an outbreak of infection due to staphylococcus aureus phage type 80/81 in a veterinary school. 19664223580
the reproductive efficiency of british breeds of sheep in an equatorial environment. 19705529154
darwin and domestication. 19684882915
border disease of sheep. 19705529156
the successful culture of sheep blood lymphocytes despatched over long distances. 19744842160
rheumatoid serum factor in populations in the u.k. i. lung disease and rheumatoid serum factor. 19715104047
epidemiological studies on gastro-intestinal nematode parasites of sheep. infection patterns on clean and summer-contaminated pasture. 19725017825
salmonellas of subgenus 3 (arizona) isolated from abattoirs in england and wales. 19665223430
forecasting the spring hatch of nematodirus battus by the use of soil temperature data. 19725064295
studies on the 1967-8 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic. the relation of weather to the spread of analysis of the 1967-8 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic with reference to the initial spread, the origin of outbreaks more than 60 km. from the main epidemic area, the series of outbreaks near worcester, a specific case history and the daily rate of spread of the epidemic, strongly suggests that the weather played a major part in the spread of disease. the two main factors involved in this type of spread are wind and precipitation. it is noted that after the epidemic had been checked, followin ...19705270205
some observations on the epidemiology of fascioliasis in relation to the timing of molluscicide applications in the control of the disease. 19715102169
epidemiological studies on salmonella senftenberg. ii. infections in farm animals. 19695278164
the use of heavy cobalt oxide pellets in the prevention of unthriftiness in lambs in yorkshire. 19666008168
animal bones. 19705464495
the practicability and economics of veterinary preventive medicine. a report of a three-year scheme by the mid-west division of the b. v. a. 19695812843
changes in the level of money expenditure and real investment by farmers in veterinary services and medicines between 1954-55 and 1969-70. 19715167681
cerebral oedema in lambs associated with hypocuprosis, and its relationship to swayback. i. field, clinical, gross anatomical and biochemical observations. 19666007464
thiamine deficiency in ruminants? 19695816210
sheep histocompatibility antigens: a population level comparison between lymphocyte antigens previously defined in france, england and scotland, and sheep red cell groups.a comparison test was performed to look for correlations between the three nomenclature systems for sheep histocompatibility antigens which have been previously described in france, england and scotland. 187 french sheep from a wide variety of breeds were typed for lymphocyte antigens with antisera which detect the ola, p and ed series of antigens; they were also tested against 387 uncharacterized french antisera. six clusters of sera were found which showed correspondence between antigens of at ...19854003855
bright blindness--a condition prevalent in yorkshire hill sheep. 19655890140
the extent of differences between six british breeds of sheep in their metabolism feed intake and utilization, and resistance to climatic stress. 19665938707
dental conservation in sheep: preliminary report of a clinical trial. 19665948169
the failure of hormone therapy to induce an early lamb crop. 19665948170
some observations on the toxicity of hexachlorophane for sheep. 19665948197
infection of sheep in yorkshire with salmonella abortus ovis. 19695815883
future of hill sheep. 19695816175
treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay in the routine serodiagnosis of treponemal disease. 19734583971
bromophos (s 1942) for the control of sheep blowfly (lucilia sericata) in england. 19655890087
the incidence of disease resulting from infection with h. contortus in sheep sent to the veterinary investigation centres in england and wales from 1965 to 1967. 19685750709
the epidemiology of echinococcus granulosus in great britain. v. the status of subspecies of echinococcus granulosus in great britain.twenty-five years ago williams and sweatman suggested that in great britain there are two subspecies of echinococcus granulosus--e. granulosus granulosus and e. granulosus equinus. echinococcus granulosus granulosus does not mature either in foxes or in horses: e. granulosus equinus will mature in either. the prepatent period of e. granulosus granulosus in the definitive host is about 42 days while that of e. granulosus equinus is about 70 days. each subspecies has a characteristic morphology. m ...19892596902
control of an outbreak of gamma-bhc-resistant sheep body lice in the north of england with the phosphoric ester carbophenothion. 19666008204
bright blindness in sheep--the relationship to environment. 19705530634
the vulval flap formula of haemonchus contortus from sheep in south-east england. 19666008304
radioiodine(131i) in animal thyroids during nuclear tests in both hemispheres. 19751201953
idiopathic meningoencephalitis of sheep in england. 19846516199
a numerical taxonomic study of species of vibrio isolated from the aquatic environment and birds in kent, england.a numerical taxonomic study has been carried out to confirm the identity of strains of the family vibrionaceae isolated during an ecological study. a total of 237 strains were studied including 148 from the aquatic environment, 6 from estuarine birds, 1 from sheep faeces, and 61 control cultures. duplicates of 21 of the strains were randomly selected and included to estimate test and operator error. taxonomic resemblance was estimated on the basis of 148 characters using euclidean distance. the ...19836654766
the production of lambs in autumn from a commercial flock in england. 19695812058
border disease in sheep--its effect on fertility, viability and wool. 19676067896
tick borne fever in in-bye sheep. 19836688690
in-vitro culture of human hydatid material. 19806101653
proceedings of the first international conference for the standardisation of banded karyotypes of domestic animals. university of reading reading, england. 2nd-6th august 1976. 19806103884
sheep lymphocyte antigens: a preliminary study.sera from 287 sheep were screened for cytotoxic antibodies against sheep lymphocytes. forty four antisera were selected which provisionally define 13 lymphocyte antigens. the frequency of these antigens was studied in 305 sheep from 8 flocks of different breeds. family studies confirm that inheritance of sheep lymphocyte antigens is controlled by the autosomal codominant genes of at least 2 linked loci.19826185017
25-hydroxyvitamin d concentrations in equine serum. 19846335319
outbreak of listeria meningoencephalitis in young outbreak of listeriosis occurred in five-week-old lambs in a flock of 200 dorset ewes and 240 lambs in-wintered. nine lambs were lost within a period of 10 days. no cases of stillbirth or abortion or cerebral listeriosis occurred in the ewes. silage had been fed on this farm to both cattle and sheep for 10 years without any previous problems. a description of the outbreak and the findings are reported.19836415890
prevalence of anthelmintic resistant nematodes in sheep in south-east england.the prevalence of anthelmintic resistant nematodes among 52 commercial flocks in south-east england was investigated by comparing the faecal egg counts of groups of lambs before, and seven days after, treatment with thiabendazole and levamisole. evidence of thiabendazole resistance was found on seven farms. in each case haemonchus contortus was the only species of nematode involved. in vitro egg hatch assays carried out for isolates from these farms gave ed50 estimates of 0.065 to 0.332 microgra ...19846464318
pasteurella septica infection in respiratory disease. 19676067792
isolation of benzimidazole resistant strains of ostertagia circumcincta from british sheep.two strains of ostertagia circumcincta were isolated from sheep in great britain; one (cvl strain) from a breeding flock maintained at the central veterinary laboratory, the other (h2 strain) from a commercial flock in southern england. their resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics was assessed by means of in vitro egg hatch assays and slaughter trials. in vitro egg hatch assays gave calculated ed50 estimates of 0.799 micrograms thiabendazole/ml for the cvl strain and 0.794 micrograms thiabend ...19836687770
iodine-129 in ovine thyroids from england. 19846500955
the incidence of vibrio cholerae in water, animals and birds in kent, england. 19827107541
suspected wild garlic poisoning in sheep. 19846495604
a comparison of biotypes and serotypes of campylobacter sp. isolated from patients with enteritis and from animal and environmental sources.the origin of sporadic campylobacter infections has been investigated by means of a collaborative study. from a total of 1152 cases reported in north west england in 1982, campylobacter strains isolated during one month in each quarter of the year were biotyped and serotyped. for comparison, 875 strains of campylobacter isolated from environmental and animal sources were similarly examined. most strains from human beings were campylobacter jejuni; about half of them were of three serotypes. thos ...19846501895
transport and lairage times of lambs slaughtered commercially in the south of england.the times spent in transport and lairage by 124,036 lambs slaughtered in two plants in the south of england were recorded. about half of them travelled for up to 120 km, taking up to four hours, and three-quarters travelled not more than 300 km, the journeys taking up to about six hours. bimodal frequency distributions of lairage time were apparent; overall one third of the lambs spent up to four hours in lairage but more than 40 per cent were kept for longer than 14 hours, while they were held ...19902385918
the species of coccidia occurring in cattle and sheep in the south-west of england. 19666007931
multiple sclerosis in research workers studying swayback in lambs: an updated report.four out of seven research workers into swayback disease, a neurological disease of lambs, developed symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis, and were reported in 1947. a further worker later joined the group. all of the original seven have died and two at necropsy had multiple areas of demyelination in the brain and spinal cord. the chance of four or more out of a random group of eight men developing multiple sclerosis is about one in a thousand million. multiple sclerosis has not occurred in ...19854045479
a survey of benzimidazole resistant nematodes in sheep in three countries of southern england.faecal samples were collected from 209 randomly selected sheep farms in southern england, and the nematode eggs extracted were tested by an egg hatch assay and by a larval development test for their resistance to benzimidazoles. benzimidazole resistance was found on 35 per cent of farms tested in east sussex, 44 per cent in oxfordshire and 61 per cent in west sussex.19921502771
an empirical approach to forecasting the incidence of nematodiriasis over england and wales. 19666008059
the commonest rotaviruses from neonatal lamb diarrhoea in england and wales have atypical electropherotypes. 19846093328
serovar identification of leptospires of the australis serogroup isolated from free-living and domestic species in the united kingdom.eighteen isolates from the australis serogroup from free-living and domestic animals were identified using the cross agglutination absorption test. serovar muenchen was found only in england and wales in wood mice, short tailed and bank voles, a grey squirrel and a pig. serovar bratislava was found in hedgehogs in england, wales and northern ireland and also in a brown rat from northern ireland. serovar bratislava was isolated from sheep in both england and northern ireland and from horses in no ...19836622847
salmonella gona infection in sheep.a field outbreak of salmonellosis due to salmonella agona in sheep and some subsequent experimental work is described. while the field outbreak in pregnant ewes and neonatal lambs caused severe losses the experimental disease in non-pregnant sheep was mild and transient. s agona was not isolated from the carcases of the experimental sheep killed after 28 days post infection but it persisted for 69 days in the faeces of one ewe which was kept alive for three months. media comparisons indicated th ...1978654045
campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni: the need for surveillance. 19806768813
dental disease in hill sheep: an abattoir survey.heads from 478 aged sheep of a predominantly hill breed population were examined in detail for evidence of dental disease, using both soft and hard tissue measurements around incisor and cheek teeth. almost 60 per cent of this population (all over 2 1/2 years of age and with a mean age between 7 and 8 years) had either loose or missing teeth. malalignment of cheek teeth and/or incisors was also common. pocketing was seen in 87 per cent of the population, and was significantly correlated with too ...19846736313
soil ingestion--a major pathway of heavy metals into livestock grazing contaminated estimated 4000 km2 of agricultural land in england and wales has been contaminated in varying degrees by past mining and smelting activities. contaminants include one or more of the metals cu, pb, zn, cd and as. studies conducted in southwest and central england conclude that only a small proportion of these metals are taken up into the leaf material of pasture plants and that plant uptake would not seem to constitute a major pathway to grazing animals. using the titanium content of faeces as ...19836879152
[is today's condom better than its reputation?].in a statistical sample of 500 unwanted pregnancies surprisingly the share of women whose partners used a condom was not higher than the share of iup-users (considering the relative frequency of use of both methods). this result was the motivation to investigate once more the use of the condom. after a short description of the history, the production, and the testing methods a discussion follows of the frequency of its use. in many countries the frequency of using the condom lies between that of ...19806988315
ovine coccidiosis in england and wales 1978-1979. 19807001721
vaccination with temperature-sensitive mutant of chlamydia psittaci against enzootic abortion of ewes. 19846710835
skin sepsis in meat handlers: observations on the causes of injury with special reference to bone.outbreaks of wound infection with streptococcus pyogenes and staphylococcus aureus occurred in a abattoir and a pork-processing factory in autumn 1980. investigations showed that staff handling the meat before de-boning were particularly affected and that bone was the cause of 48% of the wounds which became clinicially infected. of the total isolates of strep. pyogenes and staph. aureus from wounds of known cause 75% were from lesions caused by bone. in one outbreak streptococcal infection was ...19817031129
the northumberland epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease, 1966.the spread of foot-and-mouth disease during an epidemic in northumberland in july, august and september 1966 was analysed. although strong emitters, for example pigs, were not involved, in 18 of the 32 outbreaks spread could be attributed to the airborne route and in another 4, spread by this route was the most likely. airborne spread was in general between 1 and 8 km but on two occasions as much as 20 km. other means of spread included movement by animals, people and vehicles and carriage of vi ...19807052228
radioactivity in environmental samples taken in the sellafield and ravenglass areas of west cumbria, 1977-1982.terrestrial foodstuffs and other materials of agricultural importance have been analyzed for fission products and actinides discharged in waste from the sellafield processing works in west cumbria . results obtained between 1977 and 1982 are summarized and it is concluded that the internal radiation exposure of the general public due to consumption of locally produced food in no instance amounts to more than a small fraction of recommended limits. deposition of seaborne sediment is shown to be t ...19846729443
effect of the drought of 1976 on the health of cattle, sheep and other farm livestock in england and wales. 19827147665
campylobacter jejuni/coli in abattoirs and butchers shops. 19827185998
further cases of necrotic enteritis in calves. 19947801436
some haematological data for fallow deer (dama dama) in england.the concentrations of haemoglobin, erythrocytes and leucocytes and the packed cell volume, plasma viscosity and some red cell indices were measured in the blood of 42 fallow deer and analysed with respect to age, season and sex. the mean haemoglobin concentration was greater in females than in males. in all the deer the number of leucocytes was considerably smaller than in the usual domestic mammals, namely, cats, cattle, dogs, goats, horses, pigs and sheep. plasma viscosity was statistically gr ...19827146629
investigations of a flock heavily infected with maedi-visna virus.following the discovery that a flock of sheep in england was infected with the virus of maedi-virus, several seropositive sheep were brought to the central veterinary laboratory and kept isolated and under observation for up to three years before being further examined at necropsy. meanwhile, sheep in the infected flock which died or were culled were examined after death for evidence of the actual disease. at necropsy pulmonary disease was a common (although not always the sole) finding, the les ...19836845602
the incidence of salmonella infection in sheep in england and wales, 1975 to 1981. 19836626928
the herring gull larus argentatus as a likely transmitting agent of salmonella montevideo to sheep and cattle.this paper presents evidence for the involvement of herring gulls (larus argentatus) as vectors in the recent outbreaks of salmonella montevideo in sheep and cattle in scotland and suggests that the transfer can take place over considerable distances. the breeding area in scotland of herring gulls which overwinter in n.e. england is remarkably similar to the geographical distribution of the outbreaks. this pattern, together with the feeding behaviour of herring gulls on farmland, the presence of ...19836663059
the risk of acquiring q fever on farms: a seroepidemiological determine the occupational risk of q fever.19957489053
elemental status of grazing animals located adjacent to the london orbital (m25) motorway.the elemental (br, cd, cr, cu, mn, ni, pb, se, v, and zn) content of blood and wool or hair from animals (sheep, horses and alpacas) exposed to motor vehicle emissions alongside the london orbital (m25) motorway is reported. elemental values were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (icp-ms) quality control assessment using flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy (for pb, correlation coefficients of whole blood r = +0.87, and hair r = +0.82), and replicate (n = 10) analysi ...19947517068
sheep, shows and statistics. 19807237094
warble fly and sheep scab. 19957625065
erysipeloid infection in a sheep farmer with coexisting orf.erysipeloid is a rarely reported zoonotic infection caused by erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. we report a case of coexisting erysipeloid and orf infections in a sheep farmer, an association not previously recorded to our knowledge.19957636284
earliest attempt at free skin grafting. 19957639497
strategy for marketing preventive medicine. 19846541827
prevalence and possible causes of subcapsular liver rupture in dead, newborn lambs. 19947825274
apparent resistance of p ovis to flumethrin. 19958525587
detection of anthelmintic resistant nematodes in sheep in southern england by a faecal egg count reduction test.on five farms identified by in vitro tests to have benzimidazole resistance, and on one farm with apparent anthelmintic failure, faecal egg count reduction tests were performed using benzimidazoles, levamisole and ivermectin. with benzimidazoles efficacy was less than 70 per cent on all farms, confirming the validity of the in vitro tests to detect benzimidazole resistance. on two farms levamisole had an efficacy of less than 90 per cent but laboratory tests failed to demonstrate levamisole resi ...19947831741
evidence for the transmission of the lyme disease spirochaete to sheep in cumbria. 19947831744
a descriptive epidemiological study of coccidiosis in early lambing housed flocks.infection with eimeria sp. was studied in 135 lambs born to 79 ewes in four early lambing housed flocks. in three of these flocks two different coccidiostats (monensin and decoquinate) were administered in the feed. cohort lambs were examined clinically and a rectal faeces sample taken once a week. samples with more than 300 oocyts per gram were speciated by morphology. nine species were identified and eimeria crandallis was the most prevalent. one of the flocks developed clinical coccidiosis be ...19947839559
q fever (coxiella burnetii) reservoir in wild brown rat (rattus norvegicus) populations in the uk.seroprevalence of coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of q fever in humans, was examined in wild brown rat populations from 4 oxfordshire farmsteads (n = 127), 9 somerset homesteads (n = 98), and 1 captive enclosure (n = 88) in the uk. seroprevalence ranged between 7 and 53%, the lowest being within the captive population and the highest on dairy farmsteads with sheep present. this is the first reported investigation of c. burnetii in wild rats outside india. we suggest that the high seroprevale ...19957845709
ectoparasite control on sheep farms in england and wales: the method, type and timing of insecticidal treatment.the chemical control of sheep ectoparasites raises important environmental, health and welfare issues. there is increasing concern about the possible harmful effects of pesticides on human health and the role of dipping in the contamination of natural watercourses. a longitudinal survey was conducted in 1991, the last year of compulsory dipping for the control of sheep scab, to obtain information about the chemical control of ectoparasites on 485 farms in england and wales. organophosphate insec ...19947975072
benzimidazole-resistant trichostrongylus colubriformis from goats in central england. 19948036773
a mixed outbreak of cryptosporidium and campylobacter infection associated with a private water an outbreak of gastroenteritis affecting 43 people, cryptosporidium and campylobacter were isolated from stool specimens and in two cases dual infection was found. all the cases had drunk unboiled water from a private untreated water supply. investigations revealed the carcasses of three lambs in a collection chamber connected with the water supply, and these, or run-off of slurry from surrounding fields, were the presumed source of contamination. issues relating to the maintenance and monito ...19968666074
increased incidence in clostridial disease. 19957571258
blowfly strike in england and wales: the relationship between prevalence and farm and management order to develop and evaluate control strategies for blowfly strike, a greater understanding of the epidemiology is essential. a postal survey of sheep farmers yielded information about ten farm and management factors and their relationship to blowfly strike prevalence. the risk of a farm reporting at least one case of blowfly strike increased as flock size and stocking density increased (adjusted odds ratio of 1.13 for an increase in flock size of 100 sheep and 1.38 for an increase in stocki ...19948161845
long distance transport of export lambs.two commercial lorry consignments of 500 sheep were followed from the united kingdom to their destinations in southern france, one journey of 800 miles taking 18 hours and the other of 950 miles taking 24 hours. measurements were made of liveweight and skinfold thickness, and blood samples were taken from 100 sheep in each consignment, two days before departure and again immediately after the journeys. the results from each consignment were similar. high levels of plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate, fr ...19948171768
the seasonal pattern of sheep blowfly strike in england and wales.information on 4049 cases of sheep blowfly strike on 495 farms in england and wales was gathered in a longitudinal survey conducted in 1991. the breech was the most commonly infested area, accounting for 70.9% of all strikes recorded. body strikes accounted for 19.7% and foot strikes 11.4% of all strikes. early in the season the incidences of both breech and body strikes were higher in ewes than in lambs, but from june to october lamb strikes predominated. the incidence of foot strike was greate ...19957696683
observations on the pattern of nematode larval availability on pastures grazed by sheep in surrey. 19883363815
an urban sheep tick. 19817265054
escherichia coli isolated from farm animals in england and wales between 1986 and 1991.escherichia coli isolated from farm animals in england and wales between 1986 and 1991 were examined for their serogroup, fimbrial adhesin and toxin production, and resistance to antimicrobial drugs. among the 3595 porcine isolates the more common serogroups were o149, o8, o138, o147 and o157. the f4(k88) adhesin was detected in 21 per cent of the cultures, whereas the other adhesins were never present in more than 3 per cent during any year, although there was an upward trend in the prevalence ...19938291172
some population parameters of leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo infection in sheep. 19846730262
serological survey of leptospiral antibodies in sheep from england and wales.a total of 3722 sera was obtained from 188 flocks widely distributed throughout england and wales; three sera were randomly selected from each flock and tested in the microscopic agglutination test for leptospiral antibodies. infection with leptospires of the hebdomadis serogroup was found to the widespread and it is probable that the infecting serovar is hardjo. the prevalence of hardjo titres in the random survey was 6.4 per cent and within-herd prevalences ranged up to 94.4 per cent. titres t ...19827186697
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