bundling, a newly identified risk factor for neonatal tetanus: implications for global control.bundling, which consists of wrapping an infant for prolonged periods in a sheepskin cover after dried cow dung is applied, is a common and apparently unique practice limited to the rural, mountainous regions of northern pakistan. the practice is initiated at various ages during the neonatal period. its potential contribution to neonatal tetanus (nnt) had not been evaluated.19968921470
bluetongue virus seropositivity in sheep flocks in north west frontier province, pakistan.the objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence and distribution of serum antibodies to bluetongue virus (btv) in a sample of 38 sheep flocks in northern areas of the north west frontier province of pakistan and to identify demographic and productivity variables that are associated with btv seropositivity. blood samples were taken from a random sample of ewes in each flock in april 1995. the owners of the flocks were interviewed regarding some demographic, husbandry and productivity ...19979234437
peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection; its association with species, seasonal variations and geography.the present investigation included a detailed description of the factors directly associated with pprv infection in pakistan. a total of 1,056 suspected serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to pprv with no history of vaccination against ppr. the samples were collected from sixty two (62) suspected outbreaks from twenty five (25) major regions of the country. samples were collected from the animals suffering from diarrhea and showing severe respiratory signs. competitive enz ...200919130284
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