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development and validation of a simulation model for blowfly strike of sheep.a comprehensive simulation model for sheep blowfly strike due to lucilia sericata (meigen) (diptera: calliphoridae), which builds on previously published versions but also incorporates important new empirical data, is used to explain patterns of lamb and ewe strike recorded on 370 farms in south-west, south-east and central england and wales. the model is able to explain a significant percentage of the variance in lamb strike incidence in all four regions, and ewe strike in three of the four reg ...200212510885
risk factors associated with the prevalence of footrot in sheep from 1999 to 2000.a postal survey of the techniques being used for the treatment and control of footrot in sheep flocks between november 1999 and october 2000 was conducted in england and wales in november 2000. of the 392 questionnaires circulated, 251 (64 per cent) were returned, and 209 of these were usable. negative binomial regression analysis indicated that the isolation of bought-in sheep, and the separation and individual treatment of diseased sheep with parenteral antibiotics, foot trimming and topical f ...200312678258
exploratory findings on the prevalence of contagious ovine digital dermatitis in sheep in england and wales during 1999 to 2000. 200312733560
a comparison of antimicrobial susceptibilities in nontyphoidal salmonellas from humans and food animals in england and wales in 2000.a joint study by the public health laboratory service and the veterinary laboratories agency of resistance to antimicrobials in isolates of salmonella enterica serotypes enteritidis, typhimurium, hadar, and virchow from humans and food-producing animals in england and wales in 2000 has demonstrated that resistance was most common in typhimurium, particularly in strains of definitive phage type (dt) 104. however resistance was also common in other phage types, particularly dts 193 and 208 and pha ...200312820804
the epidemiology of echinococcus infection in great britain. i. abnormal behaviour of sheep in the mining valleys of south wales and its relation to hydatid disease in man. 196314046080
a review of studies on the transmission of anaplasma phagocytophilum from sheep: implications for the force of infection in endemic cycles.we review the findings of a longitudinal study of transmission of the intracellular tick-borne bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum from sheep to ixodes ricinus ticks under natural conditions of tick attachment in the uk. in this study, sheep-to-tick transmission efficiency varied in a quadratic relationship with the number of adult ticks that were feeding on the sheep. we raise the hypothesis that this relationship may be due to conflicting effects of the density of ticks on bacterial survival a ...200214570131
testing initiative for sheep ectoparasites. 200314682548
antibiotic resistance genes, integrons and multiple antibiotic resistance in thirty-five serotypes of salmonella enterica isolated from humans and animals in the uk.to examine 397 strains of salmonella enterica of human and animal origin comprising 35 serotypes for the presence of aadb, aphai-iab, aada1, aada2, bla(carb(2)) or pse1, bla(tem), cat1, cat2, dhfr1, flor, stra, sul1, sul2, teta(a), teta(b) and teta(g) genes, the presence of class 1 integrons and the relationship of resistance genes to integrons and antibiotic resistance.200414729766
national survey for salmonella in pigs, cattle and sheep at slaughter in great britain (1999-2000).the objective of these surveys was to estimate the prevalence of faecal carriage of salmonella in healthy pigs, cattle and sheep at slaughter, and of pig carcase contamination with salmonella. these data can be used as a baseline against which future change in salmonella prevalence in these species at slaughter can be monitored.200415012813
ovine gastrointestinal listeriosis. 200415119735
risk factors associated with the prevalence of interdigital dermatitis in sheep from 1999 to 2000.as part of an investigation into improving the treatment and control of lameness in sheep flocks in england and wales, a postal survey was conducted in november 2000. farmers were asked to estimate the prevalence of footrot and interdigital dermatitis in their flocks. in the ewes the prevalence of interdigital dermatitis remained relatively stable throughout the year, but there was a large increase in lambs during late spring and early summer. logistic regression models were used to assess stati ...200415143999
frequent diagnoses of nephrosis in lambs in may. 200415264482
characterisation of attaching-effacing escherichia coli isolated from animals at slaughter in england and wales.escherichia coli isolates were recovered from faecal samples taken from cattle, sheep and pigs at slaughter in england and wales. isolates (n = 1227) selected at random from this collection were each hybridised in colony dot-blot experiments with an eae gene probe that presumptively identified attaching-effacing e. coli (aeec). of the 99 (8.1%) eae positive isolates 72 were of ovine origin, 24 were of bovine origin and three of porcine origin. none were typed as o157:h7 whereas 78 were assigned ...200415288926
risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, african swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the animal by-products regulations. this paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. th ...200415311800
tyre wire disease causes further losses in cornish cattle in june. 200415384502
genetic diversity among pasteurella multocida strains of avian, bovine, ovine and porcine origin from england and wales by comparative sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene.genetic diversity among 86 pasteurella multocida isolates was investigated by comparative sequence analysis of a 1468 bp fragment of the 16s rrna gene. the strains included 79 field isolates recovered from birds (poultry) (22), cattle (21), pigs (26) and sheep (10) within england and wales, four asian isolates associated with bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia, and the type strains of the three subspecies of p. multocida. dulcitol and sorbitol fermentation patterns were also determined to establish ...200415583172
bovine digital dermatitis and severe virulent ovine foot rot: a common spirochaetal pathogenesis.a potential pathological role for spirochaetes in bovine digital dermatitis (bovine dd) and severe virulent ovine foot rot (svofr) has been considered and a treponeme isolate obtained from each disease in the uk. in this work, we have investigated the hypothesis that the two diseases may have a shared (common) spirochaetal aetiology. experiments were designed to identify serological similarities and differences between the two spirochaetes; an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was develo ...200515727915
dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcdd/fs and pcbs) in food from farms close to foot and mouth disease animal pyres.to control the outbreak of foot and mouth disease, which occurred in the uk in early 2001, a large number of farm animals were slaughtered. where it was not possible to render or landfill the carcasses, they were destroyed by burning on open pyres, with wood, coal and other materials. uncontrolled combustion such as this is known to produce small quantities of dioxins and an investigation was made into whether, as a result of the burning, there was an elevation in the concentrations of these com ...200515798806
reemergence of canine echinococcus granulosus infection, wales.as a consequence of large-scale outdoor slaughter of sheep during the 2001 foot and mouth disease (fmd) outbreak in the united kingdom and the possibility of increased risk for transmission of echinococcus granulosus between sheep and dogs, a large survey of canine echinococcosis was undertaken in mid-wales in 2002. an echinococcus coproantigen-positive rate of 8.1% (94/1,164) was recorded on 22% of farms surveyed, which compares to a rate of 3.4% obtained in the same region in 1993. positivity ...200515829195
the detection and characterisation of dichelobacter nodosus from cases of ovine footrot in england and wales.footrot, caused by the strictly anaerobic bacterium dichelobacter nodosus, is the most common cause of lameness in sheep in great britain but problems exist in association with its diagnosis and control. the fastidious nature of d. nodosus means that complex media and several weeks are required for characterisation. an alternative method to simplify and enhance the detection of d. nodosus in clinical samples is therefore highly desirable. in terms of control, anecdotal evidence from the farming ...200515917134
establishment of a maedi-visna-free flock after the purchase of infected sheep.maedi-visna (mv) infection was detected in a cohort of 68 purchased ewes, one of several groups of sheep introduced to a farm after the previous stock had been culled with suspected foot-and-mouth disease in 2001. except for short periods totalling six to seven weeks when the sheep co-grazed with 13 ewe lambs and ram lambs, the infected cohort was kept separate from other sheep on the farm over a total of 21 months. during this period two crops of lambs were reared from the infected ewes. all th ...200516157569
surveillance of suspect animal toxicoses with potential food safety implications in england and wales between 1990 and 2002.the potential chemical contamination incidents investigated by the veterinary laboratories agency (vla) between 1990 and 2002 are reviewed. incidents were identified in the course of the vla's surveillance of food animal disease and further investigations were carried out on behalf of the food standards agency in order to identify and control the contamination of food animals and animal products with chemical hazards. in total 876 incidents were investigated, of which 588 involved the poisoning ...200516227381
re-emerging risk of hydatid disease in wales. 200516339985
seroprevalence of toxocara canis in sheep in wales.antibody levels to toxocara canis l2 excretory/secretory antigens were examined by elisa in 400 serum samples from sheep in powys and gwent, wales. a positive od value was set at the mean +/-3s.d. of 45 control samples. seroprevalence increased with age. seven percent and 13% of 6-month-old sheep showed positive od values as did 16% of 10-month-old, 27% and 31% of 15-month-old and 47% of cull ewes. analysis of variance showed a significant increase in elisa od values among the seropositive sheep ...200616500027
characteristics, prevalence and aetiology of lesions of the oral mucosa in adult sheep.a total of 214 sheep with lesions of the oral mucosa were recorded at the veterinary laboratories agency regional laboratories between march 15, 2002 and february 28, 2003. using denominator data from the scrapie abattoir survey a prevalence of 0.95 per cent (95 per cent ci 0.82 to 1.10 per cent) was recorded, and using the fallen stock survey a prevalence of 1.15 per cent (95 per cent ci 0.64 to 1.91 per cent) was recorded. the lesions varied widely and included dental pad lesions in 20 per cen ...200616714432
prevalence and regional distribution of scab, lice and blowfly strike in great britain.the prevalence of psoroptic mange (sheep scab), louse infestation and blowfly strike in sheep in great britain between march 2003 and february 2004 was investigated by means of a retrospective postal survey, stratified by region. of the 3530 questionnaires sent out, 1067 were returned completed, a response rate of 30.2 per cent. overall, 9 per cent of the farmers reported at least one outbreak of scab, 10.7 per cent reported an outbreak of lice and 75 per cent reported at least one case of blowf ...200616751308
mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in lake catchments, in river water abstracted for domestic use, and in effluent from domestic sewage treatment works: diverse opportunities for environmental cycling and human exposure.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from infected animals enters surface waters and rivers in runoff from contaminated pastures. we studied the river tywi in south wales, united kingdom, whose catchment comprises 1,100 km2 containing more than a million dairy and beef cattle and more than 1.3 million sheep. the river tywi is abstracted for the domestic water supply. between august 2002 and april 2003, 48 of 70 (68.8%) twice-weekly river water samples tested positive by is900 pcr. in rive ...200616751517
updates on morphobiology, epidemiology and molecular characterization of coenurosis in sheep.taenia multiceps (leske, 1780) is a taeniid cestode that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. the metacestode, previously known as coenurus cerebralis, is usually found in the nervous system including brain and spinal cord in sheep and other ruminants. the presence of cysts typically leads to neurological symptoms that in the majority of cases result in the death of the animal from starvation after some weeks. coenurosis could cause high losses in sheep farms ...200616881398
descriptive spatial analysis of scrapie-affected flocks in great britain between january 1993 and december 2002.the spatial distribution of sheep flocks in great britain with confirmed clinical scrapie between january 1993 and december 2002 inclusive was investigated by using kernel density estimation and a cluster scan test statistic. six statistically significant clusters were identified: three were lower risk, and were centred on the north-western coast of scotland, the north-western coast of wales and the south yorkshire/pennine region; three were of higher risk, and were centred in the central south, ...200616891423
comparisons of original laboratory results and retrospective analysis by real-time reverse transcriptase-pcr of virological samples collected from confirmed cases of foot-and-mouth disease in the uk in 2001.there were 2030 designated cases of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) during the course of the epidemic in the uk in 2001 (including four from northern ireland). samples from 1720 of the infected premises (ips) were received in the laboratory and examined for either the presence of fmd virus (virological samples from 1421 ips) or both fmd virus and antibody (virological and serological samples from 255 ips) or antibody alone (from 44 ips). the time taken to issue final diagnostic results ranged from ...200616980522
anthelmintic resistance in sheep flocks in wales. 200617172488
sheep ectoparasites in wales. 200717545650
bacterial isolates from the semen of rams with suspected infertility. 200818480022
control and management of sheep mange and pediculosis in great britain.the patterns of insecticide use for the prevention and control of sheep lice and psoroptes mites, in england, wales and scotland, in 2003-2004, were examined using data from a retrospective questionnaire. overall, 375 of the 966 (39%) farmers who responded said that they treated at least once to prevent louse infestation. for scab, 426 of the 966 (44%) farmers who responded said that they had treated prophylactically to prevent the disease. there were no significant differences between regions i ...200818495347
an exploration of the drivers to bio-security collective action among a sample of uk cattle and sheep farmers.at present, collective action regarding bio-security among uk cattle and sheep farmers is rare. despite the occurrence of catastrophic livestock diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) and foot and mouth disease (fmd), within recent decades, there are few national or local farmer-led animal health schemes. to explore the reasons for this apparent lack of interest, we utilised a socio-psychological approach to disaggregate the cognitive, emotive and contextual factors driving bio- ...200818692923
bluetongue control strategy. 200818791212
back to the future: developing hypotheses on the effects of climate change on ovine parasitic gastroenteritis from historical data.although the influence of temperature and moisture on the free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematodes has been described in detail, and evidence for global climate change is mounting, serious attempts to relate altered incidence or seasonal patterns of disease to climate change are lacking. in great britain, veterinary surveillance laboratory diagnoses of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis (pge) have been categorised in species groups and recorded since 1975. here we present a detailed analysi ...200818824303
cryptosporidium species in lambs submitted for diagnostic postmortem examination in england and wales. 200819060318
within-holding prevalence of sheep classical scrapie in great britain.data from the compulsory scrapie flocks scheme (csfs), part of the compulsory eradication measures for the control of scrapie in the eu, have been used to estimate the within-holding prevalence of classical scrapie in great britain (gb). specifically data from one of the testing routes within the csfs have been used; the initial cull (ic), whereby two options can be applied: the whole flock cull option by which the entire flock is depopulated, and the genotyping and cull of certain genotypes.200919133119
surveillance. november 2008. 200919151403
verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli o157 in animals on public amenity premises in england and wales, 1997 to 2007.at the request of the public health authorities, 31 public amenity premises in england and wales containing animals of various species were investigated for the presence of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec) o157 between 1997 and 2007, because of putative associations with human cases. vtec o157 was confirmed in one or more species on 19 (61.3 per cent) of the premises. there were significant associations between the presence of vtec o157 and the number of species sampled, the size of the ...200919411683
spatial distribution of the active surveillance of sheep scrapie in great britain: an exploratory analysis.this paper explores the spatial distribution of sampling within the active surveillance of sheep scrapie in great britain. we investigated the geographic distribution of the birth holdings of sheep sampled for scrapie during 2002 - 2005, including samples taken in abattoir surveys (c. 83,100) and from sheep that died in the field ("fallen stock", c. 14,600). we mapped the birth holdings by county and calculated the sampling rate, defined as the proportion of the holdings in each county sampled b ...200919607705
mapping risk foci for endemic sheep scab.psoroptic mange in sheep, resulting from infestation by the astigmatid mite psoroptes ovis, is increasingly prevalent in europe and other parts of the world. as a step towards improved national control, regional or local scab management programmes that target high-risk areas and aim to maintain the number of outbreaks below an acceptable level may be an effective initial use of time and resource. to facilitate such a management approach, in this paper scab outbreak farms are identified using a q ...200919713045
classical sheep scrapie in great britain: spatial analysis and identification of environmental and farm-related risk factors.previous studies suggest that the spatial distribution of classical sheep scrapie in great britain is uneven and that certain flock characteristics may be associated with occurrence of the disease. however, the existence of areas of high and low disease-risk may also result from differences in the spatial distribution of environmental characteristics. in this study we explored the spatial pattern of classical scrapie in great britain between 2002 and 2005 and investigated the association between ...200919737376
noise levels in lairages for cattle, sheep and pigs in abattoirs in england and wales.levels of sound intensity were measured over periods of 24 hours in 34 abattoir lairages in england and wales. the mean integrated range in 12 cattle lairages was 52 to 79 db(a), in 11 sheep lairages, 45 to 76 db(a) and in 11 pig lairages, 46 to 87 db(a). in general, the pig lairages were the noisiest, with spot peak recordings of up to 110 db(a). typically, the sound intensities in all the lairages were 10 to 20 db(a) higher during the working day than at night. in many sheep lairages, high int ...200919749207
ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis in sheep flocks.outbreaks of ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis occurred in three commercial sheep flocks in england and wales. between 29 and 44 per cent of the ewes were affected; most of the lesions resolved in three weeks. pathogens such as mycoplasmas, which have previously been associated with these conditions, were not detected despite using improved laboratory techniques. in one of the flocks, ovine herpesvirus type 2 was detected by pcr in the blood of two acutely affected ewes, from the vulval ulcers o ...200818641377
continued diagnosis of idiopathic haemorrhagic diathesis in calves. 200920008342
investigation of farms linked to human patients with cryptosporidiosis in england and wales.the study investigates farms suspected of being sources of zoonotic human cryptosporidiosis. a variety of implicated farm animal species were sampled and tested to detect cryptosporidium oocysts and investigate genetic linkage with human patients. risk factor information was collected from each farm and analysed by multivariable logistic regression to detect significant associations between factors and cryptosporidium in animals. the results showed that average sample prevalence of cryptosporidi ...201020096944
assessment of lameness prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy herds in england and wales.visits were made to 205 dairy farms in england and wales between october 2006 and may 2007 by 1 or more of 4 researchers. at each visit, all milking cows were locomotion scored (lameness scored) using a 4-point scale (0=sound locomotion, 1=imperfect locomotion, 2=lame, 3=severely lame). the mean prevalence of lameness (scores 2 and 3) across the study farms was 36.8% (range=0-79.2%). on each farm, the presence within the housing and grazing environments of commonly reported risks for increased l ...201020172213
anthelmintic resistance on sheep farms in wales. 201020495166
footrot and interdigital dermatitis in sheep: farmers' practices, opinions and attitudes.in 1999, a study was initiated to improve the treatment and control of footrot and interdigital dermatitis in sheep flocks in england and wales. in november 2000, a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in which 392 sheep farmers were asked to estimate the prevalence of footrot and interdigital dermatitis in their flock in the previous 12 months, whether they considered these diseases to be a problem, how they treated and controlled them and their opinion on the success of the treatm ...200516339978
soil ingestion by sheep grazing the metal enriched floodplain soils of mid-wales.floodplain soils within and downstream from the mineralised and mined areas of mid-wales, are contaminated by metals, especially pb, because of historical and contemporary fluvial pollution. rates of soil ingestion by sheep grazing these sites have been quantified to establish the relative importance of the soil-plant-animal and soil-animal pathway of metals. the highest rates of soil ingestion occurred during the winter/spring period. during march, soil ingestion exceeded 30% of the d.m. intake ...200312901074
a bayesian hierarchical analysis to compare classical and atypical scrapie surveillance data; wales 2002-2006.we describe the application of bayesian hierarchical models (bhm) to the analysis of risk of sheep scrapie using data from multiple surveillance sources. more specifically, we analysed data from the test results of three surveillance sources on classical and atypical scrapie in wales for the period 2002-2006. for each form of scrapie, a bhm was fitted to assess the occurrence of spatial patterns of risk shared by the multiple surveillance sources and the association between covariates and diseas ...201021040987
zoonotic cryptosporidiosis from petting farms, england and wales, 1992-2009. 201121192888
natural ehrlichia phagocytophila transmission coefficients from sheep 'carriers' to ixodes ricinus ticks vary with the numbers of feeding ticks.in a longitudinal study in a uk upland site, 38% of adult sheep were detected as infected with the tick-borne bacterium ehrlichia phagocytophila by pcr of blood samples. infection prevalence declined significantly with sheep age but varied significantly and non-linearly with the number of adult ixodes ricinus ticks feeding per sheep. these findings suggested that under conditions of natural repeated tick-borne challenge sheep remain partially susceptible to re-infections, but the likelihood of r ...200211862991
fasciolosis prevalent among cattle in england and wales. 201021257462
faecal egg count reduction test to detect lack of efficacy of triclabendazole. 201021257517
verocytotoxin-producing and attaching and effacing activity of escherichia coli isolated from diseased farm livestock.between may 2005 and june 2008, strategically selected isolates of escherichia coli obtained from clinical submissions to veterinary laboratories agency (vla) regional laboratories in england and wales were serogrouped and examined by pcr for verocytotoxin (vt) production and attaching and effacing (eae) genes, both of which are zoonotic determinants. vt-encoding genes were detected in 54 (5.3 per cent) of the 1022 isolates examined. only one isolate (0.1 per cent) was identified as verocytotoxi ...201121546408
field evidence for density-dependent facilitation amongst ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on sheep.engorged ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from sheep resident in an upland uk field site were significantly lighter than nymphs that engorged on previously tick-naïve sheep, indicating that site-resident sheep continually exposed to ticks acquired anti-tick resistance. the weights of engorged nymphs that fed on naturally tick-resistant sheep increased significantly, however, when increasingly high numbers of adult female ticks fed on the sheep during seasonal peaks of tick activity. this relation ...200211862990
emergence of suspected type d botulism in ruminants in england and wales (2001 to 2009), associated with exposure to broiler litter.scanning surveillance by the veterinary laboratories agency revealed the emergence of suspected botulism in ruminants in 2003, presented as flaccid paralysis. from 2003 to 2009, 168 cattle and 19 sheep incidents were recorded, with mortality between 5 and 80 per cent. all sheep incidents and 95 per cent of cattle incidents had proximity to broiler litter. from july 2006, the gut contents collected from 74 affected cattle and 10 affected sheep were tested for clostridium botulinum toxins using mi ...201121652657
Investigation of the presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in the North Wales and West Midlands areas of the UK in 2007 to 2008 using scanning surveillance.Between November 5, 2007 and November 4, 2008, faecal samples from cattle and sheep submitted for diagnostic purposes to the Aberystwyth and Shrewsbury Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA) (now AHVLA) regional laboratories (covering North Wales and the West Midlands) were screened for the presence of Escherichia coli that produces CTX-M extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) using the selective medium CHROMagar CTX. Samples from 113 farms were tested and eight ESBL-positive farms identified. Of th ...201122021063
Index selection in terminal sires improves early lamb growth.The use of terminal sires (TS) for crossbreeding is integral to the UK sheep industry where approximately 71% of market lambs are sired by TS rams. Early growth of these crossbred lambs affects profitability. The objectives of this study were: (i) to evaluate the effectiveness of index selection among TS on the BW and ADG of their crossbred offspring; and, (ii) to compare the efficacy of that selection within TS breeds. The most widely used TS breeds in the UK are Charollais, Suffolk and Texel. ...201122021813
incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw sheep and goats' milk in england, wales and northern ireland.a blind survey of 104 raw sheep and goats' milk samples (90 goat, 14 sheeps) from bulk tanks on farms throughout england, wales and northern ireland was carried out over a 5-month period (january-may 1998) in order to determine the incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis. each milk sample (100 ml) was divided into two 50ml portions. one portion was decontaminated with 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride for 5h before culture on slopes of herrold's egg yolk medium and in bactec radiometric med ...200111230934
husbandry risk factors associated with subclinical coccidiosis in young cattle.this paper describes an observational longitudinal study of cattle farms in england and wales, which aimed to identify management practices associated with the presence of eimeria spp. infection in young cattle. thirty cattle farms situated in england and wales were selected and one group of more than 20 young cattle aged 5-18months of age was monitored on each farm. three variables were identified as significantly associated with status in a multivariable model. the odds of finding eimeria spp. ...201122082508
bacteria isolated from arthritic and omphalatic lesions in lambs in england and wales. 19989883092
use of sentinel lambs to survey the effect of an education programme on control of transmission of echinococcus granulosus in south powys, wales.in this article the effects of an education programme (area ii) on transmission of echinococcus granulosus from dogs to sheep in wales and of substitution of the education programme by a 6-weekly anthelmintic control programme (area i) are compared with the situation in an area where no control interventions had occurred (area iii). the education programme failed to prevent transmission of e. granulosus to sentinel lambs examined at 15 months of age, 6%, 4%, and 10% of which were infected in are ...19989868837
results of a survey to determine whether neospora is a significant cause of ovine abortion in england and wales.between january and april 1995, the brains and hearts of 281 aborted lambs derived from 209 submissions to veterinary investigation centres in england and wales were examined histologically. one-hundred-and-seventy-nine samples of fetal pleural fluid from these lambs and 141 from lambs not examined histologically were examined for antibodies to neospora by an indirect fluorescent antibody test. non-suppurative myocarditis and encephalitis were present in nine lambs. immunocytochemistry using ant ...19979055394
human hydatid disease: evaluation of an elisa for diagnosis, population screening and monitoring of control programmes.the routine use of elisa and complement fixation tests in the diagnosis of suspected clinical cases of hydatid disease was evaluated. in the elisa test, dialysed and filtered sheep cyst fluid was used as antigen and two positive cut-off points--+3sd and +2sd of the mean absorbance values of the control sera--were evaluated. the predictive values of elisa tests were 82% and 90% for positive tests, and 86% and 82% for negative tests, respectively with the two cut-off points. in a population survey ...19938326512
small quantities of 131i in thyroids of sheep from wales. 19817228703
the piroplasm theileria ovis detected in sheep in south wales. 19816789542
an empirical approach to forecasting the incidence of nematodiriasis over england and wales. 19666008059
some observations on the epidemiology of fascioliasis in relation to the timing of molluscicide applications in the control of the disease. 19715102169
pathogenesis of infection with theileria recondita (wales) isolated from haemaphysalis punctata from north wales.the pathogenicity of theileria recondita infection in both splenectomised and non-splenectomised sheep was investigated. following transmission of t. recondita to splenectomised animals both by adult ticks and blood transfusion a fever and severe macrocytic hypochromic anaemia developed which lasted the 9 days or more of patent infection. the prepatent period following tick attachment was about 8 days, but was variable following blood transfusion. infection of normal animals caused a transient m ...19883138811
the epidemiology of nematodirus battus--is it changing?natural populations of 3rd-stage nematodirus battus larvae were present on pastures in north wales throughout the year; highest numbers were present in late spring, with smaller peaks occurring in autumn. inter-site variation was observed in the timing and magnitude of these peaks. hatching on experimental plots occurred 2 months to 2 years following deposition of eggs. intraspecfic and inter-site variation occurred in the timing, and inter-site variation occurred in the magnitude, of the mass h ...19912038499
use of sentinel lambs for early monitoring of the south powys hydatidosis control scheme: prevalence of echinococcus granulosus and some other helminths.sentinel lambs were used to identify young echinococcus granulosus infections in sheep, to provide an early indication of the progress of the south powys hydatidosis control scheme. four sentinel lambs were purchased on each of 60 farms, from inside and outside the control area; they were examined when approximately six, 10 and 15 months of age. gross examination, thin slicing of organs and histological examination of the lesions in the viscera revealed no e granulosus hydatid cysts in lambs bor ...19911833872
the intake of lead and associated metals by sheep grazing mining-contaminated floodplain pastures in mid-wales, uk: ii. metal concentrations in blood and wool.sheep grazing metal-contaminated floodplain pastures across mid-wales ingest high concentrations of lead (pb) in vegetation and directly in the form of soil. sheep whole blood analysis indicated that pb concentrations can be significantly elevated for animals grazing contaminated sites: in winter/spring, a median blood concentration of 147 microg pb l(-1) was found at the location with the highest soil enrichment of this metal compared to only 26 microg pbl(-1) for the control flock. there was w ...201019931888
use of a randomized response technique to obtain sensitive information on animal disease prevalence.in order for policy-makers to formulate effective disease control measures they require accurate estimates of the extent and prevalence of the disease. on occasion, obtaining these data can be difficult, as farmers may perceive relevant information as being sensitive to divulge. consequently, underestimation of disease prevalence may occur due to farmer reticence about admitting to behaviours and outcomes that are considered professionally transgressive. to overcome such weaknesses, this study u ...201020580109
using the internet for rapid investigation of an outbreak of diarrhoeal illness in mountain bikers.in summer 2008, we investigated an outbreak of diarrhoeal illness in participants of a mountain-bike event in wales (uk) which had been affected by heavy rain. we conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the cause using an internet-based questionnaire. fifty-three percent of those contacted responded, and 161 (46·5%) out of the 347 responders, reported gastrointestinal symptoms. median day of onset was 3 days following the event. ten riders reported receiving a laboratory-confirmed ...201020587125
cosmogenic 7be deposition in north wales: 7be concentrations in sheep faeces in relation to altitude and precipitation.beryllium-7 (7be) is a cosmogenic radionuclide with a half-life of 53.3 days produced mostly in the stratosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen and entering the lower troposphere by atmospheric circulation processes. most of the nuclide is removed by rainout during precipitation, so given that rainfall generally increases with altitude, it was considered probable that 7be deposition would also be greater at higher altitudes. the aim of this study was to determine if there is any ...200515511568
cost effectiveness of nitrate leaching mitigation measures for grassland livestock systems at locations in england and wales.as much as 60% of the nitrate in water in england is thought to derive from agriculture. legislation aims to improve water quality by limiting nitrate concentration in surface and groundwaters to 50 mg l(-1). the uk government responded to the requirements of the ec nitrate directive by delineating nitrate vulnerable zones (nvzs) to cover 55% of england in 2002 and increased it to 70% in 2009. in this study we assessed the cost-effectiveness of measures for implementation in livestock systems to ...201121211821
skin disease in sheep farmers.background: an unusual inflammation of the pinna has been reported to occur in some sheep farmers at the time of lambing. aims: to explore the prevalence of this disorder and its possible causal associations. methods: while on attachment to sheep farms during lambing, veterinary students used a standardized questionnaire to interview a sample of farmers about their work and about symptoms of skin inflammation in their hands, face and ears. results: interviews were completed by 76 (67%) of the fa ...201121652573
Endemic sheep scab: Risk factors and the behaviour of upland sheep flocks.Since the deregulation of sheep scab in 1992, the number of scab outbreaks per year in the UK has increased rapidly; there has been an estimated 60-fold increase in outbreak incidence between 1992 and 2007. How best to focus management or eradication efforts has therefore been an issue of ongoing debate. Previous work has shown that scab outbreaks occur repeatedly on some farms whereas others never or rarely experience outbreaks. Here, to consider why this pattern occurs, and to quantify the ris ...201122079030
modification of a rapid method for the identification of gene-specific polymorphisms in cryptosporidium parvum and its application to clinical and epidemiological investigations.the application of genotyping to clinical isolates of cryptosporidium has increased significantly our knowledge and understanding of the distribution and epidemiology of this parasite. however, some methods can be laborious and demand specialist technical expertise. pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) techniques represent a more rapid and simple method of genotyping to support epidemiological and clinical investigations than conventional dna analytical techniques. we describe a n ...200111722909
exposure to sheep dip and the incidence of acute symptoms in a group of welsh sheep farmers.to measure the exposure of a group of farmers to organophosphate pesticide in sheep dip, and to record the incidence of symptoms after exposure.19968664964
the intake of lead and associated metals by sheep grazing mining-contaminated floodplain pastures in mid-wales, uk: i. soil ingestion, soil-metal partitioning and potential availability to pasture herbage and livestock.this paper first evaluates the relative importance of the soil-plant-animal and soil-animal pathways of zn, cu and (especially) pb investigated over a 15-month study period at 12 floodplain sites located within and downstream of the mineralised and historic mining area of mid-wales, and secondly considers the implications of a sequential extraction procedure (sep) undertaken on soils of varying particle size sampled from the study locations. generally, very good agreement was found between the c ...200919327816
acute symptoms following work with pesticides.serious accidental poisoning by pesticides is rare in the uk, but more minor pesticide-related illness may be under-reported. anecdotally, use of sheep dip has been linked with flu-like symptoms.200717652342
neuropsychiatric symptoms in past users of sheep dip and other pesticides.to explore the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychiatric symptoms in past users of sheep dip and other pesticides.200717095551
nematodirosis frequently diagnosed in lambs. 200616874938
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