a field outbreak of suspected stachybotryotoxicosis in outbreak of mortality in a flock of mutton merino sheep in which 109 out of 568 sheep died in the south-western cape province, is described. it was characterized by haemorrhagic septicaemia, anaemia, leucocytopaenia and haemorrhagic tendencies. mortalities followed unseasonal and heavy summer rain, extended over a period of 6 months and were associated with the uninterrupted consumption of sheep cubes processed on the farm severly fungus-infested wheat, barley and rye straw for a period of at ...1979575906
the distribution of pasteurella haemolytica serotypes among cattle, sheep, and goats in south africa and their association with diseases.over an 8-year period (september 1986 to march 1994), a total of 497 organ specimens from sheep and goats and 96 from cattle, were received for their isolation of pasteurella haemolytica. they were collected in seven geographical areas in south africa (as it existed before the april 1994 elections). these areas include the eastern cape, transvaal (new name: gauteng), nambia, orange free state (new name: free state), natal (new name: kwazulu-natal), western cape and the northern cape. this invest ...19958668319
macromineral composition of kikuyu herbage relative to the requirements of ruminants.a 2-year study was conducted to determine the macromineral status of kikuyu grass pastures growing on representative soils in the kwazulu-natal midlands. herbage samples were collected at 25 to 35 day intervals during the growing season from 12 rotationally-grazed camps located on 3 sites. seasonal mean herbage ca and p concentrations were within the ranges 0.22 to 0.33% and 0.27 to 0.39%, respectively, while seasonal mean ca:p ratios ranged from 1.1:1 to 0.63:1. calcium concentrations and the c ...19958691408
an overview of the eradication of brucella melitensis from kwazulu-natal.brucella melitensis is a gram-negative bacterium whose primary hosts are goats and sheep. like the other brucelia spp., with the exception of brucella ovis, it is not particularly host specific as it is pathogenic for a variety of other mammal species including humans. in humans the disease caused by it is rated as one of the most important zoonoses. three outbreaks have been recorded in goats and sheep in south africa; the first outbreak occurred in sheep in 1965 in the mpumalanga and northern ...200212233997
a review of some characteristics, socio-economic aspects and utilization of zulu sheep: implications for conservation.zulu sheep are nguni sheep of zululand and are adapted to the harsh conditions of kwazulu-natal. they are used by rural farmers for economic purposes. their numbers are declining, indicating a potential extinction threat. knowledge of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics is essential for conservation planning. in this review, there is a focus on the utilization, socio-economic aspects, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics as well as a proposed breeding programme. a survey has shown ...201121509458
indoor collections of the anopheles funestus group (diptera: culicidae) in sprayed houses in northern kwazulu-natal, south africa.insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes presents a serious problem for those involved in control of this disease. south africa experienced a severe malaria epidemic during 1999/2000 due to pyrethroid resistance in the major vector anopheles funestus. subsequent monitoring and surveillance of mosquito populations were conducted as part of the malaria vector control programme.200717359529
analytical and pharmacological investigation of ocotea bullata (black stinkwood) bark and leaves.ocotea bullata (lauraceae), one of the top-ten traditional medicinal plants used in kwazulu-natal, is close to extinction through high demand and destructive harvesting methods. the stem bark is traditionally used to cure headaches, urinary disorders and stomach problems. substitution of leaves for bark provides a possible resource management solution for this threatened medicinal plant. one aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of o. bullata leaves and bark using tlc, hplc a ...200010904166
anthelmintic resistance in south africa: surveys indicate an extremely serious situation in sheep and goat farming.surveys to determine the prevalence and degree of resistance of haemonchus spp. of sheep and goats to the available anthelmintics in south africa indicate that small ruminant production is entering a crisis situation. three surveys employing the faecal egg count reduction (fecr) test to determine resistance were conducted in some of the main sheep-producing areas in the summer rainfall region of south africa, where h. contortus is the principal worm species in sheep. after analyzing the data rec ...199910689700
how long before resistance makes it impossible to control some field strains of haemonchus contortus in south africa with any of the modern anthelmintics?this paper describes an exceptional spectrum of multiple anthelmintic resistance in two strains of haemonchus contortus in south africa, one from howick in kwazulu-natal, and the other from badplaas, in mpumalanga. apparently for the first time, a helminth strain is described with resistance to compounds from all five of the modern anthelmintic groups used for nematode control in sheep; also, two strains of h. contortus show resistance to the two substituted phenols, dinitrophenol and nitroxynil ...19979195715
two new species of ticks from southern africa whose adults parasitize the feet of ungulates: rhipicephalus lounsburyi n. sp. and rhipicephalus neumanni n. sp. (ixodoidea, ixodidae).theiler & robinson (1953) described, as rhipicephalus follis dönitz, 1910, a tick species originating from dordrecht, eastern cape province. a comparison of this tick with the syntypes of r. follis has now shown, though, that these 2 entities are different and it is therefore redescribed below as rhipicephalus lounsburyi n. sp. its adults parasitize sheep and various wild ungulates, attaching primarily on their feet. the hosts of the immature stages are still unknown. it has now been recorded fr ...19902338999
an assessment of the selenium, copper and zinc status of sheep on cultivated pastures in the natal midlands.blood samples were collected from sheep on 24 farms in the natal midlands to ascertain the selenium, copper and zinc status of sheep kept under intensive grazing conditions on cultivated pastures in this region. the mean erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was 34.1 enzyme units (eu: nmol nadph oxidised min-1 mg-1 haemoglobin). a total of 59.4% of the samples contained less than 30 eu, a level below which a marginal deficiency may exist. the mean selenium concentration in whole blood was ...19921491420
response to selenium supplementation of sheep grazing cultivated pastures in the natal midlands.the response to selenium supplementation of sheep grazing cultivated pastures was investigated on different farms in the natal midlands, republic of south africa. over a period of one year, a significant (p < 0.01) improvement of 18.2% in live mass gain and of 13.7 and 15.8% (p < 0.05) in greasy and clean wool production, respectively, was measured in response to selenium supplementation in young ewes at the cedara research station. in ewes injected with a long-acting barium selenate product, th ...19921491419
an outbreak of white muscle disease in lambs born of ewes on a zero grazing system in natal.white muscle disease appeared in lambs born of ewes in the zero grazing group during the course of a comparative fertility trial on ewes on various systems of husbandry. analysis of the feed showed barely adequate selenium in the maize silage and a deficiency in the soil on which the high lysine maize was grown. treatment of the lambs with a selenium/vitamin e injection rapidly controlled the condition. this deficiency may be more widespread than is presently realised.1979551200
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