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a descriptive epidemiological study of coccidiosis in early lambing housed flocks.infection with eimeria sp. was studied in 135 lambs born to 79 ewes in four early lambing housed flocks. in three of these flocks two different coccidiostats (monensin and decoquinate) were administered in the feed. cohort lambs were examined clinically and a rectal faeces sample taken once a week. samples with more than 300 oocyts per gram were speciated by morphology. nine species were identified and eimeria crandallis was the most prevalent. one of the flocks developed clinical coccidiosis be ...19947839559
a longitudinal study of environmental mycobacteria on a farm in south-west england.soil, stream beds and cattle drinking troughs were sampled every 3 months over 3 years. more than 750 putative mycobacteria were isolated and grouped into more than 50 biotypes pending full identification. samples from woodland and farmed land yielded fewer isolates per site compared with other terrains (p < 0.05). some seasonal effects were noted but the greatest difference was between years 1 and 3. this appeared not to be due to differences in temperature, rainfall or experimental procedure, ...19979113878
q fever (coxiella burnetii) reservoir in wild brown rat (rattus norvegicus) populations in the uk.seroprevalence of coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of q fever in humans, was examined in wild brown rat populations from 4 oxfordshire farmsteads (n = 127), 9 somerset homesteads (n = 98), and 1 captive enclosure (n = 88) in the uk. seroprevalence ranged between 7 and 53%, the lowest being within the captive population and the highest on dairy farmsteads with sheep present. this is the first reported investigation of c. burnetii in wild rats outside india. we suggest that the high seroprevale ...19957845709
udder oedema in ewes. 19968677615
outbreak of staphylococcal dermatitis in housed lactating suffolk ewes. 19979228698
[is today's condom better than its reputation?].in a statistical sample of 500 unwanted pregnancies surprisingly the share of women whose partners used a condom was not higher than the share of iup-users (considering the relative frequency of use of both methods). this result was the motivation to investigate once more the use of the condom. after a short description of the history, the production, and the testing methods a discussion follows of the frequency of its use. in many countries the frequency of using the condom lies between that of ...19806988315
prevalence and possible causes of subcapsular liver rupture in dead, newborn lambs. 19947825274
blowfly strike in england and wales: the relationship between prevalence and farm and management factors.in order to develop and evaluate control strategies for blowfly strike, a greater understanding of the epidemiology is essential. a postal survey of sheep farmers yielded information about ten farm and management factors and their relationship to blowfly strike prevalence. the risk of a farm reporting at least one case of blowfly strike increased as flock size and stocking density increased (adjusted odds ratio of 1.13 for an increase in flock size of 100 sheep and 1.38 for an increase in stocki ...19948161845
long distance transport of export lambs.two commercial lorry consignments of 500 sheep were followed from the united kingdom to their destinations in southern france, one journey of 800 miles taking 18 hours and the other of 950 miles taking 24 hours. measurements were made of liveweight and skinfold thickness, and blood samples were taken from 100 sheep in each consignment, two days before departure and again immediately after the journeys. the results from each consignment were similar. high levels of plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate, fr ...19948171768
dental disease in hill sheep: an abattoir survey.heads from 478 aged sheep of a predominantly hill breed population were examined in detail for evidence of dental disease, using both soft and hard tissue measurements around incisor and cheek teeth. almost 60 per cent of this population (all over 2 1/2 years of age and with a mean age between 7 and 8 years) had either loose or missing teeth. malalignment of cheek teeth and/or incisors was also common. pocketing was seen in 87 per cent of the population, and was significantly correlated with too ...19846736313
a large q fever outbreak in the west midlands: clinical aspects.in the spring of 1989 the largest outbreak of acute q fever recorded in the united kingdom occurred in solihull and surrounding areas of the west midlands. the diagnosis was confirmed in 147 people, mainly males of working age. windborne spread from farmland to the south of the urban area was the most likely route of infection. fever was the commonest symptom, seen in 101/102 (99%) cases, followed by weight loss reported by 83/101 (82%). headache, often severe, was experienced by 69/101 (68%). t ...19938265838
129i and 137cs fission products in thyroids of animals, 1984-1991.iodine is intensely concentrated in the thyroid of animals, while 137cs is not. in this study, 129i and 137cs concentrations were determined in animal thyroids from selected areas during 1984-1991. the thyroids were from deer killed within the savannah river site (srs) in south carolina; from the environs of oak ridge (or), tennessee; west tennessee; and florida. thyroids from sheep slaughtered routinely in birmingham, england (uk), were also tested. the glands were analyzed by x-ray spectroscop ...19938416215
human uptake of 137cs in mutton.the uptake of radiocesium from mutton contaminated by fallout from the chernobyl reactor accident has been studied in eight healthy male volunteers. each subject consumed, on adjacent days, two meals prepared from the mutton containing a total of 0.8 kbq 137cs. the elevation and subsequent decline in whole-body content were determined from body radioactivity measurements prior to the meals and at intervals up to 15 wk afterwards. clearance of 137cs between 1 and 15 wk showed a biological half-ti ...19938491615
ryegrass staggers. 19958560718
apparent resistance of p ovis to flumethrin. 19958525587
border disease in sheep.the current knowledge on border disease in sheep is reviewed. this is a congenital and teratogenic disorder induced by pestivirus. the history, etiology, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and pathologic lesions at postnatal and intrauterine infections (as well as in congenitally affected animals), pathogenesis, immunity, diagnosis, and control and prevention of the syndrome are discussed.19958581864
control of hydatid disease in wales.to evaluate the success of the south powys hydatid control programme by analysis of trends in cystic disease in humans and sheep and dog infestation.19968597734
microbiological investigation of halal butchery products and butchers' premises.halal butchers' premises were investigated as they had not been represented in a recent study of butchery products and butchers' premises conducted by the local authorities coordinating body on food and trading standards and the phls. this study examined 183 raw prepared meats and 212 environmental samples from 105 halal butcher premises. only raw meats were prepared on 97 of the premises visited; and the types of meat prepared on the remaining eight premises was not specified. four halal butche ...199910402745
isolation of benzimidazole resistant strains of ostertagia circumcincta from british sheep.two strains of ostertagia circumcincta were isolated from sheep in great britain; one (cvl strain) from a breeding flock maintained at the central veterinary laboratory, the other (h2 strain) from a commercial flock in southern england. their resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics was assessed by means of in vitro egg hatch assays and slaughter trials. in vitro egg hatch assays gave calculated ed50 estimates of 0.799 micrograms thiabendazole/ml for the cvl strain and 0.794 micrograms thiabend ...19836687770
health risks associated with unpasteurized goats' and ewes' milk on retail sale in england and wales. a phls dairy products working group study.a pilot study to determine the microbiological quality of unpasteurized milk from goats and ewes sampled from farm shops, health food shops, and other retail premises found that 47%, (47/100) of goats' and 50% (13/26) of ewes' milk samples failed the standards prescribed by the dairy products (hygiene) regulations 1995. in addition, staphylococcus aureus, haemolytic streptococci or enterococci, were present in excess of 10(2) c.f.u./ml in 9 (7 %) 2 (2 %) and 19 (15%) samples, respectively. salmo ...199910459642
tick borne fever in in-bye sheep. 19836688690
an outbreak of salmonella mikawasima associated with doner kebabs.during october 1992 an increase in the number of isolates of salmonella mikawasima, a rare serotype, was noted including a cluster of nine cases in the south west thames region. a case control study was conducted and univariate analysis showed a statistical association between illness and eating at take-away a for cases compared with household controls (p = 0.003) and with neighbourhood controls (p = 0.0245). cases were also more likely to have eaten kebabs than were controls or average take-awa ...19938270007
maedi in a somerset flock. 19938384391
occurrence of anthelmintic resistant nematodes on sheep farms in england and goat farms in england and wales.a survey in 1992 showed that 44 per cent of the sheep farms tested in the south west and 15 per cent of those in the north east of england had parasitic nematode worm burdens which were resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics, and that 65 per cent of the non-dairy goat farms tested in england and wales had resistant worms. ostertagia circumcincta was the main species in sheep and haemonchus contortus in goats. the resistance to benzimidazoles was diagnosed by a combination of an egg hatch assay ...19968843638
a 1-year study of escherichia coli o157 in cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry.samples of rectal faeces were collected immediately after slaughter from 400 cattle each month for a 1-year period and from 1000 each of sheep, pigs and poultry over the same period. samples were examined for escherichia coli o157 by enrichment culture in buffered peptone water with vancomycin, cefixime and cefsulodin followed by immunomagnetic separation and culture of magnetic particles onto cefixime tellurite sorbitol macconkey agar. e. coli o157 was isolated from 752 (15.7%) of 4800 cattle, ...19979363024
[id-dlo designs preclinical test for scrapie. the netherlands and england together fighting bse]. 19968765805
depressed state of the livestock sector reflected in submissions to the vla. 199910574270
role of neonatal and maternal risk factors in the faecal soiling of lambs.a total of 1300 lambs from eight spring-lambing flocks in the south west of england were studied from birth to approximately six months of age. within the first week of life a number of variables were recorded including the lambs' birth weight, sex, faecal consistency, 48- to 72-hour immunoglobulin status and the condition score and extent of faecal soiling (dag score) of the ewe. between two and six months of age the lambs were inspected every two weeks and their dag score was recorded. the rel ...19968938966
chorioptic mange in british suffolk rams. 200010958536
epizootic bovine abortion in a dairy herd: characterization of a chlamydia psittaci isolate and antibody response.a chlamydial agent was recovered from the placental cotyledons of an aborting cow from a 100-cow dairy herd in cumbria. immunoblotting analysis of purified elementary bodies of the isolate revealed a reactivity pattern typical of serotype i chlamydia psittaci strains. nucleotide sequencing of the major outer membrane protein (momp) gene further confirmed the isolate, ba1, as a serotype i strain. the sequence was identical to that of the type strain of ovine enzootic abortion, b577. in both the a ...19958605581
results of a survey to determine whether neospora is a significant cause of ovine abortion in england and wales.between january and april 1995, the brains and hearts of 281 aborted lambs derived from 209 submissions to veterinary investigation centres in england and wales were examined histologically. one-hundred-and-seventy-nine samples of fetal pleural fluid from these lambs and 141 from lambs not examined histologically were examined for antibodies to neospora by an indirect fluorescent antibody test. non-suppurative myocarditis and encephalitis were present in nine lambs. immunocytochemistry using ant ...19979055394
benzimidazole-resistant trichostrongylus colubriformis from goats in central england. 19948036773
tracing the origins of louping ill virus by molecular phylogenetic analysis.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of louping ill (li) virus isolates, collected from representative regions of the british isles and norway, were determined for either the entire envelope gene (20 isolates) or for a portion of the envelope gene that spans a hypervariable region and includes an li virus specific marker sequence (53 isolates). phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of three major geographical populations of li virus in the british isles, viz. irish, welsh and bri ...19989603312
campylobacter contamination of raw meat and poultry at retail sale: identification of multiple types and comparison with isolates from human infection.campylobacter species are the major cause of acute bacterial enteritis reported in the united kingdom, nonetheless many aspects of campylobacteriosis epidemiology remain poorly understood. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in fresh bovine, ovine, and porcine liver and chicken portions from retail outlets and compare strain subtype distributions with those associated with cases of human campylobacteriosis occurring within the same ...200011131886
molecular variation, evolution and geographical distribution of louping ill virus.following the demonstration that the tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) subgroup viruses are distributed as a cline across the northern hemisphere (zanotto et al., 1995), we have analyzed the dispersal pattern of louping ill (li) virus, the most westerly located member in the cline. a total number of 21 li or li-related virus e gene sequences have been used for a detailed molecular analysis of the evolution, phylogeny and geographical distribution of li virus in the british isles and ireland. the res ...19979607079
isolation of campylobacter jejuni from groundwater.a pollution event which occurred at a spring in the arnside area of cumbria provided an opportunity to investigate whether campylobacter jejuni could be detected in groundwater. hydrological evidence suggested that the source of contamination was a dairy farm situated within the hydrological catchment of the polluted spring. the microbiological quality of the polluted spring was monitored during intervals over the following 12 months and compared with others in the area. campylobacter jejuni was ...19989721669
incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw sheep and goats' milk in england, wales and northern ireland.a blind survey of 104 raw sheep and goats' milk samples (90 goat, 14 sheeps) from bulk tanks on farms throughout england, wales and northern ireland was carried out over a 5-month period (january-may 1998) in order to determine the incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis. each milk sample (100 ml) was divided into two 50ml portions. one portion was decontaminated with 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride for 5h before culture on slopes of herrold's egg yolk medium and in bactec radiometric med ...200111230934
ectoparasite control on sheep farms in england and wales: the method, type and timing of insecticidal treatment.the chemical control of sheep ectoparasites raises important environmental, health and welfare issues. there is increasing concern about the possible harmful effects of pesticides on human health and the role of dipping in the contamination of natural watercourses. a longitudinal survey was conducted in 1991, the last year of compulsory dipping for the control of sheep scab, to obtain information about the chemical control of ectoparasites on 485 farms in england and wales. organophosphate insec ...19947975072
nematode control practices and anthelmintic resistance on british sheep farms.nearly 23 per cent of 3000 randomly selected sheep farmers returned questionnaires on strategies to control the development of anthelmintic resistance. twenty-five per cent stated that they regularly checked the accuracy of their drenching gun, and 52 per cent stated that they weighed a few animals and treated the whole flock like the heaviest. the mean annual frequency of dosing lambs was 4.39 compared with 2.43 for ewes. forty-eight per cent stated that they changed the anthelmintic group annu ...19979265708
mating patterns and reproductive wastage in commercial lowland ewes in west somerset.the reproductive performance of 5488 ewes in 34 commercially managed, lowland flocks in west somerset was assessed by means of a questionnaire survey and flock inspections. the introduction of vasectomised rams before the breeding season (teasing) markedly affected the proportions of ewes mated in the first 16 days after the introduction of fertile rams. in teased flocks, 84.7 per cent (range 37.8 to 100 per cent) of the ewes were mated in the first 16 days, compared with 43.8 per cent (range 2. ...19968972069
sources of escherichia coli o157 and experiences over the past 15 years in sheffield, uk.in the first documented outbreak of hc caused by escherichia coli o157, which occurred in the north-west usa in 1982, there was a strong association between infection and prior consumption of ground beef from a chain of fast food restaurants. foods of bovine origin, including beef, milk and dairy products, have since been implicated in many outbreaks of infection world-wide. investigations during the course of outbreaks, or at random, have shown that cattle are a major reservoir of e. coli o157. ...200010880179
maedi visna infection in a flock in yorkshire. 200111266005
molecular detection of mycoplasma conjunctivae in english sheep affected by infectious keratoconjunctivitis. 200111289552
bacteria isolated from arthritic and omphalatic lesions in lambs in england and wales. 19989883092
use of sentinel lambs to survey the effect of an education programme on control of transmission of echinococcus granulosus in south powys, wales.in this article the effects of an education programme (area ii) on transmission of echinococcus granulosus from dogs to sheep in wales and of substitution of the education programme by a 6-weekly anthelmintic control programme (area i) are compared with the situation in an area where no control interventions had occurred (area iii). the education programme failed to prevent transmission of e. granulosus to sentinel lambs examined at 15 months of age, 6%, 4%, and 10% of which were infected in are ...19989868837
ovine psoroptic otoacariasis: an abattoir survey. 19968883348
a case control study of blowfly strike in lambs.a case control study of the risk factors associated with blowfly strike was conducted on 11 farms in the south west of england. for each case, three control lambs were randomly selected from the remainder of the flock. samples of blood, faeces and wool were taken from the cases and controls, and measurements of weight, dag score (faecal soiling), fleece length, crimp frequency and tail length were made. conditional logistic regression was used to examine the univariate and multivariate relations ...19968913010
trouble in paradise. 200111521549
sheep scab outbreaks in great britain between 1973 and 1992: spatial and temporal patterns.in january 1973, the mange mite psoroptes ovis was found in a sheep flock in lancashire, uk after a 20 year period of eradication. over the next 20 years, a total of 1480 flock outbreaks were reported, until june 1992 when the control of sheep scab was deregulated. the spatial and temporal patterns of the number of outbreaks in each month over this period were analysed using time series methods, a geographical information system (gis) and second order approaches to the exploration of space-time ...199910423002
fluke and roundworm infestations could be 'major problems' this winter. 199910028581
stress in farmers: a survey of farmers in england and wales.to investigate potential sources of stress for farmers in england and wales19989924448
caleb hillier parry 1755-1822: a notable provincial physician. 19989771526
orf (contagious pustular dermatitis) in farmworkers: prevalence and risk factors in three areas of england.orf is a zoonotic skin disease which is commonly self-diagnosed by those who tend sheep and goats. this paper reports the prevalence, incidence and risk factors associated with the infection in a cohort of farmworkers from three areas of england, derived from the results of self-reporting and serology. twenty-three per cent of those employed or living on a sheep farm reported ever having had orf, and the antibody serological profiles indicated a prevalence of 4 per cent and an annual incidence o ...199910452390
faecal carriage of verocytotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157 in cattle and sheep at slaughter in great britain.a 12-month abattoir survey was conducted between january 1999 and january 2000, to determine the prevalence of faecal carriage of verocytotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157 (vtec o157) in cattle and sheep slaughtered for human consumption in great britain. samples of rectum containing faeces were collected from 3939 cattle and 4171 sheep at 118 abattoirs, in numbers proportional to the throughput of the premises. the annual prevalence of faecal carriage of vtec o157 was 4.7 per cent (95 per c ...200212036241
the public health laboratory service (phls) and its role in the control of zoonotic disease.the aetiology of zoonotic infections embraces organisms from every branch of the microbial world. in addition, zoonoses must be considered as a truly global problem, both in terms of their distribution and the measures required for their control. within the uk, zoonotic disease is considered to be less frequent than in some less developed parts of the world. however, its contribution to overall morbidity and mortality within the uk population is not well established. in an attempt to define the ...200010913770
activity of antibiotics used in human medicine for campylobacter jejuni isolated from farm animals and their environment in lancashire, uk.a retrospective study of 96 campylobacter jejuni isolated from farm animals and the environment showed that most were less susceptible than the nctc type strain to nalidixic acid (mics 4-32 mg/l), ciprofloxacin (mics 1-2 mg/l) and erythromycin (mics 16-64 mg/l), but had similar susceptibility to tetracycline (mics 4-8 mg/l) and kanamycin (mics 4-8 mg/l). none had the high mics of ciprofloxacin (>32 mg/l) or erythromycin (1024 mg/l) typically associated with clinical resistance in this species. s ...200010933658
fmd: cvo expresses concern about yorkshire outbreaks. 200111400982
association between natural scrapie and prp genotype in a flock of suffolk sheep in scotland.the incidence of natural scrapie in sheep is associated with polymorphisms of the prp gene, particularly those at codons 136, 154 and 171. in many breeds, the prp allele encoding valine at codon 136 confers an extremely high risk of scrapie, but in suffolk sheep this allele is vanishingly rare. in this study of a single closed flock of suffolk sheep in scotland, scrapie occurred primarily in animals which were homozygous for glutamine at codon 171, a genotype which was significantly less frequen ...19979023905
descriptive epidemiology of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in great britain: the first five months.in february 2001, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was confirmed in great britain. a major epidemic developed, which peaked around 50 cases a day in late march, declining to under 10 a day by may. by mid-july, 1849 cases had been detected. the main control measures employed were livestock movement restrictions and the rapid slaughter of infected and exposed livestock. the first detected case was in south-east england; infection was traced to a farm in north-east england to which all other cases were ...200111808655
fmd control strategies. 200111345998
the chemical speciation of 137cs in sheepmeat.minced sheep muscle, homogenised liver and fragmented rib or cortical bone, from sheep grazing near bootle, cumbria, u.k., which had been stored for some months at -20 degrees c, were extracted at 4 degrees c with an isotonic 0.15 m nacl-0.02 m phosphate buffer at ph 7.4. each successive extraction released about 50% of the total 137cs remaining in the tissue. passage of the extracts through a column of the cation-exchanger dowex 50 x 8 indicated that essentially all the extracted 137cs was in c ...19968976046
determination of farm-level risk factors for abnormalities observed during post-mortem meat inspection of lambs: a feasibility study.to investigate the feasibility of using information about the health and management of lambs on farms to predict the risk of gross abnormalities at post-mortem meat inspection, 6732 lambs from 30 different farms in great britain were followed through to slaughter in 1995/6. the farm-level data were collected during farm visits at the beginning of the study. routine meat inspection findings for the lambs were obtained from the 10 participating abattoirs. the most common abnormalities found during ...199910487647
risk factors associated with the prevalence of footrot in sheep from 1999 to 2000.a postal survey of the techniques being used for the treatment and control of footrot in sheep flocks between november 1999 and october 2000 was conducted in england and wales in november 2000. of the 392 questionnaires circulated, 251 (64 per cent) were returned, and 209 of these were usable. negative binomial regression analysis indicated that the isolation of bought-in sheep, and the separation and individual treatment of diseased sheep with parenteral antibiotics, foot trimming and topical f ...200312678258
severe ovine foot disease. 199910619613
veterinary research at the central veterinary laboratory, weybridge, with special reference to scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.a veterinary laboratory service was commissioned by the ministry of agriculture, fisheries and food of the united kingdom in 1894 and the service commenced veterinary research in 1905. the central veterinary laboratory (cvl) was opened in 1917 and has become known world-wide under the name 'weybridge'. in 1922, a network of veterinary investigation centres was established in england and wales and these continue to make an important contribution to surveillance for animal diseases. problems recog ...200011107625
neurological condition in polled dorset lambs. 19979248025
hypocalcaemia in 23 ataxic/recumbent ewes: clinical signs and likelihood ratios.twenty-three ewes in a flock of 2000 were identified as having acute onset ataxia and/or having become recumbent in late pregnancy and early lactation. the presence or absence of 15 clinical signs were recorded. thirteen of the ewes (57 per cent) were hypocalcaemic and 10 (43 per cent) were normocalcaemic. in the hypocalcaemic group, loss of anal reflex, constipation, tachycardia, hyposensitivity, ruminal stasis, ruminal tympany, salivation and tachypnoea were recorded in 50 per cent or more of ...199910378281
fmd results in 70 per cent fall in submissions to vla regional laboratories. 200111394795
report on 31 caseous lymphadenitis infected sheep farms in england and wales. 200111400988
dolly firm in trouble after transgenic milk fails to flow. 200312827157
ectoparasite awareness in sheep. 200312751611
a comparison of antimicrobial susceptibilities in nontyphoidal salmonellas from humans and food animals in england and wales in 2000.a joint study by the public health laboratory service and the veterinary laboratories agency of resistance to antimicrobials in isolates of salmonella enterica serotypes enteritidis, typhimurium, hadar, and virchow from humans and food-producing animals in england and wales in 2000 has demonstrated that resistance was most common in typhimurium, particularly in strains of definitive phage type (dt) 104. however resistance was also common in other phage types, particularly dts 193 and 208 and pha ...200312820804
salmonella ruiru infection in sheep. an outbreak of abortion in south east england. 196414198342
where have all the flowers gone? are our woodland flowers disappearing?the owner of a wood in norfolk once told me that he thought that the lily of the valley has declined over the last 20 years. in wytham woods near oxford the dense bramble patches i studied in the 1970s didn't seem so thick ten years later. were these slips of the memory or did pete seeger have a point with his 1961 song - where have all the flowers gone?200111509765
idiopathic mouth ulcers in sheep. 200111486776
the gubernaculum testis hunteri: testicular descent and maldescent. arris and gale lecture delivered at the royal college of surgeons of england on 27th october 1959. 196414172018
bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease: a risk analysis.there is doubt that variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease (vcjd) resulted from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) transmission from cattle to human. what is uncertain is the total number of vcjd cases (currently about 80). in this review i covered recent data on the vcjd and bse epidemic, the mode of bse spreading to humans and, finally, the data on the prnp analogue--the doppel gene (prnd).200011693716
an epidemiological study of the relations between exposure to organophosphate pesticides and indices of chronic peripheral neuropathy and neuropsychological abnormalities in sheep farmers and dippers.to investigate the hypothesis that chronic low level exposure to organophosphates (ops) in sheep dips is related to clinically detectable measures of polyneuropathy.200111600725
bracken (pteris aquilina) poisoning of sheep in the north york moors. 196514331487
ecology and biological plasticity of sheep nematodes. 3. studies on ostertagia circumcincta (stadelmann 1894). 196514319237
an outbreak of visceral and cerebral listeriosis in a flock of sheep in south east england. 196514330172
conditions in lairages at abattoirs for ruminants in southwest england and in vitro survival of escherichia coli o157, salmonella kedougou, and campylobacter jejuni on lairage-related substrates.information on lairages (regarding design, construction materials, and use of bedding and cleaning regimes) was collected for 21 commercial cattle and/or sheep abattoirs in southwest england. overall, roughened or grooved concrete was the most common lairage flooring material. straw bedding was used in the majority of lairages and was changed between animal batches, daily, weekly, and monthly in roughly 5, 60, 15, and 10%, respectively, of the surveyed lairages. lairages were commonly washed wit ...200314503707
surveys for salmonella in pigs, cattle and sheep at slaughter in great britain. 200011132678
isolation of faecal chlamydia from sheep in britain and their characterization by cultural properties.faeces samples were taken per rectum from sheep on 26 farms in england and wales and examined for the presence of chlamydia by culture in mccoy cell monolayers. thirteen of the farms were known to have had abortion outbreaks associated with chlamydia psittaci (enzootic abortion) and 13 were free of this infection. the chlamydia isolated were characterized by cultural techniques. chlamydia were isolated from the faeces of lambs on all 26 farms and the prevalence of infection varied form 5-50% on ...19979232119
fmd control strategies. 200314567668
ryegrass staggers alert. 200314620562
arsenic metabolism in seaweed-eating sheep from northern scotland.cation exchange and anion exchange liquid chromatography were coupled to an icp-ms and optimised for the separation of 13 different arsenic species in body fluids (arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (dmaa), monomethylarsonic acid (mmaa), trimethylarsine oxide (tmao), tetramethylarsonium ion (tma), arsenobetaine (asb), arsenocholine (asc), dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (dmae) and four common dimethylarsinoylribosides (arsenosugars). the arsenic species were determined in seaweed extracts and in ...200011220824
genetic typing of bovine pestiviruses from england and wales.using rna purified directly from stored clinical specimens, a collection of 62 pestiviruses were typed by rt-pcr and sequencing within the 5'-untranslated region of the genome. all the specimens had been obtained in 1966/1967 from diary cattle in england and wales. eight further pestiviruses, grown in cell culture, were characterised in the same way. seven of these viruses were representatives of a panel of british isolates, obtained from cattle ten years before. the eighth was the virus used in ...199910535769
detection of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in pasteurella-vaccinated sheep flocks with respiratory disease in england. 200314682543
testing initiative for sheep ectoparasites. 200314682548
purulent rhinitis and otitis caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa in sheep showered with contaminated 'shower wash'.three crossbred lowland ewes developed a severe purulent rhinitis and another three ewes developed a severe purulent otitis externa/media after being showered with a wash that had been used 24 to 48 hours before on a separate group of cheviot ewes with lesions of dermatitis. pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in pure growth from the aural and nasal abscesses and also from the dermatitis lesions. extended antibiotic susceptibility testing and the random amplification of polymorphic dna indicated ...200314690073
the foot and mouth disease (fmd) epidemic in the united kingdom 2001.the foot and mouth disease epidemic commenced in february 2001 when diseased pigs were identified in an abattoir. the infection had become widespread in sheep in england and wales before this discovery. it was decided to eradicate the disease by slaughter rather than use vaccine. the virus was a pan-asia o strain that caused few lesions in sheep and this made the identification of infected flocks very difficult leading to a long drawn-out epidemic. over four million animals were slaughtered in 2 ...200212365809
chorioptic mange of sheep. 200212403334
e. coli o157. 200111740070
national survey for salmonella in pigs, cattle and sheep at slaughter in great britain (1999-2000).the objective of these surveys was to estimate the prevalence of faecal carriage of salmonella in healthy pigs, cattle and sheep at slaughter, and of pig carcase contamination with salmonella. these data can be used as a baseline against which future change in salmonella prevalence in these species at slaughter can be monitored.200415012813
devon fmd inquiry calls for strengthening of the svs. 200111720202
small uk village becomes focus of vcjd investigation. 200011071194
neurological complications in sheep following administration of parenteral copper. 200415130062
seasonal and spatial changes in blowfly production from small and large carcasses at durham in lowland northeast england.colonization by blowflies (diptera: calliphoridae) of mouse carcasses exposed in open agricultural land near durham (54 45'n) changed from early spring monopolization by calliphora vicina r.-d. to a summer pattern of multiple species exploitation by this species together with lucilia caesar l., l. illustris mg., l. silvarum mg., l. sericata mg. and l. richardsi collin. in a garden at the edge of durham, mouse carcasses were dominated by c. vicina from spring to autumn. difference in mouse coloni ...199910514049
very limited transmission of fmd following introduction into a sheep flock. 200212019535
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