california goats with a disease resembling enzootic ataxia or a retrospective study typical signs and lesions of enzootic ataxia or swayback were found in 16 young dairy goats from eight widely scattered herds in california. in addition to the constant appearance of chromatolytic neurons in brainstem and spinal cord, and myelin deficiency in certain tracts of the cord, cerebellar hypoplasia was found frequently. liver copper was subnormal in six of nine kids tested. the disease is viewed as a developmental defect in which failure of neuronal perikaryon ...1978566481
prevalence of coxiella burnetii (q fever) and toxoplasma gondii among dairy goats in california.the prevalence of antibodies against coxiella burnetii and toxoplasma gondii, the causative agents of q fever and toxoplasmosis, was examined in goats to determine the extent of the potential of goats to tansfer these infections to persons. of 1,054 goats from 234 premises in california, 248 goats (24%) were seropositive for c burnetii and 246 (23%) were seropositive for t gondii. of 29 dairy goats tested, 2 (7%) were found to be shedding the q fever rickettsia in their milk; t gondii was not de ...1978727592
variation amongst the neutralizing epitopes of bluetongue viruses isolated in the united states in 1979-1981.neutralizing epitopes present on field isolates of bluetongue virus (btv) serotypes 10, 11, 13 and 17 were evaluated with a panel of polyclonal and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs). a total of 91 field isolates were evaluated, including 15 isolates of btv-10, 29 isolates of btv-11, 26 isolates of btv-13, and 21 isolates of btv-17. the viruses were isolated from cattle, goats, sheep, elk and deer in idaho, louisiana, nebraska and, predominantly, california, in the years 1979, 1980 and 19 ...19921379766
epizootiological study of bluetongue virus infection in california livestock: an epidemiologic program was undertaken in california to study bluetongue virus (btv) infection in domestic livestock. the study was designed to determine: a) prevalence of btv infection, b) serotypes of btv actively causing infection, c) seasonality of infection and d) species infected. a total of 8,751 cattle, 14,639 sheep and 4,785 goats were tested over the 3 1/2 year study. serologically, 41% of the cattle, 42% of the sheep and 21% of the goats were positive. virologically, 2.4% of the catt ...19852989906
epidemiologic study of bluetongue virus on the tejon ranch, california: vector, host, virus relationships.culicoides gnats were monitored from april through november, 1981, on the tejon ranch, kern county. levels of gnat breeding were determined by quantitative sampling of substrate from intermittent and permanent water sources. adult populations were measured by light trap collections taken around pens holding sentinel beef cattle, dairy calves, sheep, goats and deer. adult gnats were collected in the environs of the study area, and blood samples were obtained from sentinel animals for laboratory d ...19852989907
absence of la crosse virus in the presence of aedes triseriatus on the delmarva peninsula.between 1980 and 1984, field studies were conducted in 2 areas on the delmarva peninsula to identify the presence of la crosse (lac) virus. ovitraps were used to collect eggs of aedes triseriatus complex mosquitoes. no virus was obtained from 969 pools containing 22,370 adult mosquitoes reared from eggs. only 1 of 143 raccoon serum samples had neutralizing antibody to lac virus; 36 sentinel domestic goats, and 99 other wild mammal serum samples were negative. the apparent absence of lac virus ma ...19863507467
ophthalmomyiasis externa in california. 19863953074
serologic survey of toxoplasmosis in southern california domestic animals by a hemagglutination, microtiter method. 19694993567
caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus isolated from michigan goats.a syncytium-forming agent with reverse transcriptase activity was isolated in cell culture from materials collected from 19 michigan goats and 1 goat recently imported from california. syncytia formation could be maintained by subpassaging cells or filtered supernate from infected cultures with caprine fetal synovial membrane indicator cells. electron microscopy by negative staining with ammonium molybdate revealed 100-nm retrovirus-like particles morphologically identified as caprine arthritis- ...19846208829
caprine mycoplasmosis: widespread infection in goats with mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides (large-colony type).a mycoplasma survey of goats with a history of mastitis, polyarthritis, and pneumonia revealed a high incidence of mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides (large-colony type). during the early winter kidding season of 1979-1980, kid morbidity in a large commercial dairy herd, evidenced by hyperthermia, polyarthritis, and pneumonia, exceeded 90%. in excess of 200 kids died. colostral cultures of the parent does yielded 157 isolations from 605 goats (26%). additional isolations were made from goats wit ...19836338774
q fever hazards from sheep and goats used in research.two recent outbreaks of q fever in research institutions prompted the authors to review extant data, in an effort to delineate hazards to humans from small ruminants used in research. prevalence of q fever antibodies was 24% among 2097 sheep and 57% among 1475 goats from various sources. in a facility using sheep for prenatal research, in which an epidemic of human q fever later occurred, antibody prevalence among sheep was 77%, with larger than usual proportions of high (greater than or equal t ...19827073323
serologic evidence of jamestown canyon and keystone virus infection in vertebrates of the delmarva peninsula.serological data accumulated during the past decade indicated that a variety of feral and domestic animals of the delaware-maryland-virginia (delmarva) peninsula were infected with jamestown canyon (jc) and/or keystone (key) viruses (bunyaviridae, california serogroup). neutralizing (n) antibody to jc virus was most prevalent in white-tailed deer, sika deer, cottontail rabbits and horses. key virus n antibody was detected most frequently in gray squirrels and domestic goats. n antibody indicativ ...19827149110
a serologic survey of mycoplasma putrefaciens infection in goats.the prevalence of mycoplasma putrefaciens infection in goat populations in mendocino and sonoma counties of northern california was studied, using the plate and tube agglutination tests. on a county basis, mendocino had a higher antibody prevalence (13%) than sonoma (10%). the overall antibody prevalence among the 377 goat serum samples tested was 11%. there was no statistical evidence to show any significant difference in prevalence on the basis of herd size. of the common goat breeds in califo ...19817325445
heterogeneity of the l2 gene of field isolates of bluetongue virus serotype 17 from the san joaquin valley of california.genome segment 2 (l2) from six field isolates of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 17 was sequenced by cycling sequencing after the amplification of the viral cdna by the polymerase chain reaction. the viruses were isolated from sheep, cattle and a goat in the san joaquin valley of california during the years 1981 and 1990. these viruses exhibit divergent patterns of neutralization with btv 17-specific monoclonal antibodies. the six l2 genes of the btv 17 field isolates all encode a protein of 955 ...19948165870
bluetongue disease and the molecular epidemiology of viruses from the western united states.prototype and field isolates of united states bluetongue viruses were evaluated for genetic heterogeneity by sequence analyses. prototype viruses btv 2, 10, 11, 13 and 17 from the united states, btv 10 vaccine virus, and field isolates of btv 10 and 17 from california were analyzed. gene segment 2 from btv 10 and 17 isolated in 1980-81 and 1990 was sequenced along with gene segment 9 from btv 10 isolates. the wisconsin package was used to analyze nucleotide sequences and to predict amino acid co ...19968800543
dna sequence similarity between california isolates of cryptosporidium parvum.we evaluated whether nucleic acid amplification with primers specific for cryptosporidium parvum followed by automated dna sequence analysis of the pcr amplicons could differentiate between california isolates of c. parvum obtained from livestock, humans, and feral pigs. almost complete sequence identity existed among the livestock isolates and between the livestock and human isolates. dna sequences from feral pig isolates differed from those from livestock and humans by 1.0 to 1.2%. the referen ...19989546195
comparative molecular characterization of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis of different origin.ribotyping and susceptibility to 17 antimicrobial agents were used to compare 37 isolates of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (28 from horses, 1 from cattle, 3 from sheep and 5 from goats) derived from various types of lesions, and different geographic locations. according to the presence of nitrate reductase, all but one isolate from horses reduced nitrate (nitrate-positive), whereas all isolates from sheep and goats were unable to reduce nitrate (nitrate-negative). the ribotype of the nitrat ...19989695286
direct and indirect contact rates among beef, dairy, goat, sheep, and swine herds in three california counties, with reference to control of potential foot-and-mouth disease estimate direct and indirect contact rates on livestock facilities and distance traveled between herd contacts.200111453490
characterization of a new adenovirus isolated from black-tailed deer in adenovirus associated with systemic and localized vascular damage was demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in a newly recognized epizootic hemorrhagic disease in california black-tailed deer. in this study, we describe the cultural, physicochemical and serological characteristics of a virus isolated from lung using neonatal white-tail deer lung and turbinate cell cultures. the virus had the cultural, morphological and physicochemical characteristics of mem ...200111504424
q fever--california, georgia, pennsylvania, and tennessee, 2000-2001.q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium coxiella burnetii. the most common reservoirs are domesticated ruminants, primarily cattle, sheep, and goats. humans acquire q fever typically by inhaling aerosols or contaminated dusts derived from infected animals or animal products. its highly infectious nature and aerosol route of transmission make c. burnetii a possible agent of bioterrorism. although up to 60% of initial infections are asymptomatic, acute disease can manifest as a relat ...200212403408
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2001.during 2001, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,437 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of < 1% from 7,364 cases in nonhuman animals and 5 human cases reported in 2000. more than 93% (6,939 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.7% (497 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93.0% in wild animals and 6.9% in domestic species in 2000). the number of cases reported in 2001 increased among bats, cat ...200212494966
description of an epidemic simulation model for use in evaluating strategies to control an outbreak of foot-and-mouth develop a spatial epidemic model to simulate intraherd and interherd transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus.200312602589
results of epidemic simulation modeling to evaluate strategies to control an outbreak of foot-and-mouth assess estimated effectiveness of control and eradication procedures for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in a region of california.200312602590
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2002.during 2002, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,967 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 7.2% from the 7,436 cases in non-human animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 2001. more than 92% (7,375 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 7.4% (592) were in domestic species (compared with 93.3% in wild animals and 6.7% in domestic species in 2001). compared with cases reported in 2001, the numbers of ...200314690203
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2003.during 2003, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,170 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the cdc. this represents a 10% decrease from the 7,967 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2002. more than 91 (n = 6,556) were in wild animals, and 8.6% (614) were in domestic species (compared with 92.5% in wild animals and 74% in domestic species in 2002). the relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: 2,635 raccoons ...200415643834
geographic distribution of the muscle-dwelling nematode parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in north america, using molecular identification of first-stage larvae.molecular identification of dorsal-spined larvae (dsl) from fecal samples indicates that the protostrongylid parasite parelaphostrongylus odocoilei occupies a broader geographic range in western north america than has been previously reported. we analyzed 2,124 fecal samples at 29 locations from thinhorn sheep (ovis dalli dalli and o. d. stonei), bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis and o. c. californiana), mountain goats (oreamnos americanus), woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou), ...200516108550
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2004.during 2004, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,836 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings to the cdc, representing a 4.6% decrease from the 7,170 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2003. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals (compared with 91% and 9%, respectively, in 2003). relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,564 raccoons (37.5%), 1,856 skunks (27.1%), 1,361 bat ...200516379626
orf virus infection in humans--new york, illinois, california, and tennessee, 2004-2005.orf virus is a zoonotic parapoxvirus endemic to most countries in the world and is principally associated with small ruminants (e.g., sheep and goats). human orf infections appear as ulcerative skin lesions after contact with an infected animal or contaminated fomite. this report summarizes the epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of four sporadic cases of human orf infection, emphasizing the temporal association between human lesions and skin trauma or recent flock vaccination with live ...200616437055
farm and animal exposures and pediatric brain tumors: results from the united states west coast childhood brain tumor study.nineteen counties from san francisco and los angeles, california and seattle, washington were the united states sites for a large population-based case-control study of childhood brain tumors (cbts), sponsored by the national cancer institute. cbt patients who were < 20 years of age and were diagnosed between 1984 and 1991 were reported to each region's cancer registry. the 801 control subjects were obtained by random digit dial and were frequency-matched to the 540 cbt patients in san francisco ...19989752988
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2006.during 2006, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the cdc, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,615 raccoons (37.7%), 1,692 bats (24.4%), 1,494 skunks (21.5%), 427 foxes (6.2%), 318 cats (4.6%), 82 cattle (1.2%), and 79 dogs (1. ...200717696853
biosecurity practices and travel history of individuals exhibiting livestock at the 2005 california state determine biosecurity practices and travel history of individuals exhibiting livestock at the 2005 california state fair.200717696860
potential impact of an introduction of foot-and-mouth disease into the california state estimate the potential spread of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) if infected livestock had been exhibited at the 2005 california state fair.200717937554
plastid dna diversity is higher in the island endemic guadalupe cypress than in the continental tecate cypress.callitropsis guadalupensis (guadalupe cypress) is endemic to guadalupe island, mexico, where it is the dominant species of the only forest. the species has suffered declining numbers following the introduction of goats to the island over 150 years ago. callitropsis guadalupensis is closely related to callitropsis forbesii (tecate cypress), distributed in small isolated populations in mainland baja california and southern california. the objective of the present study was to compare the genetic d ...201121283771
antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and coxiella burneti among students and other personnel in veterinary colleges in california and brazil. 19744606228
a dynamic, optimal disease control model for foot-and-mouth-disease: ii. model results and policy implications.a dynamic optimization model was used to search for optimal strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the three-county region in the central valley of california. the model minimized total regional epidemic cost by choosing the levels of depopulation of diagnosed herds, preemptive depopulation, and vaccination. impacts of limited carcass disposal capacity and vaccination were also examined, and the shadow value, the implicit value of each capacity, was estimated. the model found that ...200717280730
a dynamic, optimal disease control model for foot-and-mouth disease: i. model description.a dynamic optimization model was developed and used to evaluate alternative foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) control strategies. the model chose daily control strategies of depopulation and vaccination that minimized total regional cost for the entire epidemic duration, given disease dynamics and resource constraints. the disease dynamics and the impacts of control strategies on these dynamics were characterized in a set of difference equations; effects of movement restrictions on the disease dynami ...200717280729
toxoplasmosis infection associated with raw goat's october 1978, a large family cluster of acute toxoplasmosis was identified in northern california. indirect fluorescent igm antibody tests showed that ten of 24 members of an extended family had serological evidence of acute toxoplasma infection. the index case had retinochoroiditis; the other nine persons had asymptomatic infections. all ten seropositive persons had recently consumed raw goat's milk from the family herd as compared with no consumption of raw milk by the 14 persons with negat ...19827120593
hydatid disease in california. study of hospital records, 1960 through 1969. 19715167186
caprine mycoplasmosis: an outbreak of mastitis and arthritis requiring the destruction of 700 acute outbreak of mastitis and arthritis in a herd of 700 goats required the destruction of all but the few animals that were held for observation. the milk of nearly all of about 400 lactating does contained almost pure cultures of mycoplasma putrefaciens with counts in 150 samples up to 1 x 10(9) colony forming units/ml. at post mortem examination the joints of both the adults and kids contained a fibrinopurulent discharge. m putrefaciens was isolated in pure cultures and large numbers from ...19873603972
allozyme variation in the endangered insular endemic castilleja grisea.genetic diversity in castilleja grisea, an endangered, perennial herb endemic to san clemente island, california was investigated. subsequent to the elimination of goats from the island in 1992, many populations of c. grisea have reappeared and have been increasing in size.200515820989
risk factors associated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats on california dairies.log-linear methodology was used to examine relations among caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) seroreactivity and host/management factors in a cross-sectional study of 2,826 goats on 13 california dairies. the caev serologic status was associated with age and feeding method (pasteurized/unpasteurized milk), but not with breed. data from a prevalence survey of 321 goats from 2 additional dairies demonstrated very good fit of the selected log-linear model (p = 1.00), indicating that the mo ...19911852145
risk factors associated with the incidence of seroconversion to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in goats on california dairies.incidence of seroconversion to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) was determined for 1,194 goats on 11 dairies, using 2 repeated annual herd tests for caev. current life table methods were used to compare age-specific incidence of seroconversion for pasteurized milk-raised and unpasteurized milk-raised goats. logistic regression models were used to determine the risk factors associated with caev seroconversion, and to estimate odds ratios for seroconversion for various factor levels. go ...19921335710
cohort study of natural transmission and two methods for control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats on a california dairy.a prospective observational cohort study of 361 dairy goat kids was conducted to compare 2 methods of controlling caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection under commercial dairy conditions. to compare effectiveness of feeding kids pasteurized milk vs serologic testing and segregation in addition to pasteurized milk feeding, goats were monitored up to the age of 30 months by use of monthly agar gel immunodiffusion testing. survival analysis methods were used to determine whether age at sero ...19921335709
meeting report: uc davis transgenic animal research conference vi : granlibakken conference center, tahoe city, california, august 12-16, 2007. 200717940845
abortion and ulcerative posthitis associated with caprine herpesvirus-1 infection in goats in california.three outbreaks of late-gestation abortions in does and ulcerative posthitis in bucks, associated with caprine herpes virus-1 (chv-1), in california are described. in herd a, 10 of 17 does aborted in a 7-day period, whereas in herd b, 4 of 130 does aborted in a 45-day period and in herd c, 100 of 300 does aborted in a 3-week period. most fetuses had multifocal pinpoint depressed foci with a zone of hyperemia on external and cut surfaces of the kidneys, liver, lungs, and adrenal glands. histologi ...200415460339
evaluation of north american antibody detection tests for diagnosis of brucellosis in goats.the sensitivities and specificities of 17 antibody detection tests for brucellosis in goats were estimated. tests evaluated included the u.s. department of agriculture (usda) card test with 8% cell concentration (8%card), usda rapid automated presumptive test (rap), mexican rose bengal plate tests with 8 and 3% cell concentrations (8%rb and 3%rb), french rose bengal plate test with 4.5% cell concentration (4.5%rb), usda standard plate test (spt), usda buffered acidified plate agglutination test ...19989620406
rescuing wild andalusian goats. 19957759326
caprine encephalomyelomalacia.six cases of encephalomyelomalacia in dairy goats 3 1/2 to four months of age are described. neurologic signs had an abrupt onset and passed rapidly from ataxia to paralysis. all goats were killed after six to ten days and had spinal cord and brain stem lesions--always more extensive and severe in the cord. the bilaterally symmetrical necrotic lesions were restricted to the ventral and intermediate gray substance in the cord and to certain brain stem nuclei. the spinal cord enlargements were aff ...19846730215
a survey for toxoplasma antibodies in northern california livestock and dogs. 19744825778
california serogroup virus infections in wisconsin domestic animals.a serologic survey and experimental virus transmission studies were done to assess the role of domestic animals as amplifier hosts of la crosse (lacv) and jamestown canyon (jcv) viruses. serum from 319 cows, 88 dogs, 122 equines, 47 swine, 10 goats, and 4 cats were tested for neutralizing antibody to lacv, jcv, trivittatus (tvtv), and snowshoe hare (sshv) viruses. antibody prevalences of lacv, tvtv, and sshv were less than 10% in all species. antibody to jcv was detected in all species except ca ...19883189702
status and prospects of the dairy goat industry in the united states.among the major classes of u.s. livestock, dairy goats have yet to achieve usda statistical reporting of their numbers, amounts of milk produced and processed, and cheese and other products marketed. however, the usda has published buck proofs of approximately 16,000 does annually from dairy herd improvement association (dhia) records of the alpine, lamancha, nubian, oberhasli, saanen and toggenburg breeds, thereby encouraging genetic progress. this represents a 1% participation in dhia of the e ...19968726751
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