use of sentinel lambs for early monitoring of the south powys hydatidosis control scheme: prevalence of echinococcus granulosus and some other helminths.sentinel lambs were used to identify young echinococcus granulosus infections in sheep, to provide an early indication of the progress of the south powys hydatidosis control scheme. four sentinel lambs were purchased on each of 60 farms, from inside and outside the control area; they were examined when approximately six, 10 and 15 months of age. gross examination, thin slicing of organs and histological examination of the lesions in the viscera revealed no e granulosus hydatid cysts in lambs bor ...19911833872
plasmid profile typing can be used to subdivide phage-type 49 of salmonella typhimurium in outbreak investigations.plasmid profile typing has been used to subdivide phage-type 49 of salmonella typhimurium, the most common phage type in humans in england and wales since 1985. twenty profile patterns have been identified in 350 strains examined. four profile patterns have been identified in 143 isolates from patients infected in 33 epidemiologically unrelated incidents and two patterns have predominated, st49:62 and st49:62, 1. these patterns were also common amongst s. typhimurium phage-type 49 isolated from ...19902182328
bracken as a risk factor in digestive tract tumors: state of the art.the present knowledge of the risks of exposure to bracken fern (pteridium aquilinum) is presented. the history of research on bracken toxicity is reviewed, covering the animal observations and chemical analysis, and focusing on the carcinogenic effects in various animal species and on the nature and biological properties of the known carcinogens. the implications of human exposure to bracken are inferred, the possible ways of contamination are discussed, and the existing epidemiological studies ...19911755580
incidence of salmonella infection in animals in england and wales 1968--1974.of a total of 23,609 incidents of salmonella infection reported during the period 1968--74, 20,326 occurred in cattle, 1744 in poultry and other birds, 675 in sheep, 558 in pigs and 306 in other species of animals. despite the large number of serotypes isolated (153), 88% of incidents were due to only two stereotypes: s. dublin (15,929 incidents of which 15,446 occurred in cattle ) and s. typhimurium (4842 incidents of which 3785 occurred in cattle and 732 in birds). s. choleraesuis was the thir ...1977319168
the occurrence of listeria species in milk and dairy products: a national survey in england and wales.a total of 4172 samples of milk, cheese and other dairy products were examined over a 1-year period for the presence of listeria species. strains of listeria were found most frequently in soft, ripened cows milk cheese; 63 out of 769 (8.2%) samples contained listeria monocytogenes, 25 samples contained species other than l. monocytogenes, and 18 samples contained both l. monocytogenes and other listeria spp. eleven samples of pasteurized cows milk (1.1%) from four dairies contained l. monocytoge ...19911904761
hydatid disease in wales. 1977877987
sheep as a source of human cryptosporidiosis.studies in north wales on human cryptosporidiosis since 1983 have indicated that the infection may be acquired both from animals and by person-to-person transmission. examination of veterinary data revealed a marked coincidence of the spring peak of infection in human beings with that seen in sheep. a case-control study was therefore set up to test the hypothesis that some of the human infections may have been acquired from contact with sheep. the results of the study confirmed a significant ass ...19892809233
control of sheep scab. 19921287959
a questionnaire survey of the prevalence of scrapie in sheep in anonymous, self-administered questionnaire has been used in two independent surveys to try to determine the prevalence of scrapie in the national sheep flock. the disease was recorded in 35 counties in england and wales. about a third (26.5 and 37.3 percent) of respondents owning 100 or more sheep indicated that they had seen sheep with scrapie in their flocks. the incidences of clinical cases recorded in affected flocks in the two surveys were 0.5 and 1.1 cases/100 ewes/year. at present ther ...19902260251
the epidemiology of nematodirus battus--is it changing?natural populations of 3rd-stage nematodirus battus larvae were present on pastures in north wales throughout the year; highest numbers were present in late spring, with smaller peaks occurring in autumn. inter-site variation was observed in the timing and magnitude of these peaks. hatching on experimental plots occurred 2 months to 2 years following deposition of eggs. intraspecfic and inter-site variation occurred in the timing, and inter-site variation occurred in the magnitude, of the mass h ...19912038499
morphology and transmission of theileria recondita (theileriidae: sporozoa) isolated from haemaphysalis punctata from north haemaphysalis punctata (canestrini and fanzago 1877) collected from an area of rough grazing at mynydd mawr, aberdaron, north wales, transmitted theileria recondita (wales); field-collected nymphs failed to transmit this parasite. following adult tick infestation, piroplasms were first observed in the blood of splenectomised infested sheep 8 days after tick attachment; the parasitaemia lasted 9 days. the parasite can also be transferred by syringe passage of blood from splenectomised to no ...19883138810
pathogenesis of infection with theileria recondita (wales) isolated from haemaphysalis punctata from north wales.the pathogenicity of theileria recondita infection in both splenectomised and non-splenectomised sheep was investigated. following transmission of t. recondita to splenectomised animals both by adult ticks and blood transfusion a fever and severe macrocytic hypochromic anaemia developed which lasted the 9 days or more of patent infection. the prepatent period following tick attachment was about 8 days, but was variable following blood transfusion. infection of normal animals caused a transient m ...19883138811
blowfly species composition in sheep myiasis in britain. 19921421492
prevalence, regional distribution and control of blowfly strike in england and wales.the prevalence and control of blowfly strike in england and wales was investigated by a postal survey of 2451 sheep farmers, divided into five regions, who were asked about the blowfly seasons of 1988 and 1989. these were important years for the control of blowfly strike because the number of compulsory dips for the control of sheep scab was reduced from two to one in 1989. the response rate was 74.2 per cent. a larger proportion of farmers in the south west and south east reported strike (90 pe ...19921441144
the occurrence of eimeria marsica in the domestic sheep in england and wales.eimeria marsica restani 1971 is re-described from oocysts recovered in pure culture from experimentally infected coccidia-free lambs. the ellipsoidal oocysts, which measure 19-1 x 13-1 mum, possess an inconspicuous micropylar cap. the prepatent period varies from 14-16 days. e. marsica is recorded for the first time from sheep in england.19761256907
serological studies of mucosal disease virus in england and wales.a survey of the cattle population in england and wales showed that about 62 per cent of animals had neutralising (sn) antibody to bvd-md virus in their serum. fewer seropositive individuals were detected by immunodiffusion (53 per cent), and complement fixation (cf) tests (34 per cent). the prevalence of antibody was not affected by herd size, but some variation was found between various regions of the country, and the proportion of animals seropositive rose markedly with age. the immunodiffusio ...1978203990
a survey of drug resistance in salmonella isolated from animals in england and wales during 1972. 19761260419
infectious necrotic hepatitis of sheep: an epidemiological survey on welsh farms. 1976963502
an assessment of the risks to the health of grazing animals from the radioactive contamination of a result of the chernobyl accident sheep and cattle in wales, cumbria and scotland became contaminated with radionuclides of caesium and iodine. in the worst case, the maximum levels of contamination were of the order of 4000 bq/kg of caesium-137 and 2000 bq/kg of caesium-134 in muscle and 2,000,000 bq/kg of iodine-131 in the thyroid gland. calculations show that the radiation dose rates to the animals from these burdens of the radionuclides of caesium would have been approximately one thousa ...19892736377
the occurrence of eimeria weybridgensis and other species of coccidia in lambs in england and wales. 19751148806
correspondence: effect of liver fluke on wool production in welsh mountain sheep. 1976945633
chernobyl radiocaesium in an upland sheep farm ecosystem.following the deposition of radiocaesium from the chernobyl accident the movement and slaughter of sheep in upland areas of west cumbria, scotland and wales was restricted. studies on the radioecology of cs-137 and cs-134 have been conducted at a farm within the affected area of west cumbria since july 1986. the radiocaesium activity of upland sheep was found to decline when they were brought on to the farms' enclosed pastures and rise when they were returned to the open fell, where the radiocae ...19892736378
the epidemiology of echinococcus granulosus in great britain. v. the status of subspecies of echinococcus granulosus in great britain.twenty-five years ago williams and sweatman suggested that in great britain there are two subspecies of echinococcus granulosus--e. granulosus granulosus and e. granulosus equinus. echinococcus granulosus granulosus does not mature either in foxes or in horses: e. granulosus equinus will mature in either. the prepatent period of e. granulosus granulosus in the definitive host is about 42 days while that of e. granulosus equinus is about 70 days. each subspecies has a characteristic morphology. m ...19892596902
species composition and larval habitats of blowfly (calliphoridae) populations in upland areas in england and wales.1. bait trapping at upland sites in england and wales, mainly at 400-700 m altitude, showed that calliphora vomitoria l. usually outnumbered all other blowflies. c.vicina r.-d., c.loewi end. and c.alpina zett were usually present in much lower numbers, with the last-named occurring at north pennine sites, but being replaced by c.subalpina ringd. at a south pennine (peak district) and a welsh site. catches normally included cynomya mortuorum l., and phormia terraenovae r.-d. was present at about ...19902132970
trends in salmonella food poisoning in england and wales 1941-72.cattle and pig herds and flocks of domestic fowl have formed the main reservoir of human salmonella food poisoning in england and wales from 1941 to 1972. changes in the incidence of human salmonella food poisoning and in the serotypes of salmonellas isolated from human infections are shown to have been associated with the introduction of new foods, with changes in animal husbandry, and with changes in the relative proportions of flesh food from different species consumed. new foods, dried powde ...19751054731
the distribution of antibodies to border disease virus among sheep in england and wales.within a sample of the sheep population of england and wales, 10.8 per cent of 3506 individuals had immunodiffusion test antibody to bovine viral diarrhoea mucosal disease virus antigen. there were marked differences between various geographical regions in the proportion of sheep with antibody, and border disease may be more common in some areas than disease records indicate.1978214835
survey of the causes of dystocia in sheep. 19902288062
131i in the thyroid glands of sheep from wales and south-west england after the chernobyl accident.radioactive material from the chernobyl reactor was deposited over the united kingdom between may 2 and may 4, 1986. in this report, the 131i content of ovine thyroid glands, collected from seven abattoirs in wales and south-west england is used to monitor the geographical distribution of the contamination. the results indicate that there was considerable local variation in the degree of contamination and suggest that, in addition to the major areas of contamination, deposition of high levels of ...19883394247
red foot disease in welsh mountain lambs. 19883394248
forecasting the incidence of parasitic gastroenteritis in lambs in england and empirical method for forecasting the incidence of parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep in england and wales is described. the level of disease in lambs in late summer depends on the date soil moisture returns to field capacity (the autumn return date) in the previous year together with rainfall from may to july in the current year. the importance of a late autumn return date and winter weather in relation to disease in stock at other times of the year is also discussed.1978741604
progressive retinal degeneration in sheep in south wales. 1978716182
the biological selenium status of livestock in britain as indicated by sheep erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity.the reliability of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity as an indicator of selenium status in livestock is discussed. based on this measurement, a survey is described of the biological selenium status of sheep on each of 329 farms in britain. results showed that 47 per cent of these farms were probably unable to provide grazing livestock with sufficient selenium to maintain blood levels greater than 0.075 microgram per ml. increased selenium deficiency from the increasing use of home grow ...1979473499
some observations on the epidemiology of fascioliasis in relation to the timing of molluscicide applications in the control of the disease. 19715102169
rheumatoid serum factor in populations in the u.k. i. lung disease and rheumatoid serum factor. 19715104047
the prevalence and epidemiology of cestodes in dogs in clwyd, wales. i. farm dogs.the results of a survey of 51 farms in clwyd carried out between 1981 and 1983 to elucidate the prevalence and epidemiology of dog cestodes are reported. taeniid species were obtained from 24 (17.1%) of the 140 dogs which purged. taenia ovis and t. hydatigena appeared to depend largely on dogs scavenging from carcasses for the perpetuation of their life-cycles, whereas t. multiceps was found only in dogs on two farms where sheep heads formed the main diet of the dogs. dog husbandry in relation t ...19853834846
scrapie in the welsh mountain breed of sheep and its experimental transmission to goats. 19654954629
sweating and panting in welsh mountain sheep. 19715146820
salmonellas of subgenus 3 (arizona) isolated from abattoirs in england and wales. 19665223430
the incidence of disease resulting from infection with h. contortus in sheep sent to the veterinary investigation centres in england and wales from 1965 to 1967. 19685750709
hydatid disease in wales: 2. eradication.the importance of hydatid disease in man and domesticated animals in britain, and particularly in wales, is reviewed. while the disease occurs throughout wales the rural population in powys shows the highest rate as estimated by hospital records and serological findings. the losses due to offal condemnation in sheep and cattle are estimated as at least 250,000. it is suggested that the feasibility of an area eradication scheme for wales should be investigated; the form which this scheme might ta ...1978644825
history of the control of some diseases of sheep and cattle in south australia. 19836347167
hydatid disease in whales: 1. epidemiology.the literature on the epidemiology of hydatid disease in domesticated animals in wales is reviewed and the results of a recent survey in a restricted area of mid wales summarised. in this survey the epidemiology of hydatid disease was studied with a view to the formulation of methods of control.1978644824
an epidemiological study of salmonella montevideo by biotyping.among 622 cultures of salmonella montevideo, 27 biotypes belonging to two biogroups were recognized. one biogroup (10di) was predominant in all animals in scotland but only in sheep in england and wales. the other (biogroup 2d) was responsible for almost all human, cattle and poultry infection in england and wales, but only 24% of human infection in scotland.19854020111
serogroups of bacteroides nodosus isolated from ovine footrot in britain. 19853992861
is salmonellosis still a serious problem in veterinary practice?salmonella infections of food animals are of concern to both the food industry and to the public health authorities. salmonellosis is one of the major zoonotic diseases and its impact on veterinary practice may be judged by a number of criteria. some of these are examined to determine the extent of the problem.19854013036
bovine salmonellosis in england and wales. 19714931663
less pasteurellosis in sheep. 19863716159
hydatid control scheme in south powys, wales, uk. 19846486924
some host factors which influence the epidemiology of taenia multiceps infections in sheep. 19846486930
a survey of drug resistance in salmonella isolated from animals in england and wales during 1971. 19744601304
interactions between the thermoregulatory responses to injections into a lateral cerebral ventricle of the welsh mountain sheep of putative neurotransmitter substances, and of local changes in anterior hypothalamic temperature. 19714401760
observation of 110m ag in chernobyl fallout. 19863736660
future of hill sheep. 19695816175
some population parameters of leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo infection in sheep. 19846730262
serological survey of leptospiral antibodies in sheep from england and wales.a total of 3722 sera was obtained from 188 flocks widely distributed throughout england and wales; three sera were randomly selected from each flock and tested in the microscopic agglutination test for leptospiral antibodies. infection with leptospires of the hebdomadis serogroup was found to the widespread and it is probable that the infecting serovar is hardjo. the prevalence of hardjo titres in the random survey was 6.4 per cent and within-herd prevalences ranged up to 94.4 per cent. titres t ...19827186697
report on the working party on liver-fluke in wales. 19695813271
the reproductive efficiency of british breeds of sheep in an equatorial environment. 19705529154
border disease of sheep. 19705529156
the commonest rotaviruses from neonatal lamb diarrhoea in england and wales have atypical electropherotypes. 19846093328
an empirical approach to forecasting the incidence of nematodiriasis over england and wales. 19666008059
effect of the drought of 1976 on the health of cattle, sheep and other farm livestock in england and wales. 19827147665
ovine coccidiosis in england and wales 1978-1979. 19807001721
epidemiological features of coxiella burnetii infection in england and wales: 1984 to 1994.q fever is an important zoonosis caused by the rickettsial organism coxiella burnetii, which can result in life threatening illness, especially in those with an underlying cardiac defect. c. burnetii infections in england and wales reported to the phls communicable disease surveillance centre between 1984 and 1994 were reviewed. a total of 1117 cases were reported, a third of which came from the south western region. the annual totals fell over this period. the mean age of cases was 45 years, an ...19968810119
laboratory outbreak of q fever acquired from april and may, 1981, an outbreak of q fever occurred in a university department which used gravid sheep for fetal respiratory studies. during the subsequent investigation 91 people were studied and 28 were found to have complement-fixing antibodies to the phase ii antigen of coxiella burneti in their serum. symptoms compatible with c. burneti infection occurred in 14 of the seropositive patients. the majority of symptomatic infections could be related to the delivery of twin fetuses in one la ...19826122819
characteristics of orf in a farming community in mid-wales. 19968696196
serovar identification of leptospires of the australis serogroup isolated from free-living and domestic species in the united kingdom.eighteen isolates from the australis serogroup from free-living and domestic animals were identified using the cross agglutination absorption test. serovar muenchen was found only in england and wales in wood mice, short tailed and bank voles, a grey squirrel and a pig. serovar bratislava was found in hedgehogs in england, wales and northern ireland and also in a brown rat from northern ireland. serovar bratislava was isolated from sheep in both england and northern ireland and from horses in no ...19836622847
exposure to sheep dip and the incidence of acute symptoms in a group of welsh sheep measure the exposure of a group of farmers to organophosphate pesticide in sheep dip, and to record the incidence of symptoms after exposure.19968664964
a large babesia of sheep from north wales. 19807210438
further cases of necrotic enteritis in calves. 19947801436
tremorgenic fungal toxins. 19836665980
haemaphysalis punctata and ixodes ricinus in a coastal habitat in north wales.the populations of haemaphysalis punctata and ixodes ricinus on the mynydd mawr national trust reserve, gwynedd, were studied for two years. h. punctata was the more numerous species, being recoverable by blanket dragging over most of the year except for some very short days. there were spring and late summer peaks of activity. it seems probable that the complete life cycle of h punctata takes two or three years in this habitat. the activity of i ricinus was short relative to h punctata, but spr ...19817244372
investigations on babesia motasi isolated from wales.a number of observations were carried out on the effect of the newly isolated parasite, babesia motasi (wales) on intact and splenectomised sheep and on a splenectomised goat. the parasite was not pathogenic for intact animals but caused fever and anaemia in splenectomised ones. b motasi (wales) was also studied morphologically, morphometrically and serologically. the common form of the parasite was seen to be a double pyriform, the mean length of one side being 2.23 micrometer. it appeared to b ...19817323470
the incidence of salmonella infection in sheep in england and wales, 1975 to 1981. 19836626928
ectoparasite control on sheep farms in england and wales: the method, type and timing of insecticidal treatment.the chemical control of sheep ectoparasites raises important environmental, health and welfare issues. there is increasing concern about the possible harmful effects of pesticides on human health and the role of dipping in the contamination of natural watercourses. a longitudinal survey was conducted in 1991, the last year of compulsory dipping for the control of sheep scab, to obtain information about the chemical control of ectoparasites on 485 farms in england and wales. organophosphate insec ...19947975072
blowfly strike in england and wales: the relationship between prevalence and farm and management order to develop and evaluate control strategies for blowfly strike, a greater understanding of the epidemiology is essential. a postal survey of sheep farmers yielded information about ten farm and management factors and their relationship to blowfly strike prevalence. the risk of a farm reporting at least one case of blowfly strike increased as flock size and stocking density increased (adjusted odds ratio of 1.13 for an increase in flock size of 100 sheep and 1.38 for an increase in stocki ...19948161845
the seasonal pattern of sheep blowfly strike in england and wales.information on 4049 cases of sheep blowfly strike on 495 farms in england and wales was gathered in a longitudinal survey conducted in 1991. the breech was the most commonly infested area, accounting for 70.9% of all strikes recorded. body strikes accounted for 19.7% and foot strikes 11.4% of all strikes. early in the season the incidences of both breech and body strikes were higher in ewes than in lambs, but from june to october lamb strikes predominated. the incidence of foot strike was greate ...19957696683
control of hydatid disease in evaluate the success of the south powys hydatid control programme by analysis of trends in cystic disease in humans and sheep and dog infestation.19968597734
increased incidence in clostridial disease. 19957571258
worming of dogs in mid-wales for echinococcus granulosus. 19979160536
escherichia coli isolated from farm animals in england and wales between 1986 and 1991.escherichia coli isolated from farm animals in england and wales between 1986 and 1991 were examined for their serogroup, fimbrial adhesin and toxin production, and resistance to antimicrobial drugs. among the 3595 porcine isolates the more common serogroups were o149, o8, o138, o147 and o157. the f4(k88) adhesin was detected in 21 per cent of the cultures, whereas the other adhesins were never present in more than 3 per cent during any year, although there was an upward trend in the prevalence ...19938291172
occurrence of anthelmintic resistant nematodes on sheep farms in england and goat farms in england and wales.a survey in 1992 showed that 44 per cent of the sheep farms tested in the south west and 15 per cent of those in the north east of england had parasitic nematode worm burdens which were resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics, and that 65 per cent of the non-dairy goat farms tested in england and wales had resistant worms. ostertagia circumcincta was the main species in sheep and haemonchus contortus in goats. the resistance to benzimidazoles was diagnosed by a combination of an egg hatch assay ...19968843638
the piroplasm theileria ovis detected in sheep in south wales. 19816789542
human hydatid disease: evaluation of an elisa for diagnosis, population screening and monitoring of control programmes.the routine use of elisa and complement fixation tests in the diagnosis of suspected clinical cases of hydatid disease was evaluated. in the elisa test, dialysed and filtered sheep cyst fluid was used as antigen and two positive cut-off points--+3sd and +2sd of the mean absorbance values of the control sera--were evaluated. the predictive values of elisa tests were 82% and 90% for positive tests, and 86% and 82% for negative tests, respectively with the two cut-off points. in a population survey ...19938326512
soil ingestion--a major pathway of heavy metals into livestock grazing contaminated estimated 4000 km2 of agricultural land in england and wales has been contaminated in varying degrees by past mining and smelting activities. contaminants include one or more of the metals cu, pb, zn, cd and as. studies conducted in southwest and central england conclude that only a small proportion of these metals are taken up into the leaf material of pasture plants and that plant uptake would not seem to constitute a major pathway to grazing animals. using the titanium content of faeces as ...19836879152
on location - 3. powys: sheep country where integration is complete. 19806902878
isolation of faecal chlamydia from sheep in britain and their characterization by cultural properties.faeces samples were taken per rectum from sheep on 26 farms in england and wales and examined for the presence of chlamydia by culture in mccoy cell monolayers. thirteen of the farms were known to have had abortion outbreaks associated with chlamydia psittaci (enzootic abortion) and 13 were free of this infection. the chlamydia isolated were characterized by cultural techniques. chlamydia were isolated from the faeces of lambs on all 26 farms and the prevalence of infection varied form 5-50% on ...19979232119
tracing the origins of louping ill virus by molecular phylogenetic analysis.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of louping ill (li) virus isolates, collected from representative regions of the british isles and norway, were determined for either the entire envelope gene (20 isolates) or for a portion of the envelope gene that spans a hypervariable region and includes an li virus specific marker sequence (53 isolates). phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of three major geographical populations of li virus in the british isles, viz. irish, welsh and bri ...19989603312
border disease in sheep.the current knowledge on border disease in sheep is reviewed. this is a congenital and teratogenic disorder induced by pestivirus. the history, etiology, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and pathologic lesions at postnatal and intrauterine infections (as well as in congenitally affected animals), pathogenesis, immunity, diagnosis, and control and prevention of the syndrome are discussed.19958581864
stress in farmers: a survey of farmers in england and investigate potential sources of stress for farmers in england and wales19989924448
results of a survey to determine whether neospora is a significant cause of ovine abortion in england and wales.between january and april 1995, the brains and hearts of 281 aborted lambs derived from 209 submissions to veterinary investigation centres in england and wales were examined histologically. one-hundred-and-seventy-nine samples of fetal pleural fluid from these lambs and 141 from lambs not examined histologically were examined for antibodies to neospora by an indirect fluorescent antibody test. non-suppurative myocarditis and encephalitis were present in nine lambs. immunocytochemistry using ant ...19979055394
health risks associated with unpasteurized goats' and ewes' milk on retail sale in england and wales. a phls dairy products working group study.a pilot study to determine the microbiological quality of unpasteurized milk from goats and ewes sampled from farm shops, health food shops, and other retail premises found that 47%, (47/100) of goats' and 50% (13/26) of ewes' milk samples failed the standards prescribed by the dairy products (hygiene) regulations 1995. in addition, staphylococcus aureus, haemolytic streptococci or enterococci, were present in excess of 10(2) c.f.u./ml in 9 (7 %) 2 (2 %) and 19 (15%) samples, respectively. salmo ...199910459642
fluke and roundworm infestations could be 'major problems' this winter. 199910028581
control of sheep scab (psoroptes ovis) by a single prophylactic injection of moxidectin. 19968981736
an outbreak of salmonella typhimurium dt170 associated with kebab meat and yogurt relish.during july 1995, an outbreak of salmonella typhimurium definitive type (dt) 170, an unusual strain, occurred in south wales. a case-control study found that illness was associated with eating kebabs (odds ratio undefined, p = 0.002), doner kebabs (odds ratio 7.9, 95 % confidence interval 1.5-20.5, p = 0.02) and kebabs with yoghurt based relish (odds ratio undefined, p = 0.009) but not with eating kebabs with mayonnaise-based relish (odds ratio 2.4, 95 % confidence interval 0.4-13.9, p = 0.53). ...199910459639
genetic typing of bovine pestiviruses from england and wales.using rna purified directly from stored clinical specimens, a collection of 62 pestiviruses were typed by rt-pcr and sequencing within the 5'-untranslated region of the genome. all the specimens had been obtained in 1966/1967 from diary cattle in england and wales. eight further pestiviruses, grown in cell culture, were characterised in the same way. seven of these viruses were representatives of a panel of british isolates, obtained from cattle ten years before. the eighth was the virus used in ...199910535769
availability of medicines for sheep and goats. 19968931307
small quantities of 131i in thyroids of sheep from wales. 19817228703
report on 31 caseous lymphadenitis infected sheep farms in england and wales. 200111400988
a cross-sectional survey to analyse the risk factors associated with human cystic echinococcosis in an endemic area of mid-wales, the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (hydatid disease) in humans and other animals has been well documented. a cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken to examine the associated demographic and environmental risk factors for the disease in humans, in powys, mid-wales. overall, 223 fully completed questionnaires were returned from a postal survey. eighteen of the respondents had been treated for cystic echinococcosis (ce). no significant association was found between many o ...200010884868
use of sentinel lambs to survey the effect of an education programme on control of transmission of echinococcus granulosus in south powys, this article the effects of an education programme (area ii) on transmission of echinococcus granulosus from dogs to sheep in wales and of substitution of the education programme by a 6-weekly anthelmintic control programme (area i) are compared with the situation in an area where no control interventions had occurred (area iii). the education programme failed to prevent transmission of e. granulosus to sentinel lambs examined at 15 months of age, 6%, 4%, and 10% of which were infected in are ...19989868837
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