isolate obtained from each disease in the uk. in this work, we have investigated the hypothesis that the two diseases may have a shared (common) spirochaetal aetiology. experiments were designed to identify serological similarities and differences between the two spirochaetes; an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was develo ...200515727915
evaluation of the application of veterinary judgement in the pre-emptive cull of contiguous premises during the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in cumbria in 2001.this paper presents a detailed analysis of the application of contiguous culling in cumbria between may 1 and september 30, during the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in 2001. the analysis shows that the application of veterinary risk assessment and judgement identified and removed groups of susceptible stock which were at risk of direct transmission of infection and avoided infected animals being left that might have spread the disease. when compared with an automatic contiguous cull, fewer ...200415493602
cryptosporidium parvum infection in orphan lambs on a farm open to the public.a longitudinal survey was undertaken on an open farm to investigate the occurrence of cryptosporidium species infection in orphan lambs obtained from three local flocks. during an initial pilot study, cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by a fluorescent antibody test (fat) in the faeces of two of 21 lambs aged between one and three weeks derived from one flock (flock a). pooled pen samples of faeces were collected weekly from lambs derived from each flock; oocysts were detected by fat in 24 (4 ...200717617539
flock cull due to anthelmintic-resistant nematodes. 200717617547
a case control study of blowfly strike in lambs.a case control study of the risk factors associated with blowfly strike was conducted on 11 farms in the south west of england. for each case, three control lambs were randomly selected from the remainder of the flock. samples of blood, faeces and wool were taken from the cases and controls, and measurements of weight, dag score (faecal soiling), fleece length, crimp frequency and tail length were made. conditional logistic regression was used to examine the univariate and multivariate relations ...19968913010
radiocaesium variability within sheep flocks: determination of 137cs intake in free-ranging sheep.a study is described in which 137cs intake by free-ranging sheep was estimated at two farms in the area of west cumbria (northwest england) which received some of the highest amounts of fallout from the chernobyl accident within the united kingdom. the faecal excretion of 137cs was estimated from faecal 137cs activity concentrations and the use of intraruminal controlled release devices containing cr2o3 to determine faecal dry matter output. the intake of 137cs was estimated by assuming an appar ...200011095151
persistence of salmonella typhimurium dt120 in abattoir paddocks holding the summer of 1999 there was an outbreak of salmonella typhimurium dt120 in people in the north of england which was unusual in being sensitive to antimicrobial drugs. the outbreak was linked to mutton and lamb from a local abattoir, and attention focused on four holding paddocks used to retain sheep before slaughter. in november 1999, samples of soil and faeces were taken from these paddocks and samples of faeces were taken from the concrete race leading from them. salmonella typhimurium was ...200516085722
antimicrobial resistance in salmonella isolated from animals and their environment in england and wales from 1988 to 1999.resistance to 16 antimicrobial agents was monitored in 109,125 salmonella cultures isolated from animals, their environment and feedstuffs between 1988 and 1999. the sensitivity of the 6512 isolates of salmonella enterica enterica serotype dublin to all the antimicrobial agents tested varied from 98.2 per cent in 1997 to 99.7 per cent in 1990 and 1996. in contrast, among 28,053 isolates of salmonella enterica enterica serotype typhimurium, there was a marked decrease in their sensitivity to all ...200212054133
surveillance of suspect animal toxicoses with potential food safety implications in england and wales between 1990 and 2002.the potential chemical contamination incidents investigated by the veterinary laboratories agency (vla) between 1990 and 2002 are reviewed. incidents were identified in the course of the vla's surveillance of food animal disease and further investigations were carried out on behalf of the food standards agency in order to identify and control the contamination of food animals and animal products with chemical hazards. in total 876 incidents were investigated, of which 588 involved the poisoning ...200516227381
frequent diagnoses of nephrosis in lambs in may. 200415264482
footrot and interdigital dermatitis in sheep: farmers' practices, opinions and 1999, a study was initiated to improve the treatment and control of footrot and interdigital dermatitis in sheep flocks in england and wales. in november 2000, a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in which 392 sheep farmers were asked to estimate the prevalence of footrot and interdigital dermatitis in their flock in the previous 12 months, whether they considered these diseases to be a problem, how they treated and controlled them and their opinion on the success of the treatm ...200516339978
prevalence of attaching and effacing escherichia coli serogroup o103 in orphan lambs on an open farm in eastern england. 200717873270
modelling the costs of fox predation and preventive measures on sheep farms in britain.economic analysis is a useful tool to aid decisions on what to do about wildlife impacts, such as those of vertebrate predators on livestock farmers. the case-study of lamb predation by foxes in britain is used to develop a theoretical economic model, with the aim of determining a financially optimal solution to minimise the total costs of livestock predation at the farm-level. total costs include output losses and expenditure on preventive and control measures, in this case indoor housing and l ...200415160739
neurological complications in sheep following administration of parenteral copper. 200415130062
devon fmd inquiry calls for strengthening of the svs. 200111720202
e. coli o157. 200111740070
control and management of sheep mange and pediculosis in great britain.the patterns of insecticide use for the prevention and control of sheep lice and psoroptes mites, in england, wales and scotland, in 2003-2004, were examined using data from a retrospective questionnaire. overall, 375 of the 966 (39%) farmers who responded said that they treated at least once to prevent louse infestation. for scab, 426 of the 966 (44%) farmers who responded said that they had treated prophylactically to prevent the disease. there were no significant differences between regions i ...200818495347
an investigation into the role of chlamydophila spp. in bovine upper respiratory tract outbreak of upper respiratory tract disease was investigated in a group of 17 housed home-bred calves on a mixed dairy, beef and sheep farm in devon. conjunctival swabs were collected and tested for chlamydophila spp. dna using a pcr test that detects chlamydophila abortus and chlamydophila psittaci. six of the calves tested gave a positive result. further epidemiological observations and laboratory testing indicated that the adult dairy cows, from which the affected calves originated, were t ...200616624729
relationship of speed of slaughter on infected premises and intensity of culling of other premises to the rate of spread of the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in great britain, 2001.during the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the uk in 2001, two major control policies were the rapid identification of cases and the culling of animals on infected premises and on dangerous contact premises. dangerous contact premises were divided into two groups, premises contiguous to an infected premises and non-contiguous premises. in england, the largest numbers of geographically clustered infected premises were in cumbria, the south west (somerset, devon and cornwall) and the settle/cli ...200415478499
neuropsychiatric symptoms in past users of sheep dip and other explore the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychiatric symptoms in past users of sheep dip and other pesticides.200717095551
transmission dynamics and mechanisms of endemicity of scrapie in the uk sheep population.summaryscrapie is a fatal neurological disease of sheep which is endemic in the united kingdom. it is one of the family of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) that includes bse. in this paper, we developed a micro-simulation model for scrapie in the uk sheep population, incorporating the genetic and structural diversity of the population and infectious contact between flocks through trading. the simulation was fitted to epidemiological data from a range of sources. we found a detect ...200918687155
an exploration of the drivers to bio-security collective action among a sample of uk cattle and sheep present, collective action regarding bio-security among uk cattle and sheep farmers is rare. despite the occurrence of catastrophic livestock diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) and foot and mouth disease (fmd), within recent decades, there are few national or local farmer-led animal health schemes. to explore the reasons for this apparent lack of interest, we utilised a socio-psychological approach to disaggregate the cognitive, emotive and contextual factors driving bio- ...200818692923
control of sheep blowfly strike using fly-traps.the use of fly-traps for the control of sheep blowfly strike was examined on 12 commercial sheep farms in south west england in 2003. two flocks acted as controls, with no prophylactic blowfly strike control. four flocks of lambs and three flocks of ewes were protected only by blowfly traps, seven of the flocks of ewes and six flocks of lambs were protected by blowfly traps but also had proprietary insecticides applied to them at some stage. there was no difference in the abundance of l. sericat ...200616188387
tracing the source of campylobacteriosis.campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in the developed world. it is thought to infect 2-3 million people a year in the us alone, at a cost to the economy in excess of us $4 billion. c. jejuni is a widespread zoonotic pathogen that is carried by animals farmed for meat and poultry. a connection with contaminated food is recognized, but c. jejuni is also commonly found in wild animals and water sources. phylogenetic studies have suggested that genotypes pathogenic ...200818818764
looking after the individual to reduce disease in the flock: a binomial mixed effects model investigating the impact of individual sheep management of footrot and interdigital dermatitis in a prospective longitudinal study on one farm.a total of 160 ewes on one farm in england were studied for 18 months. the incidence of footrot and interdigital dermatitis in individually identified sheep and treatment and flock control measures were recorded. a binomial mixed effect model with the incidence of footrot or interdigital dermatitis as the outcome was used to investigate patterns of association between treatments, flock control measures and the incidence of footrot or interdigital dermatitis. in this one flock, the incidence of f ...200717092589
characterisation of attaching-effacing escherichia coli isolated from animals at slaughter in england and wales.escherichia coli isolates were recovered from faecal samples taken from cattle, sheep and pigs at slaughter in england and wales. isolates (n = 1227) selected at random from this collection were each hybridised in colony dot-blot experiments with an eae gene probe that presumptively identified attaching-effacing e. coli (aeec). of the 99 (8.1%) eae positive isolates 72 were of ovine origin, 24 were of bovine origin and three of porcine origin. none were typed as o157:h7 whereas 78 were assigned ...200415288926
an account of the experiment of transfusion, practiced upon a man in london. 1667. 200214580110
within-holding prevalence of sheep classical scrapie in great from the compulsory scrapie flocks scheme (csfs), part of the compulsory eradication measures for the control of scrapie in the eu, have been used to estimate the within-holding prevalence of classical scrapie in great britain (gb). specifically data from one of the testing routes within the csfs have been used; the initial cull (ic), whereby two options can be applied: the whole flock cull option by which the entire flock is depopulated, and the genotyping and cull of certain genotypes.200919133119
copper poisoning in sheep associated with clover. 200717652441
the 2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the united kingdom: epidemiological and meteorological case studies.the possibility of the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease during the 2001 epidemic in the uk has been investigated in three epidemiological case studies. on the basis of evidence from field investigations, and a simple meteorological analysis, it is concluded that the spread of disease was consistent with the airborne transport of virus. the distances ranged from less than 1 km to 16 km; six of the farms were over 6 km from the source and involved the passage of virus over the sea combine ...200515965003
detection of the genome of chlamydophila abortus in samples taken from the uteri of 304 sheep at an abattoir.a pcr was used to detect the genome of chlamydophila abortus in samples of uterine tissue collected from 304 sheep by a sterile technique at an abattoir. the stage of pregnancy of the sheep was determined by measuring the dimensions of the embryo/fetus, and its morphology was recorded. only samples from non-pregnant sheep and sheep up to 100 days of gestation were retained; the clinical history of the animals was unknown. the total prevalence of the chlamydial genome was 30.9 per cent, with a si ...200717675631
recovery from botulism. 200717675640
analysis of data from the passive surveillance of scrapie in great britain between 1993 and 2002.reports of clinical scrapie in great britain between january 1, 1993 and december 31, 2002 were reviewed. scrapie was confirmed in 4142 sheep on 1099 holdings. the cumulative case and holding incidence risks decreased in 2001, probably owing to the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, although there were regional variations. sheep aged between three and four years old constituted the largest affected group. in the period between 1998 and 2002, 51.3 per cent of the cases had the genotype arq/vrq, ...200617158710
establishing relative release kinetics of faecal indicator organisms from different faecal matrices.a laboratory assay for comparative characterization of various faecal matrices with respect to faecal indicator organism (fio) release using, artificial rain water.200919422475
naming and recognition of six foot lesions of sheep using written and pictorial information: a study of 809 english sheep 2005, 3000 questionnaires were sent to a random sample of english sheep farmers from a list kept by the english beef and lamb executive (eblex) to investigate whether farmers could correctly name six common foot lesions in sheep from a characteristic picture and a written description. the lesions were interdigital dermatitis (id), footrot (fr), contagious ovine digital dermatitis (codd), shelly hoof, foot abscess and toe granuloma. in addition, farmers were asked to report the total percent o ...200817688961
spatial distribution of the active surveillance of sheep scrapie in great britain: an exploratory analysis.this paper explores the spatial distribution of sampling within the active surveillance of sheep scrapie in great britain. we investigated the geographic distribution of the birth holdings of sheep sampled for scrapie during 2002 - 2005, including samples taken in abattoir surveys (c. 83,100) and from sheep that died in the field ("fallen stock", c. 14,600). we mapped the birth holdings by county and calculated the sampling rate, defined as the proportion of the holdings in each county sampled b ...200919607705
factors contributing to radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks in west cumbria (united kingdom).following the chernobyl accident in 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep within upland areas of the uk because radiocaesium activity concentrations in their meat exceeded 1000 bq kg(-1) fresh weight. some farms remain under restriction in 2007. from 1991 to 1993 detailed studies were conducted on three sheep farms within the restricted area of west cumbria to systematically assess the various parameters which may contribute to the observed variability in radiocae ...200717720285
mapping risk foci for endemic sheep scab.psoroptic mange in sheep, resulting from infestation by the astigmatid mite psoroptes ovis, is increasingly prevalent in europe and other parts of the world. as a step towards improved national control, regional or local scab management programmes that target high-risk areas and aim to maintain the number of outbreaks below an acceptable level may be an effective initial use of time and resource. to facilitate such a management approach, in this paper scab outbreak farms are identified using a q ...200919713045
emergence of fasciolosis in cattle in east anglia.liver fluke (fasciola hepatica) infection caused weight loss, diarrhoea, decreased milk yield and occasionally death in cattle in east anglia during the winters of 2001 to 2003. the condition had previously been limited mainly to stock imported into this part of britain from endemically infected areas. in composite faecal samples collected by 16 farm animal veterinary practices in norfolk, suffolk and essex, fluke eggs were found in 15 (28.8 per cent) of 52 previously unaffected suckler herds an ...200516272544
classical sheep scrapie in great britain: spatial analysis and identification of environmental and farm-related risk factors.previous studies suggest that the spatial distribution of classical sheep scrapie in great britain is uneven and that certain flock characteristics may be associated with occurrence of the disease. however, the existence of areas of high and low disease-risk may also result from differences in the spatial distribution of environmental characteristics. in this study we explored the spatial pattern of classical scrapie in great britain between 2002 and 2005 and investigated the association between ...200919737376
noise levels in lairages for cattle, sheep and pigs in abattoirs in england and wales.levels of sound intensity were measured over periods of 24 hours in 34 abattoir lairages in england and wales. the mean integrated range in 12 cattle lairages was 52 to 79 db(a), in 11 sheep lairages, 45 to 76 db(a) and in 11 pig lairages, 46 to 87 db(a). in general, the pig lairages were the noisiest, with spot peak recordings of up to 110 db(a). typically, the sound intensities in all the lairages were 10 to 20 db(a) higher during the working day than at night. in many sheep lairages, high int ...200919749207
temporal and farm-management-associated variation in the faecal-pat prevalence of campylobacter jejuni in a 2-year longitudinal study of adult animals on 15 dairy farms and four sheep farms in lancashire, uk. c. jejuni was isolated from all farms, although not on every occasion. faecal samples were collected and cultured using standard techniques for isolation of campylobacter. assignment to species was via pcr assays. peak prevalence of c. jejuni in both cattle and sheep was observed during the summer and in cattle this apparent seasonality was associated with grazing pasture [odds ratio (or) 2. ...201019845998
prevalence, spatial distribution and the effect of control measures on louping-ill virus in the forest of bowland, lancashire.the complex pathogen-host-vector system of the tick-borne louping-ill virus causes economic losses to sheep and red grouse in upland united kingdom. this paper examines the spatial distribution, incidence and effect of control measures on louping-ill virus in the bowland fells of lancashire. seroprevalence in sheep at the beginning of the study varied within the area and was affected significantly by the frequency of acaricide treatment. there was a clear decrease over 5 years in the effective f ...200717346361
clinical signs and pathology shown by british sheep and cattle infected with bluetongue virus serotype 8 derived from the 2006 outbreak in northern europe.four poll dorset sheep and four holstein-friesian cattle were infected with the northern european strain of bluetongue virus (btv), btv-8, to assess its pathogenicity in uk breeds. the time course of infection was monitored in both species by using real-time reverse transcriptase-pcr (rt-pcr), conventional rt-pcr and serology. two of the sheep developed severe clinical signs that would have been fatal in the field; the other two were moderately and mildly ill, respectively. the cattle were clini ...200717720961
fly abundance and climate as determinants of sheep blowfly strike incidence in southwest england.the relationships between abundance of the blowfly lucilia sericata (meigen) (diptera: calliphoridae), climate, animal management procedures and the incidence of cutaneous myiasis (blowfly strike) in sheep were examined in three sheep pasture systems in southwest england during the summers of 2002 and 2003. in each year, flies were collected using liver-baited sticky targets, daily weather and routine husbandry practices were noted and the age-class of each animal infested and body position of e ...200717897363
faecal carriage of verocytotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157 in cattle and sheep at slaughter in great britain.a 12-month abattoir survey was conducted between january 1999 and january 2000, to determine the prevalence of faecal carriage of verocytotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157 (vtec o157) in cattle and sheep slaughtered for human consumption in great britain. samples of rectum containing faeces were collected from 3939 cattle and 4171 sheep at 118 abattoirs, in numbers proportional to the throughput of the premises. the annual prevalence of faecal carriage of vtec o157 was 4.7 per cent (95 per c ...200212036241
subacute symmetrical necrotising encephalopathy in young lambs. 200717545651
comparison of different control strategies for foot-and-mouth disease: a study of the epidemics in canada in 1951/52, hampshire in 1967 and northumberland in 1966.the measures used to control the epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in canada in 1951/52 (29 outbreaks) were compared with those used in the epidemic in hampshire in 1967 (29 outbreaks). in both epidemics the disease spread more from premises where the disease was reported late and the imposition of quarantine or restrictions on infected premises was delayed. in hampshire, area restrictions were imposed, susceptible livestock on infected premises and on premises in direct contact were slaughter ...200616400097
variation in the hatching behaviour of nematodirus battus: polymorphic bet hedging?previous work on the transmission dynamics of nematodirus battus, an important nematode parasite of farmed ruminants in temperate regions, suggests that it operates a bet-hedging strategy. hatching of cold-sensitised eggs is concentrated in spring, while alternative hatching of non-cold-sensitised eggs in autumn mitigates the risk of poor conditions for hatching in spring or host absence during peak larval availability. isolates from scotland showed much less propensity to hatch without chilling ...201019944106
survey of parasite control on beef farms in south-west england. 200617099179
how membrane carriers function: the critical contribution of w.f. widdas (1952) to modern understanding.this paper reviews the contribution to the field of transport biology of w.f. widdas' paper 'inability of diffusion to account for placental glucose transfer in the sheep and consideration of the kinetics of a possible carrier transfer' published in the journal of physiology in 1952. the importance of this mathematical analysis, and of its assumptions and predictions, has been supported in a number of subsequent publications over the last half century. but its vindication emerges specifically fr ...200516359612
rickets in sheep flocks in northern england. 200818204038
borna disease virus and mental health: a cross-sectional study.borna disease is an infectious neurological disease of horses, sheep and possibly other animals. a role for borna disease virus (bdv) in human neurological and psychiatric illness has been proposed, but this hypothesis remains controversial.200515760925
acute symptoms following work with pesticides.serious accidental poisoning by pesticides is rare in the uk, but more minor pesticide-related illness may be under-reported. anecdotally, use of sheep dip has been linked with flu-like symptoms.200717652342
visitor perceptions of rural landscapes: a case study in the peak district national park, england.maintaining national parks is an integral policy tool to conserve rare habitats. however, because national parks are funded by taxpayers, they must also serve the needs of the general public. increasingly, and thanks to today's diverse society, there is evidence that this creates challenges for park managers who are pulled in two opposing directions: to conserve nature on the one hand and to meet different visitor expectations on the other. this tension was explored in the peak district national ...200918672323
fmd in surrey: epidemiological investigations 'ongoing'. 200717966156
bovine tuberculosis infection in wild mammals in the south-west region of england: a survey of prevalence and a semi-quantitative assessment of the relative risks to the united kingdom, badgers are implicated in the transmission of mycobacterium bovis to cattle, but little information is available on the potential role of other wild mammals. this paper presents the results of the largest systematic uk survey of m. bovis infection in other wild mammals. mammal carcasses (4715) from throughout the south-west region of england were subjected to a systematic post mortem examination, microbiological culture of tissues and spoligotyping of isolates. infection w ...200716434219
bluetongue--where are we now? 200818931359
bluetongue vaccination in england. 200819013825
clinical and laboratory investigations of the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in southern england in 2007.a case of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) on a cattle farm in normandy, surrey, was confirmed on friday august 3, 2007, the first case in the uk since 2001. the infection was detected nearby on a second farm on august 6. on september 12, fmd was confirmed on a farm approximately 20 km from normandy in egham, and this was followed by cases on five more farms in that area in the next three weeks. the majority of the infected farms consisted of multiple beef cattle holdings in semi-urban areas. in tot ...200818676997
bluetongue control strategy. 200818791212
cosmogenic 7be deposition in north wales: 7be concentrations in sheep faeces in relation to altitude and precipitation.beryllium-7 (7be) is a cosmogenic radionuclide with a half-life of 53.3 days produced mostly in the stratosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen and entering the lower troposphere by atmospheric circulation processes. most of the nuclide is removed by rainout during precipitation, so given that rainfall generally increases with altitude, it was considered probable that 7be deposition would also be greater at higher altitudes. the aim of this study was to determine if there is any ...200515511568
microbiological surveillance of private water supplies in england: the impact of environmental and climate factors on water quality.a passive surveillance system captured information on 34,904 microbiological samples from 11,233 private drinking water supplies within england as well as the associated constructional, climatic and environmental variables. escherichia coli was detected in 6588 (18.87%) of samples and at least one positive sample was detected from 3638 (32.39%) of sites. however, this estimate of supplies failing to meet the european drinking water e. coli standard was probably an underestimate as the more sampl ...200919303126
verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli o157 in animals on public amenity premises in england and wales, 1997 to the request of the public health authorities, 31 public amenity premises in england and wales containing animals of various species were investigated for the presence of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec) o157 between 1997 and 2007, because of putative associations with human cases. vtec o157 was confirmed in one or more species on 19 (61.3 per cent) of the premises. there were significant associations between the presence of vtec o157 and the number of species sampled, the size of the ...200919411683
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