brucellosis in elk i. serologic and bacteriologic survey in wyoming.incidence of brucellosis in elk (cervus canadensis) on two winter feedgrounds in wyoming was examined over a 5-year period by testing serum samples using the standard plate agglutination (spt) buffered brucella antigen (bba), rivanol (riv) and complement fixation (cft) tests. thirty-one percent of 1,165 elk were positive by defined criteria. considering each test individually, only 29% (106) of 370 positive sera would have been classified as reactors by the spt, 83% (307) by the bba test and 86% ...1978416232
abortion caused by brucella abortus biovar 1 in a free-ranging bison (bison bison) from yellowstone national park.a near-term aborted bison (bison bison) fetus was collected near old faithful geyser in yellowstone national park, wyoming (usa). on necropsy, the fetus liver had a small capsular tear, and there was a small quantity of blood in the peritoneal cavity. microscopic lesions included mild, purulent bronchopneumonia and mild, multifocal, interstitial pneumonia. brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from fetal abomasal contents, lung, and heart blood.19947933293
brucellosis in free-ranging bison (bison bison) from teton county, wyoming.brucellosis was studied opportunistically in bison (bison bison) in the free-ranging jackson herd of approximately 120 in teton county, wyoming (usa) in march 1989. recent abortion was diagnosed in a 2-yr-old cow and brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from vaginal discharge, uterine contents, uterus, and supramammary lymph nodes. endometritis was characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the lamina propria and neutrophils in uterine glands and within necrotic debris and exudate in th ...19938445770
brucellosis in free-ranging bison (bison bison) in yellowstone, grand teton, and wood buffalo national parks: a review. 19958592398
serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) in yellowstone national park, wyoming.from october 1989 to june 1993, we captured and sampled 110 coyotes (canis latrans) for various diseases in yellowstone national park, wyoming (usa). prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (cpv) was 100% for adults (> 24 months old), 100% for yearlings (12 to 24 months old), and 100% for old pups (4 to 12 months old); 0% of the young pups (< 3 months old) had antibodies against cpv. presence of antibodies against canine distemper virus (cdv) was associated with the age of the coyote, ...19979027690
survey of free-ranging elk from wyoming and montana for selected pathogens.from december 1991 through january 1995, a disease survey was conducted on herds of free-ranging, hunter-killed elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from three areas in proximity to yellowstone national park (ynp), wyoming (usa), after tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis was discovered in a captive herd of elk in the area. complete or partial sets of specimens from 289 elk collected between december 1991 and january 1993 were examined histologically; no mycobacterial lesions were observed. lesion ...19979131561
brucellosis in captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) caused by brucella abortus biovar 4.nine (four female, five male) captive adult rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) contracted brucellosis caused by brucella abortus biovar 4 as a result of natural exposure to an aborted elk (cervus elaphus) fetus. clinical signs of infection were orchitis and epididymitis in males and lymphadenitis and placentitis with abortion in females. gross pathologic findings included enlargement of the testes or epididymides, or both, and yellow caseous abscesses and pyogranulomas of the same. b ...200415362833
brucellosis in elk of eastern idaho.brucellosis occurs in free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) and bison (bison bison) in the greater yellowstone area, which includes portions of idaho, wyoming, and montana. brucella abortus was first detected in elk in idaho in 1998, and from 1998 to 2002, serologic surveillance of hunter-killed elk was conducted in northeastern and southeastern idaho. prevalence of antibodies in these elk varied annually, but averaged between 2% and 3%. elk were also trapped in northeastern idaho from 1998-2002 and ...200616870849
effects of management, behavior, and scavenging on risk of brucellosis transmission in elk of western wyoming.brucellosis is endemic in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using winter feedgrounds of western wyoming, usa presumably because of increased animal density, duration of attendance, and subsequent contact with aborted fetuses. however, previous research addressed antibody prevalence rather than more direct measures of transmission and did not account for elk behavior or scavenging in transmission risk. throughout march and early april 2005-07, we monitored 48 sets of culture-negative, pseudoaborted el ...200919395749
dna genotyping suggests that recent brucellosis outbreaks in the greater yellowstone area originated from elk.identifying the source of infectious disease outbreaks is difficult, especially for pathogens that infect multiple wildlife species. brucella spp. are among the most problematic zoonotic agents worldwide, and they are notoriously difficult to detect and identify. we genotyped 10 variable number of tandem repeat (vntr) dna loci in 56 brucella abortus isolates from bison (bos bison), elk (cervus elaphus), and cattle (bos taurus) to test the wildlife species most likely to be the origin of recent o ...200919901392
identification of brucella abortus genes in elk (cervus elaphus) using in vivo-induced antigen technology (iviat) reveals novel markers of infection.elk in the greater yellowstone area are a major reservoir for brucellosis, which represents an obstacle to eradication of the disease in domestic livestock. furthermore, immune responses to brucella abortus infection in the wild host are not well-understood. in this regard, in vivo-induced antigen technology (iviat) was employed to identify novel b. abortus antigens expressed during infection in elk. sera collected from sero-positive wyoming elk were pooled and absorbed against in vitro-grown cu ...201019914012
probable causes of increasing brucellosis in free-ranging elk of the greater yellowstone ecosystem.while many wildlife species are threatened, some populations have recovered from previous overexploitation, and data linking these population increases with disease dynamics are limited. we present data suggesting that free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) are a maintenance host for brucella abortus in new areas of the greater yellowstone ecosystem (gye). brucellosis seroprevalence in free-ranging elk increased from 0-7% in 1991-1992 to 8-20% in 2006-2007 in four of six herd units around the gye. th ...201020349847
vaccination strategies for managing brucellosis in yellowstone bison.concerns over migratory bison (bison bison) at yellowstone national park transmitting brucellosis (brucella abortus) to cattle herds on adjacent lands led to proposals for bison vaccination. we developed an individual-based model to evaluate how brucellosis infection might respond under alternate vaccination strategies, including: (1) vaccination of female calves and yearlings captured at the park boundary when bison move outside the primary conservation area; (2) combining boundary vaccination ...201020362620
status of brucellosis in free-ranging elk and bison in wyoming.brucella abortus is the causative agent of brucellosis, a disease enzootic in populations of free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) and bison (bison bison) in the greater yellowstone ecosystem, usa. we define the distribution of the disease in elk throughout wyoming, usa, using three epidemiologic/geographic classifications based on winter-foraging opportunity. antibody prevalence for >3,300 yearling and adult, female elk, sampled from supplemental feedgrounds in western wyoming, usa, since 1985, was ...201020688637
molecular epidemiology of brucella abortus isolates from cattle, elk, and bison in the united states, 1998 to 2011.a variable-number tandem repeat (vntr) protocol targeting 10 loci in the brucella abortus genome was used to assess genetic diversity among 366 field isolates recovered from cattle, bison, and elk in the greater yellowstone area (gya) and texas during 1998 to 2011. minimum spanning tree (mst) and unweighted-pair group method with arithmetic mean (upgma) analyses of vntr data identified 237 different vntr types, among which 14 prominent clusters of isolates could be identified. cattle isolates fr ...201222427502
brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock in the greater yellowstone ecosystem: inferences from dna genotyping.the wildlife of the greater yellowstone ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th century. brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, brucella abortus . we examined b. abortus transmission between american bison ( bison bison ), rocky mountain elk ( cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (vntr) markers on dn ...201728118557
abortion and premature birth in cattle following vaccination with brucella abortus strain rb51.brucella abortus rb51 is the vaccine strain currently licensed for immunizing cattle against brucellosis in the united states. most cattle are vaccinated as heifer calves at 4-12 months of age. adult cattle may be vaccinated in selected high-risk situations. two herds of pregnant adult cattle in the brucellosis-endemic area of wyoming were vaccinated with a standard label dose (1.0-3.4 × 10(10) organisms) of rb51. reproductive losses in the vaccinated herds were 5.3% (herd a) and 0.6% (herd b) a ...201323942901
an ecological perspective on brucella abortus in the western united states.after a hiatus during the 1990s, outbreaks of brucella abortus in cattle are occurring more frequently in some of the western states of the united states, namely, montana, wyoming and idaho. this increase is coincidentwith increasing brucellosis seroprevalence in elk (cervus elaphus), which is correlated with elk density. vaccines are a seductive solution, but their use in wildlife systems remains limited by logistical, financial, and scientific constraints. cattle vaccination is ongoing in the ...201323837367
shifting brucellosis risk in livestock coincides with spreading seroprevalence in elk.tracking and preventing the spillover of disease from wildlife to livestock can be difficult when rare outbreaks occur across large landscapes. in these cases, broad scale ecological studies could help identify risk factors and patterns of risk to inform management and reduce incidence of disease. between 2002 and 2014, 21 livestock herds in the greater yellowstone area (gya) were affected by brucellosis, a bacterial disease caused by brucella abortus, while no affected herds were detected betwe ...201728609437
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