isolation and characterization of catalase-negative and catalase-weak strains of campylobacter species, including "campylobacter upsaliensis," from humans with gastroenteritis.during 1987 and 1988, nine strains of catalase-negative or -weak campylobacter species were isolated in alberta, canada. dna hybridization studies demonstrated that seven strains were "campylobacter upsaliensis," one strain was highly homologous with campylobacter jejuni dna, and one strain was a campylobacter unrelated to the other two species. all "c. upsaliensis" strains were hippurate negative, and six of seven were susceptible to cephalothin. the unusual variant of c. jejuni was hippurate p ...19892778067
incidence of antibiotic resistance and characterization of plasmids in campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from clinical sources in alberta, canada.antibiotic susceptibilities of 382 strains of campylobacter jejuni isolated in alberta, canada, in 1980 and 1981 were determined. although none were resistant to erythromycin or gentamicin, 5.4 and 22% of strains were resistant to ampicillin in 1980 and 1981, respectively. tetracycline resistance was noted in 6.8% of strains in 1980 and in 8.6% in 1981. moreover, resistance to high-level tetracycline (32-128 micrograms/ml) was always mediated by a plasmid of 45-50 kilobases. three transmissible ...19863008970
outbreak of campylobacter enteritis due to consumption of raw milk. 19827066825
campylobacter fetus diarrhea in a hutterite colony: epidemiological observations and typing of the causative organism.following a case of campylobacter fetus sepsis and meningitis in a 4-month-old female member of a hutterite colony, an epidemiological investigation revealed at least 18 cases of diarrhea in other members of the colony. c. fetus was isolated from 7 of 15 fecal samples submitted from affected persons. a case control study suggested that persons who worked in the abattoir were 2.03 times more likely to have had diarrhea, but none of the risk factors studied were significant. the epicurve of the ou ...19947910829
incidence of antibiotic resistance in campylobacter jejuni isolated in alberta, canada, from 1999 to 2002, with special reference to tet(o)-mediated tetracycline resistance.of 203 human clinical isolates of campylobacter jejuni from alberta, canada (1999 to 2002), 101 isolates (50%) were resistant to at least 64 microg of tetracycline/ml, with four isolates exhibiting higher levels of tetracycline resistance (512 microg/ml). in total, the mics for 37% of tetracycline-resistant isolates (256 to 512 microg/ml) were higher than those previously reported in c. jejuni (64 to 128 microg/ml). in the tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates, 67% contained plasmids and all ...200415328109
a time series analysis of the relationship of ambient temperature and common bacterial enteric infections in two canadian provinces.the incidence of enteric infections in the canadian population varies seasonally, and may be expected to be change in response to global climate changes. to better understand any potential impact of warmer temperature on enteric infections in canada, we investigated the relationship between ambient temperature and weekly reports of confirmed cases of three pathogens in canada: salmonella, pathogenic escherichia coli and campylobacter, between 1992 and 2000 in two canadian provinces. we used gene ...200616575582
temporal prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter spp. from beef cattle in alberta feedlots.antimicrobial resistance (amr) was temporally assessed in campylobacters isolated from beef cattle (7,738 fecal samples from 2,622 animals) in four commercial feedlots in alberta. all calves were administered chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in feed, and a majority of the animals (93%) were injected with long-acting oxytetracycline upon arrival at the feedlot. fecal samples from individual animals were collected upon arrival (i.e., entry sample), 69 days (standard deviation [sd] = 3 days) a ...200616751519
impacts on water quality in the upper elbow river.recent work has found evidence of deterioration in water quality in the elbow river upstream from calgary, alberta, canada. we sampled this basin to describe spatial and temporal trends and factors that could be contributing to this deterioration. sources near calgary generally contributed most of the total phosphorus (tp) entering the river, and most total suspended solids (tss) during low to average flows. during high flows, a large influx of tss occurred further upstream. sources of tp could ...200616838717
occurrence of pathogens in raw and ready-to-eat meat and poultry products collected from the retail marketplace in edmonton, alberta, canada.a total of 800 meat and poultry products were purchased from the retail marketplace in edmonton, alberta, canada. the products consisted of raw ground beef, chicken legs, pork chops, and ready-to-eat fermented sausage, roast beef, processed turkey breast, chicken wieners, and beef wieners. the samples were analyzed to determine the prevalence of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli, salmonella, campylobacter spp., and listeria monocytogenes. shiga toxin-producing e. coli 022: h8 was found in o ...200616995521
detection of bacteroidales fecal indicators and the zoonotic pathogens e. coli 0157:h7, salmonella, and campylobacter in river water.bacteroidales host-specific pcr offers a rapid method of diagnosing fecal pollution in water and identifying sources of input. to assess human health risks from exposure to fecal pathogens, however, bacteroidales markers should be detectable when pathogens are present. to determine if bacteroidales general, human-, ruminant-, and swine-specific markers correlate with certain fecal pathogens, we conducted a retrospective study on water samples for which the presence of e. coli o157:h7, salmonella ...200717410775
risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in reported campylobacter infections in southern alberta.we conducted a case-control study examining risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in campylobacter infections that were reported in 2004 and 2005 in two health regions in southern alberta. the study questionnaire included questions about recent travel and antibiotic use, food consumption frequency, use of household and personal hygiene products with antibacterial agents, contact with animals, and potential misuse of antibiotics. of the 210 patients who participated, 31.0% had ciprofloxacin-r ...200817678560
associations between antimicrobial exposure and resistance in fecal campylobacter spp. from grow-finish pigs on-farm in alberta and saskatchewan, canada.campylobacter spp. (n = 405), isolated from the feces of apparently healthy grow-finish pigs in 20 herds, were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials representing seven classes. twelve percent of the isolates were susceptible to all drugs, while 64% were resistant to two or more antimicrobial classes. resistance was most common to clindamycin, azithromycin, and erythromycin (71% each), and 10% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. an antimicrobial use risk-factor analysis and ...200919343934
microbiological baseline study of poultry slaughtered in provincially inspected abattoirs in alberta, canada.studies to determine baseline levels of microbial contaminants and foodborne bacterial pathogens are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of hazard analysis critical control point (haccp) programs, good manufacturing/production practices, and various interventions. in 2004 and 2005 poultry carcass rinses from provincially inspected abattoirs in alberta, canada, were tested to determine the levels of aerobic plate count bacteria, coliform bacteria, and generic escherichia coli, the prevalence and ...200919412397
antimicrobial drug use and antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria among cattle from alberta feedlots.the purpose of this study was to determine whether antimicrobial resistance (amr) in foodborne pathogens (escherichia coli o157, salmonella, and campylobacter) and non-type-specific e. coli obtained from fecal samples of feedlot cattle was associated with antimicrobial drug (amd) use. a secondary objective was to determine if amr in non-type-specific e. coli could be used as a predictor of amr in foodborne pathogens. fecal samples were collected from pen floors in 21 alberta feedlots during marc ...201019958100
prevalence and risk factor investigation of campylobacter species in beef cattle feces from seven large commercial feedlots in alberta, canada.this fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10,000 to > 40,000 head) commercial feedlots in alberta as a means of establishing campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (ci) = 86-88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% ci = 86-90) in the summer (n = 1376) ...200920046629
molecular subtypes of campylobacter spp., salmonella enterica, and escherichia coli o157:h7 isolated from faecal and surface water samples in the oldman river watershed, alberta, canada.campylobacter spp., salmonella enterica, and escherichia coli o157:h7 isolated from 898 faecal, 43 sewage, and 342 surface water samples from the oldman river were characterized using bacterial subtyping methods in order to investigate potential sources of contamination of the watershed. among these pathogens, campylobacter spp. were the most frequently isolated from faecal, sewage, and surface water samples (266/895, 11/43, and 91/342, respectively), followed by salmonella (67/898, 8/43, and 29 ...201120971491
enteric campylobacteria and rna viruses associated with healthy and diarrheic humans in the chinook health region of southwestern alberta, canada.the presence of campylobacter species and enteric rna viruses in stools from diarrheic (n = 442) and healthy (n = 58) humans living in southwestern alberta was examined (may to october 2005). a large number of diarrheic individuals who were culture negative for c. jejuni (n = 54) or c. coli (n = 19) were pcr positive for these taxa. overall detection rates for c. jejuni and c. coli in diarrheic stools were 29% and 5%, respectively. in contrast, 3% and 0% of stools from healthy humans were positi ...201021106791
Genes coding for virulence determinants of Campylobacter jejuni in human clinical and cattle isolates from Alberta, Canada, and their potential role in colonization of poultry.Forty nine Campylobacter jejuni isolates from cattle feces collected from Alberta feedlots and 50 clinical C. jejuni isolates from people in Alberta were tested for the presence of 14 genes encoding putative virulence factors by PCR. These included genes implicated in adherence and colonization (flaC, cadF, docC, racR, jlpA, peb1, and dnaJ), invasion (virB11, ciaB, pldA, and iamA) and protection against harsh conditions (htrA, cbrA, and sodB). The genes examined were widely distributed in both t ...201122015699
occurrence of foodborne bacteria in alberta feedlots.the occurrence of generic escherichia coli, e. coli o157, salmonella, and campylobacter in cattle manure, beef carcasses, catch basin water, and soils receiving manure application was determined in 21 alberta feedlots. in cattle manure, generic e. coli (98%, 2069/2100) and campylobacter (76%, 1590/2100) were frequently detected; e. coli o157 (7%, 143/2100) and salmonella (1%, 20/2100) were less frequently detected. samples from beef carcasses in the cooler following hazard analysis critical cont ...200919412396
a microbiological survey of selected alberta-grown fresh produce from farmers' markets in alberta, canada.previously there was no available information on the levels of indicator bacteria and the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce grown in alberta, canada. baseline information on the occurrence and levels of escherichia coli and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in selected produce items available to consumers from farmers' and public markets in two large urban centers and surrounding areas in alberta was obtained. a total of 10 large markets with between 1 and 12 produce vendors and 26 sm ...200919350990
genomics-based molecular epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni isolates from feedlot cattle and from people in alberta, canada.feedlot cattle in alberta, canada, have been identified as reservoirs for campylobacter jejuni, an important human pathogen. oligonucleotide dna microarrays were used as a platform to compare c. jejuni isolates from feedlot cattle and human clinical cases from alberta. comparative genomic hybridization (cgh) analysis was performed on 87 isolates (46 bovine, 41 human) obtained within the same geographical regions and time frame. thirteen cgh clusters were obtained based on overall comparative gen ...200919036937
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