Publications

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the occurrence of listeria species in milk and dairy products: a national survey in england and wales.a total of 4172 samples of milk, cheese and other dairy products were examined over a 1-year period for the presence of listeria species. strains of listeria were found most frequently in soft, ripened cows milk cheese; 63 out of 769 (8.2%) samples contained listeria monocytogenes, 25 samples contained species other than l. monocytogenes, and 18 samples contained both l. monocytogenes and other listeria spp. eleven samples of pasteurized cows milk (1.1%) from four dairies contained l. monocytoge ...19911904761
scrapie in the welsh mountain breed of sheep and its experimental transmission to goats. 19654954629
investigations on babesia motasi isolated from wales.a number of observations were carried out on the effect of the newly isolated parasite, babesia motasi (wales) on intact and splenectomised sheep and on a splenectomised goat. the parasite was not pathogenic for intact animals but caused fever and anaemia in splenectomised ones. b motasi (wales) was also studied morphologically, morphometrically and serologically. the common form of the parasite was seen to be a double pyriform, the mean length of one side being 2.23 micrometer. it appeared to b ...19817323470
availability of medicines for sheep and goats. 19968931307
incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw sheep and goats' milk in england, wales and northern ireland.a blind survey of 104 raw sheep and goats' milk samples (90 goat, 14 sheeps) from bulk tanks on farms throughout england, wales and northern ireland was carried out over a 5-month period (january-may 1998) in order to determine the incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis. each milk sample (100 ml) was divided into two 50ml portions. one portion was decontaminated with 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride for 5h before culture on slopes of herrold's egg yolk medium and in bactec radiometric med ...200111230934
comparisons of original laboratory results and retrospective analysis by real-time reverse transcriptase-pcr of virological samples collected from confirmed cases of foot-and-mouth disease in the uk in 2001.there were 2030 designated cases of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) during the course of the epidemic in the uk in 2001 (including four from northern ireland). samples from 1720 of the infected premises (ips) were received in the laboratory and examined for either the presence of fmd virus (virological samples from 1421 ips) or both fmd virus and antibody (virological and serological samples from 255 ips) or antibody alone (from 44 ips). the time taken to issue final diagnostic results ranged from ...200616980522
verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli o157 in animals on public amenity premises in england and wales, 1997 to 2007.at the request of the public health authorities, 31 public amenity premises in england and wales containing animals of various species were investigated for the presence of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec) o157 between 1997 and 2007, because of putative associations with human cases. vtec o157 was confirmed in one or more species on 19 (61.3 per cent) of the premises. there were significant associations between the presence of vtec o157 and the number of species sampled, the size of the ...200919411683
zoonotic cryptosporidiosis from petting farms, england and wales, 1992-2009. 201121192888
verocytotoxin-producing and attaching and effacing activity of escherichia coli isolated from diseased farm livestock.between may 2005 and june 2008, strategically selected isolates of escherichia coli obtained from clinical submissions to veterinary laboratories agency (vla) regional laboratories in england and wales were serogrouped and examined by pcr for verocytotoxin (vt) production and attaching and effacing (eae) genes, both of which are zoonotic determinants. vt-encoding genes were detected in 54 (5.3 per cent) of the 1022 isolates examined. only one isolate (0.1 per cent) was identified as verocytotoxi ...201121546408
assessment of welfare on 24 commercial uk dairy goat farms based on direct observations.the preliminary findings from an investigation into the health and welfare of goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the uk are described. an assessment protocol involving direct observations of the goats was developed in order to assess their welfare. twenty-four dairy goat farms in england and wales were visited and assessed during the period autumn 2004 to summer 2005. the main welfare issues identified were lameness and claw overgrowth, udder and teat lesions, skin lesions and pruritus.201021262609
investigation of farms linked to human patients with cryptosporidiosis in england and wales.the study investigates farms suspected of being sources of zoonotic human cryptosporidiosis. a variety of implicated farm animal species were sampled and tested to detect cryptosporidium oocysts and investigate genetic linkage with human patients. risk factor information was collected from each farm and analysed by multivariable logistic regression to detect significant associations between factors and cryptosporidium in animals. the results showed that average sample prevalence of cryptosporidi ...201020096944
establishment of a maedi-visna-free flock after the purchase of infected sheep.maedi-visna (mv) infection was detected in a cohort of 68 purchased ewes, one of several groups of sheep introduced to a farm after the previous stock had been culled with suspected foot-and-mouth disease in 2001. except for short periods totalling six to seven weeks when the sheep co-grazed with 13 ewe lambs and ram lambs, the infected cohort was kept separate from other sheep on the farm over a total of 21 months. during this period two crops of lambs were reared from the infected ewes. all th ...200516157569
health risks associated with unpasteurized goats' and ewes' milk on retail sale in england and wales. a phls dairy products working group study.a pilot study to determine the microbiological quality of unpasteurized milk from goats and ewes sampled from farm shops, health food shops, and other retail premises found that 47%, (47/100) of goats' and 50% (13/26) of ewes' milk samples failed the standards prescribed by the dairy products (hygiene) regulations 1995. in addition, staphylococcus aureus, haemolytic streptococci or enterococci, were present in excess of 10(2) c.f.u./ml in 9 (7 %) 2 (2 %) and 19 (15%) samples, respectively. salmo ...199910459642
molecular variation, evolution and geographical distribution of louping ill virus.following the demonstration that the tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) subgroup viruses are distributed as a cline across the northern hemisphere (zanotto et al., 1995), we have analyzed the dispersal pattern of louping ill (li) virus, the most westerly located member in the cline. a total number of 21 li or li-related virus e gene sequences have been used for a detailed molecular analysis of the evolution, phylogeny and geographical distribution of li virus in the british isles and ireland. the res ...19979607079
the epidemiology of echinococcus granulosus in great britain. v. the status of subspecies of echinococcus granulosus in great britain.twenty-five years ago williams and sweatman suggested that in great britain there are two subspecies of echinococcus granulosus--e. granulosus granulosus and e. granulosus equinus. echinococcus granulosus granulosus does not mature either in foxes or in horses: e. granulosus equinus will mature in either. the prepatent period of e. granulosus granulosus in the definitive host is about 42 days while that of e. granulosus equinus is about 70 days. each subspecies has a characteristic morphology. m ...19892596902
yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a cause of ocular disease in goats. 201020511658
vero cytotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157 gastroenteritis in farm visitors, north wales.an outbreak of vero cytotoxin-producing escherichia coli o157 (vtec o157) gastroenteritis in visitors to an open farm in north wales resulted in 17 primary and 7 secondary cases of illness. e. coli o157 vero cytotoxin type 2, phage type 2 was isolated from 23 human cases and environmental animal fecal samples. a case-control study of 16 primary case-patients and 36 controls (all children) showed a significant association with attendance on the 2nd day of a festival, eating ice cream or cotton ca ...200312737734
communicable disease associated with milk and dairy products in england and wales: 1983-1984.during the period 1983-1984 32 outbreaks of disease (ii in 1983 and 21 in 1984) associated with consumption of milk and dairy products and affecting at least 714 people were reported from england and wales. twenty-seven of the outbreaks were attributed to raw milk, two to contaminated pasteurised milk and one each to cheese, cream and ice-cream. twenty-two were due to salmonellas, seven to campylobacters and one each to staphylococcus aureus, yersinia enterocolitica and streptococcus zooepidemic ...19863722841
outbreak of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis in golden guernsey goats in great britain.an outbreak of caprine tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis was disclosed in june 2008, affecting goats of the golden guernsey breed kept on 10 separate smallholdings in south-west wales and the west of england. following the initial diagnosis at postmortem examination, 30 goats that reacted positively to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (sicct) test, together with five in-contact animals, were euthanased and subjected to postmortem examination and mycobacterial cultu ...200919767636
occurrence of anthelmintic resistant nematodes on sheep farms in england and goat farms in england and wales.a survey in 1992 showed that 44 per cent of the sheep farms tested in the south west and 15 per cent of those in the north east of england had parasitic nematode worm burdens which were resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics, and that 65 per cent of the non-dairy goat farms tested in england and wales had resistant worms. ostertagia circumcincta was the main species in sheep and haemonchus contortus in goats. the resistance to benzimidazoles was diagnosed by a combination of an egg hatch assay ...19968843638
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