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dual infection of animal hosts with different echinococcus species in the eastern qinghai-tibet plateau region of china.the eastern qinghai-tibet plateau of china is a highly endemic region of echinococcosis where echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (sheep strain), echinococcus multilocularis, and echinococcus shiquicus are distributed sympatrically. we developed a polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) method for the identification of the three species in this region. the pcr-rflp showed the dual infection of animals with different echinococcus spp. the first case w ...200616896135
species identification of human echinococcosis using histopathology and genotyping in northwestern china.human cystic echinococcosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of echinococcus granulosus, and alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the larval form of e. multilocularis, are known to be important public health problems in western china. echinococcus shiquicus is a new species of echinococcus recently described in wildlife hosts from the eastern tibetan plateau and its infectivity and/or pathogenicity in humans remain unknown. in the current study, parasite tissues from various organs were ...200818396303
genomic reconstruction of the history of native sheep reveals the peopling patterns of nomads and the expansion of early pastoralism in east asia.china has a rich resource of native sheep (ovis aries) breeds associated with historical movements of several nomadic societies. however, the history of sheep and the associated nomadic societies in ancient china remains poorly understood. here, we studied the genomic diversity of chinese sheep using genome-wide snps, mitochondrial and y-chromosomal variations in > 1,000 modern samples. population genomic analyses combined with archeological records and historical ethnic demographics data reveal ...201728645168
[origin and genetic diversity of mongolian and chinese sheep using mitochondrial dna d-loop sequences].to determine the origin and gene diversity of the chinese and mongolian domestic sheep, a partial fragment of mitochondrial dna d-loop was sequenced for total number of 314 individuals from nine chinese sheep populations and 11 mongolian sheep populations. the results show no difference in nucleotide composition between chinese and mongolian sheep mtdna d-loop sequences. however, more variables were identified in mongolian sheep (26.85% of the sites) than that in chinese sheep (24.22%). in china ...200516459654
[epidemiological survey on echinococcus infection in animals in qinghai province].parasitological and dissection methods were used to confirm echinococcus infection and echinococcosis in animals, and to understand the epidemiological situation in final and intermediate animal hosts in qinghai province. three echinococcus species were found in the province including e. granulosus, e. multilocularis and e. shiquicus. the prevalence of hydatid disease showed a tendency of increase with an average rate of over 50% in yaks and sheep. higher prevalence in wild animals as intermedia ...200718038811
short report: identification of echinococcus species from a yak in the qinghai-tibet plateau region of china.the species identification of an echinococcal lesion in the liver of a yak in the qinghai-tibet plateau region of china, where both echinococcus granulosus and e. multilocularis are present, was difficult to determine because of the atypical appearance of the lesion. polymerase chain reaction-based mitochondrial genotyping allowed us to discriminate the echinococcus species. nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes amplified from the echinoc ...200314640506
theileriosis of sheep and goats in china.theileriosis is an important disease of sheep and goats in west china. its main distribution includes qinghai, gansu, ningxia, inner mongolia, shaanxi and sichuan. the epidemic period is from late march to july with april-may being the peak months. this is the period of most intensive tick attack by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (77.2-99.24%) during the year. it has been proved that the nymphs and adults, which develop from larvae and nymphs engorged on infected sheep or goats can transmit the path ...19979512737
genetic diversity and phylogenetic evolution of tibetan sheep based on mtdna d-loop sequences.the molecular and population genetic evidence of the phylogenetic status of the tibetan sheep (ovis aries) is not well understood, and little is known about this species' genetic diversity. this knowledge gap is partly due to the difficulty of sample collection. this is the first work to address this question. here, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of 636 individual tibetan sheep from fifteen populations were assessed using 642 complete sequences of the mitochondrial dna d-loo ...201627463976
reverse vaccinology approach identify an echinococcus granulosus tegumental membrane protein enolase as vaccine candidate.applying reverse vaccinology strategy, we employed a sequence encoding an enolase from taenia asiatica to search its homolog in the expression sequence tag (est) database of echinococcus granulosus and found two est sequences (access number: cn653186 and cn649593) of a clone eg_psgrs_13b09 from e. granulosus protoscolex full-length cdna library, which are responding for the 5' and 3' partial cds of e. granulosus enolase, respectively. primers are designed according to the 5' end and 3'end of the ...201020127115
[rflp analysis of dna from echinococcus granulosus collected from four provinces/autonomous region in china].a fragment of the ribosomal rna gene of schistosoma mansoni psm889 and two dna fragments specific to echinococcus granulosus phd5 and peg18 have been used as dna probes to assess the extent of genetic variability within e. granulosus. the dna analysis, including restriction endonuclease digestion and southern blot hybridization with the probes, did not demonstrate any genetic variation among e. granulosus collected from sheep in xinjiang, qinghai, gansu and ninxia. similarly, there was no geneti ...19937909504
preliminary study of metal in yak (bos grunniens) milk from qilian of the qinghai plateau.63 samples of yak milk were analyzed by the method of icp-aes of metal elements for aluminum, cadmium, silver and chromium which can reveal the exposed level around yak farm. the metal elements of yak milk were compared to reference data for cow milk, sheep milk, buffalo milk and goat milk. in addition, the concentration was compared to ptwi (provisional tolerable weekly intake) established by the jecfa (who/fao) for metal intake/body weight per week of cadmium, aluminum, and chromium level was ...201121516296
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in tibetan sheep in northwestern china.the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in tibetan sheep was surveyed in qinghai province, northwestern china, in may and june 2010. in total, 580 serum samples was collected from 6 counties, and antibodies to t. gondii were detected by indirect hemagglutination (iha) test. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 29.8% (173/580); regional differences showed the highest prevalences in nangqian county (39.4%) and zaduo county (48.7%). the results of the present study indicate that infectio ...201021158639
mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in the qinghai-tibet plateau--focused on the qinghai area, china.an investigation was conducted to identify the distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in the qinghai-tibet plateau, china from july to august in 2007. a total of 8,147 mosquitoes representing six species from three genera (aedes, culex, and anopheles) were collected in three locations (geermu city, altitude of 2,780 m; xining city, 2,200 m; minhe county, 1,700 m). six virus isolates were obtained including tahyna virus (tahv), liaoning virus, and culex pipiens pallens densovir ...201020348523
molecular phylogeography and genetic differentiation of blue sheep pseudois nayaurszechuanensis and pseudois schaeferi in china.within the genus pseudois (bovidae, artiodactyla), two challenges are faced by taxonomists. first, the designation of the two subspecies of blue sheep, pseudois nayaur nayaur and pseudois nayaurszechuanensis, tends to be questionable with the accumulation of morphological and molecular data. second, the taxonomic status of the dwarf blue sheep (pseudois schaeferi) has been controversial since its discovery, and molecular analyses with relatively small sample sizes have not painted a clear pictur ...200818565767
group size effects on foraging and vigilance in migratory tibetan antelope.large group sizes have been hypothesized to decrease predation risk and increase food competition. we investigated group size effects on vigilance and foraging behaviour during the migratory period in female tibetan antelope pantholops hodgsoni, in the kekexili nature reserve of qinghai province, china. during june to august, adult female antelope and yearling females gather in large migratory groups and cross the qinghai-tibet highway to calving grounds within the nature reserve and return to q ...200717582704
[epidemiological survey on echinococcosis in darlag county of qinghai province].to make an epidemiological investigation on echinococcosis in darlag county, guoluo tibetan autonomous prefecture of qinghai province.200919459494
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium from animal sources in qinghai province of china.the presence of cryptosporidium oocysts in 20 zoo animals of the xining zoo, 16 farm yaks and 42 farm goats in qinghai province, china was investigated by an immunofluorescence test (ift). the species and/or genotypes were determined by nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequence analysis of a fragment of the small subunit (ssu) rrna gene. cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 16 zoo animals, 2 yaks, and 15 goats by ift. the ift positive samples were further investigated by pcr, and 16 o ...200717701218
cystic and alveolar echinococcosis: an epidemiological survey in a tibetan population in southeast qinghai, china.an epidemiological investigation on echinococcosis was made in jiuzhi county of qinghai province, western china. ultrasonography and an indirect hemagglutination test revealed a morbidity of 8.0% (124/1,549) and a seroprevalence of 25.8% (287/1,113), respectively, in the tibetan population. the morbidity in herdsmen (16.6%) and buddhist priests (15%) was significantly higher than that in other occupation groups (3.2%), and it was higher in females (9.8%) than in males (6.2%). the ultrasound imag ...200818503183
echinococcus shiquicus, a new species from the qinghai-tibet plateau region of china: discovery and epidemiological implications.in shiqu county of the qinghai-tibet plateau, many wild and domestic mammals are involved in the transmission cycles of echinococcus spp. echinococcus multilocularis and echinococcus granulosus genotype g1 (sheep strain) are sympatrically distributed in the plateau. in 1995, we identified a unique strobilate stage of echinococcus from the tibetan fox, vulpes ferrilata, but considered it to be a variant of e. multilocularis. subsequent molecular genetic studies revealed that a hydatid cyst from t ...200616337180
assessment of echinococcus granulosus polymorphism in qinghai province, people's republic of china.cystic echinococcosis (ce) is highly endemic in the chinese province of qinghai, located on the tibetan plateau. the echinococcus granulosus sheep strain has already been reported in this focus. to improve our understanding of the role the parasite plays in the high prevalence observed in humans, we assessed the genetic polymorphism of 55 e. granulosus samples (37 from humans) using three discriminative mitochondrial markers: coxi, nadi and atp6. we obtained a total of 13 distinct genotypes whic ...200818309521
epidemiological studies on cystic echinococcosis in china--a review.in the four decades from 1951 to 1990, the six provinces or autonomous regions (xinjiang, gansu, qinghai, ningxia, xizang and nei monggol) reported a total of 26,065 surgical cases of hydatid disease, most of which were reported in the recent decade. about one third of the patients was children and adolescents under 15 years old. so far, cystic hydatid infections of local origin have been confirmed in 22 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in the whole nation. findings of x-ray exam ...19957546341
[simulation on the seasonal growth patterns of grassland plant communities in northern china].soil moisture is the key factor limiting the productivity of grassland in northern china ranging from arid to subhumid arid regions. in this paper, the seasonal and annual growth, foliage projective cover (fpc), evaporative coefficient (k), and net primary productivity (npp) of 7 types of grasslands in north china were simulated by using a simple model based on well established ecological processes of water balance and climatic data collected at 460 sites over 40 years. the observed npps were us ...200819123350
molecular study of echinococcus in west-central china.west-central china is an important endemic focus of both alveolar and cystic echinococcosis where several species of intermediate host are commonly infected with echinococcus granulosus and e. multilocularis . isolates of e. granulosus were collected from humans and other animals from different geographical areas of qinghai, ningxia, gansu and sichuan, and genotyped using the mitochondrial dna marker atp synthase subunit 6 gene (atp6). the sheep strain (g1 genotype) of e. granulosus was shown to ...200516174420
convergent evolution of rumen microbiomes in high-altitude mammals.studies of genetic adaptation, a central focus of evolutionary biology, most often focus on the host's genome and only rarely on its co-evolved microbiome. the qinghai-tibetan plateau (qtp) offers one of the most extreme environments for the survival of human and other mammalian species. yaks (bos grunniens) and tibetan sheep (t-sheep) (ovis aries) have adaptations for living in this harsh high-altitude environment, where nomadic tibetan people keep them primarily for food and livelihood [1]. ad ...201627321997
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