an outbreak of type e botulism among common loons (gavia immer) in michigan's upper epizootic of type e botulism (clostridium botulinum) occurred among common loons (gavia immer) along the lake michigan shore of michigan's upper peninsula (usa) during october and november 1983. an estimated 592 dead loons washed ashore along the garden peninsula. type e botulinal toxin was demonstrated in blood samples and stomach contents of dead loons, and in samples of three species of dead fish found on the lake michigan shore. we suspect that loons acquired botulism by ingesting sick or ...19883411704
interaction between clostridium botulinum type e toxin and ddt in white mice. 19694891760
association of toxin-producing clostridium botulinum with the macroalga cladophora in the great lakes.avian botulism, a paralytic disease of birds, often occurs on a yearly cycle and is increasingly becoming more common in the great lakes. outbreaks are caused by bird ingestion of neurotoxins produced by clostridium botulinum, a spore-forming, gram-positive, anaerobe. the nuisance, macrophytic, green alga cladophora (chlorophyta; mostly cladophora glomerata l.) is a potential habitat for the growth of c. botulinum. a high incidence of botulism in shoreline birds at sleeping bear dunes national l ...201323421373
possible origin of the high incidence of clostridium botulinum type e in an inland bay (green bay of lake michigan).bottom and shoreline sediments of green bay, northern lake michigan, and rivers of the green bay drainage basin, as well as soils of the surrounding land mass, were examined for clostridium botulinum type e. detection was based on identification of type e toxin in enrichment cultures and was influenced by many factors. testing smaller amounts of sample in multiple cultures was more productive than examining large inocula in fewer cultures. incubation at 30 c was unsatisfactory, but 14 days at 20 ...19684870273
ocular findings in botulism type april 1977, fifty-nine persons became ill with type b botulism in a large, common-source outbreak. a combination of signs and symptoms that should make the clinician strongly suspect botulism was derived from the histories and ocular findings of these persons. certain signs of third cranial nerve dysfunction reliably predicted in which patients ventilatory insufficiency would develop.1979366187
type e botulism. report of an outbreak in michigan. 196414084821
spatial, temporal, and matrix variability of clostridium botulinum type e toxin gene distribution at great lakes beaches.clostridium botulinum type e toxin is responsible for extensive mortality of birds and fish in the great lakes. the c. botulinum bonte gene that produces the type e toxin was amplified with quantitative pcr from 150 sloughed algal samples (primarily cladophora species) collected during summer 2012 from 10 great lakes beaches in five states; concurrently, 74 sediment and 37 water samples from four sites were also analyzed. the bonte gene concentration in algae was significantly higher than in wat ...201525888178
prevalence of toxin-producing clostridium botulinum associated with the macroalga cladophora in three great lakes: growth and management.the reemergence of avian botulism caused by clostridium botulinum type e has been observed across the great lakes in recent years. evidence suggests an association between the nuisance algae, cladophora spp., and c. botulinum in nearshore areas of the great lakes. however, the nature of the association between cladophora and c. botulinum is not fully understood due, in part, to the complex food web interactions in this disease etiology. in this study, we extensively evaluated their association b ...201525577739
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