congenital bovine epizootic arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in australia. distribution of antibodies to akabane virus in australian cattle after the 1974 the end of the 1974 epizootic of bovine congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in south-eastern new south wales, an australia-wide serological survey (about 4,000 serums) was made to determine the ditribution of cattle possessing serum neutralising antibodies against akabane virus. eighty per cent of the serums from cattle in northern australia (western australia, northern territory, and queensland) were positive. a detailed study in the epizootic area in new south wales (particularly ...19761016149
occurrence of organochlorine residues in australian spite of several quality control procedures used by australia to ensure the wholesomeness of export meat, a number of pesticide residue violations were identified in the australian product exported to the usa in may 1987. the pesticides involved were the organochlorines, dieldrin and heptachlor. the problems were caused by the persistence of organochlorines in soils and their illicit use or contamination of storage facilities. animals grazing contaminated pasture, ingesting contaminated feed ...19902344338
current techniques in rapid bluetongue virus diagnosis. 19892559696
pesticide residues in australian meat.on several occasions in 1987 australian meat was reported by overseas countries to contain unacceptable levels of pesticide residues. investigations revealed that the residues were mainly the organochlorine compounds ddt, dieldrin and heptachlor, the concentrations of which exceeded the maximum residue limits. the organochlorines had accumulated in the soil of farms where they were used annually, or more frequently, owing to their long half-life in soils, and grazing animals had accumulated the ...19892678724
vectors of bluetongue virus in australia.two of the 5 serotypes of bluetongue virus (btv) known from australia have been isolated from field collected insects. serotype 20 was isolated in 1975 from a mixed pool of 214 insects containing several culicoides species. serotype 1 has been isolated from c. (avaritia) fulvus sen & das gupta collected at beatrice hill in the northern territory and from c. (avaritia) brevitarsis kieffer collected at peachester in southeast queensland. all other isolates of bluetongue (bt) group viruses have bee ...19852989850
bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer and related viruses: current situation in australia.since 1975 3 serotypes of bluetongue (bt) virus (btv) have been identified in australia: btv1 (csiro156), btv20 (csiro19) and btv21. at present 2 further bt viruses (dpp90 and dpp192) have been isolated from the blood of healthy cattle in the northern territory (nt) and are undergoing identification. there is serological evidence for btv15 infection in western australia (wa) and the nt, and a background level of serological activity to btv serotypes 1 to 17. in addition, over 50 isolations of ep ...19852989863
epidemiology of bluetongue in australia: the vertebrate hosts.ruminants became established in australia after european settlement which commenced in the late 18th century. bluetongue (bt) disease has never been suspected in cattle or sheep in this country. the species of ruminants found to have antibodies to bt and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (ehd) viruses are cattle, buffaloes, deer, goats and sheep. no antibodies have been found in pigs, horses, marsupials (kangaroos and wallabies) or humans, even in areas of high prevalence of bt and ehd infection. t ...19852989897
arboviruses recovered from sentinel livestock in northern australia.over 700 arboviruses were recovered between 1981 and 1987 from the blood of sentinel livestock near darwin. twenty-three isolates were made from sheep, goats, swamp buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and horses, and the remainder were from cattle. the isolates have been typed as 27 separate viruses belonging to the bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, palyam, simbu, bovine ephemeral fever, tibrogargan and alphavirus groups. ten of these viruses have not been isolated elsewhere in australia and fou ...19883218073
serological studies of australian and papua new guinean cattle and australian sheep for the presence of antibodies against bluetongue group viruses.following isolation of a virus (csiro19) from insects in australia and its identification as bluetongue virus serotype 20 (btv20), a nationwide survey of antibodies in cattle and sheep sera was undertaken. initial studies using the serum neutralization (sn) test showed that the distribution of btv20 antibodies in cattle was confined to the northern part of australia. group-reactive antibody tests (agar gel diffusion precipitin, agdp, and complement-fixation, cf) showed group-reactive cattle sera ...19836306901
the isolation and preliminary characterization of a rhabdovirus in australia related to bovine ephemeral fever virus.csiro 368 virus was isolated from blood collected in the northern territory from a healthy cow and electron microscope studies showed that the isolate had rhabdovirus morphology. fluorescent antibody studies and complement fixation tests related the virus to bovine ephemeral fever (bef) virus. neutralization tests in both suckling mice and vero cells showed that the virus was not bef virus. antibodies to csiro 368 virus were found in cattle sera from northern and eastern australia and papua new ...19836612981
phylogenetic characterisation of bluetongue viruses from naturally-infected insects, cattle and sheep in australia.the polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of bluetongue virus (btv) in a number of clinical and insect samples collected in the northern territory of australia. sequence analyses of the amplified btv genes differentiated endemic australian and exotic viruses. two potential exotic btv were detected as a result of pcr analyses of blood from sentinel animals and of the insect vector, culicoides wadai. the detection of btv in c wadai was the first direct demonstration of the pres ...19948048903
ehdv-1, a new australian serotype of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus isolated from sentinel cattle in the northern 1992, a virus (dpp2209) isolated from sentinel cattle located at coastal plains research station, latitude 12 degrees 39's, longitude 131 degrees 20'e, approximately 60 km east of darwin, northern territory. this virus was identified as a serotype of epizootic haemorrhagic disease (ehd) of deer virus previously undescribed in australia. an additional 17 isolation of this virus were made from eight animals during the period february to may. electron microscopic studies showed the presence of o ...19979453125
differentiation of australian isolates of mycobacterium paratuberculosis using pulsed-field gel examine strain variation amongst australian isolates of mycobacterium paratuberculosis.19979469224
the epidemiology of melioidosis in australia and papua new guinea.melioidosis was first described in australia in an outbreak in sheep in 1949 in north queensland (22 degrees s). human melioidosis was first described from townsville (19 degrees s) in 1950. melioidosis is hyperendemic in the top end of the northern territory (nt) and as in parts of northeastern thailand it is the commonest cause of fatal community-acquired septicemic pneumonia. in the 9 years since 1989 the prospective nt melioidosis study at royal darwin hospital (12 degrees s) has documented ...200010674639
animal melioidosis in australia.melioidosis was first diagnosed in australia in sheep in 1949. while it has been considered endemic in tropical australia, there have been animal outbreaks in southwest western australia and southern queensland. infection occurs in many species, with both latency and a wide range of clinical manifestations. some species may develop melioidosis only if immunocompromised. sheep and goats are particularly susceptible, resulting in the requirement for pasteurisation of tropical commercial goat's mil ...200010674644
dna fingerprinting of australian isolates of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis using is900 evaluate additional restriction enzymes for is900 rflp of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and examine the genetic diversity among australian isolates for epidemiological studies of johne's disease.200010860159
peruvian horse sickness virus and yunnan orbivirus, isolated from vertebrates and mosquitoes in peru and australia.during 1997, two new viruses were isolated from outbreaks of disease that occurred in horses, donkeys, cattle and sheep in peru. genome characterization showed that the virus isolated from horses (with neurological disorders, 78% fatality) belongs to a new species the peruvian horse sickness virus (phsv), within the genus orbivirus, family reoviridae. this represents the first isolation of phsv, which was subsequently also isolated during 1999, from diseased horses in the northern territory of a ...200919766284
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