erythromycin-resistant campylobacters. 197882888
bovine venereal campylobacteriosis (vibriosis) in north east scotland.since january 1978 four outbreaks of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, associated with campylobacter fetus subspp fetus, have been investigated. the herds demonstrated a variety of presenting signs, and the outbreaks were confirmed by vaginal mucus agglutination tests and isolation of c fetus subspp fetus. a greater recovery of c fetus was achieved by reducing the oxygen tension in the atmosphere used for incubation to a greater extent than usual. bradford's brucella agar was found to be a sui ...1979583185
campylobacter fetus (vibrio fetus) infection in dairy herds in south-west scotland.infertility and abortion caused by campylobacter fetus is described in a series of 12 herds in south west scotland during the period may 1974 to december 1976. herd studies show that 44 bulls were involved and that there were 34 bull and 18 cow movements for breeding purposes. the need to include c fetus infection in the differential diagnosis of herd infertility is emphasised.1977595301
food poisoning in hospitals in scotland, 1978-87.during the 10-year period 1978-87 there were 48 outbreaks of food poisoning in scottish hospitals affecting a total of 2287 persons of whom 12 died. this compared with 50 outbreaks during the previous 5 years (1973-77) when over 1500 persons and 7 deaths were recorded. although the incidence of outbreaks has decreased the average number of persons affected in outbreaks has increased. a marked reduction was seen in the incidence of outbreaks due to clostridium perfringens, in contrast to foodborn ...19882905670
infertility in cattle in south-west scotland caused by an 'intermediate' strain of campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (formerly campylobacter fetus intestinalis). 19883345413
pasteurisation and the control of milkborne infection in britain.infections carried in milk, particularly salmonellosis and campylobacter enteritis, have continued to feature in great britain in recent years. less commonly reported infections included an outbreak in 1984 in england due to streptococcus zooepidemicus, in which 12 people, eight of whom died, were admitted to hospital. the implementation of legislation in 1983 requiring heat treatment of cows' milk for sale to the public reduced the incidence of milkborne infection in scotland compared with prev ...19853926238
campylobacters in wading birds (charadrii): incidence, biotypes and isolation techniques.311 birds from four species of the charadrii group were examined for the carriage of campylobacter spp. cloacal swabs or "washouts" were taken from birds captured by cannon netting and cultured using enrichment in preston broth followed by plating onto preston agar. incubation of enrichment cultures for 48 h and of solid media for a minimum of 48 h is recommended for culture of avian faecal material. of the birds examined, 222 were found to be carrying campylobacter spp., 145 strains of which be ...19846524143
gram-negative bacteria and b27 disease.the role of infection in ankylosing spondylitis is speculative and different studies by several groups have yielded conflicting results. the role of infection, however, in reactive arthritis and reiter's syndrome is well established. the grampian region has experienced three outbreaks of gastroenteritis, two due to campylobacter jejuni and one due to salmonella typhimurium. these outbreaks have allowed a study of reactive arthritis in the affected population following these infections. these stu ...19836606475
an outbreak of campylobacter enteritis--a rheumatological followup hundred and thirty individuals with bacteriologically proven campylobacter jejuni enteric infection in a single outbreak were studied. eighty-eight patients had gastrointestinal symptoms. one probable example of reactive arthritis was found. this is a frequency similar to that found in other comparable series of salmonella typhimurium and shigella flexneri infections, suggesting a common pathogenesis for the reactive arthritis associated with these 3 infections.19836842468
milk-associated campylobacter infection. 19806892908
a milk-borne outbreak of campylobacter infection.campylobacter jejuni was isolated from the stools of 148 patients with symptoms and 57 symptomless subjects, and from a milk sock filter, following an outbreak of enteritis associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk. the incubation period ranged from 2-11 days with a peak at 5 days. there were no secondary cases. the attack rate was around 50%. cases occurred in all age groups but were maximal in the 1-10 age group. recovery from symptoms was complete in the majority in less than 1 week. ...19807052223
isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from two populations of dogs.faecal samples were collected from newly impounded stray dogs and from dogs presented to a clinic by their owners. the dogs were categorised as strays or pets and their faeces as formed or unformed. the faeces were examined bacteriologically. campylobacters were significantly (p less than 0.01) more frequently isolated from the faeces of the stray dogs but there was no significant difference between the frequency of isolation of the organism from formed or unformed faeces. the significance of th ...19817344272
an outbreak of escherichia coli o157 and campylobacteriosis associated with contamination of a drinking water water into which treated sewage discharged contaminated the public water supply of a fife village with a population of about 1100. of 765 residents and workers who reported illness 711 had gastrointestinal symptoms and 633 were defined as cases. mains water analysis revealed high faecal coliform counts. an outbreak of campylobacter and e coli 0157 infection was bacteriologically confirmed in eight and six people respectively. two of the latter developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome. all af ...19968885663
health status of bulls used for natural breeding on farms in south west hundred and nine breeding bulls were examined during the period november 1992 to june 1993 on farms in south west scotland for evidence of infectious diseases associated with breeding. preputial washings were collected to screen for campylobacter fetus venerialis, together with serial blood samples to assess their seroprevalence to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv), bovine herpes virus-1 (bhv-1), leptospira hardjo and bovine herpes virus-4 (bhv-4). the possible impact of natural mating on ...199910416365
gastrointestinal infections presenting in general practice in determine the incidence of gastrointestinal infections (gii) presenting to general practitioners (gps) in scotland, to record the demographic and clinical characteristics of persons presenting with gii, to determine the proportion and characteristics of gii investigated in the laboratory, to report on the microbiological aetiology of the gii.200012813808
human campylobacteriosis in scotland: seasonality, regional trends and bursts of infection.fourier time-series models were constructed to study regional and national seasonality of human campylobacteriosis in scotland between 1997 and 2001. strong seasonality was demonstrated with an annual peak of reported cases in late june to early july. the prominence of this peak varied between regions, which was exemplified for the two major population centres: lothian, with mixed urban/rural population, had a more prominent peak than greater glasgow, which has a predominantly urban population. ...200415310159
survey of zoonoses recorded in scotland between 1993 and 2002.all the human and animal laboratory reports of zoonoses sent to health protection scotland between 1993 and 2002 were identified. there were 24,946 reports from veterinary laboratories, and 94,718 (20 per cent) of the 468,214 reports from medical laboratories were considered to be zoonotic. the most common reports of zoonoses from people were campylobacter, salmonella, cryptosporidium and giardia species and escherichia coli o157. the most common reports of zoonoses from animals were salmonella, ...200516311383
has retail chicken played a role in the decline of human campylobacteriosis?between 2001 and 2006, the incidence of human campylobacter infections decreased by 10 and 27% in scotland and the grampian region of scotland, respectively. contemporaneous collection and analyses of human and retail-chicken isolates from grampian were carried out over a 10-week period in 2001 and again in 2006 in order to determine whether the fall in the incidence of human infections was related to the retail-chicken exposure route. rates of carriage of campylobacter on chicken carcasses from ...200818065605
a continuous common-source outbreak of campylobacteriosis associated with changes to the preparation of chicken liver pâté.in december 2006 an outbreak of campylobacter infection occurred in forth valley, scotland, affecting 48 people over a 3-week period. all cases dined at restaurant a. we conducted a cohort study in a party of 30 who ate lunch at restaurant a on 21 december to identify the vehicle of infection. of 29 respondents, the attack rate in those who ate chicken liver pâté was 86% (6/7) compared to 0% (0/22) for those who did not. between 1 december and 1.30 p.m. on 21 december the restaurant had used a d ...200918647437
campylobacter immunity and coinfection following a large outbreak in a farming outbreak of campylobacteriosis affected approximately one-half of 165 people attending an annual farmers' dance in montrose, scotland, in november 2005. epidemiological investigations, including a cohort study (n = 164), identified chicken liver paté as the most likely vehicle of infection. paté preparation involved deliberate undercooking of chicken livers by flash-frying, followed by mechanical homogenization. typing of 32 campylobacter strains (isolated from submitted stools) by multilocus ...200919005146
attribution of campylobacter infections in northeast scotland to specific sources by use of multilocus sequence typing.we show that a higher incidence of campylobacteriosis is found in young children (age, <5 years) living in rural, compared with urban, areas. association of this difference with particular animal sources was evaluated using multilocus sequence typing. this evaluation was achieved by comparing campylobacter isolates originating from these children, retail poultry, and a range of animal sources by use of source attribution and phylogenetic analysis methods. the results indicate that chicken is a m ...200919265482
campylobacter genotypes from food animals, environmental sources and clinical disease in scotland 2005/6.a nationwide multi-locus sequence typing (mlst) survey was implemented to analyze patterns of host association among campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from clinical disease in scotland (july 2005-september 2006), food animals (chickens, cattle, sheep, pigs and turkey), non-food animals (wild birds) and the environment. sequence types (sts) were determined for 5247 clinical isolates and 999 from potential disease sources (augmented with 2420 published sts). certain sts were ove ...200919269051
spatiotemporal homogeneity of campylobacter subtypes from cattle and sheep across northeastern and southwestern scotland.source attribution using molecular subtypes has implicated cattle and sheep as sources of human campylobacter infection. whether the campylobacter subtypes associated with cattle and sheep vary spatiotemporally remains poorly known, especially at national levels. here we describe spatiotemporal patterns of prevalence, bacterial enumeration, and subtype composition in campylobacter isolates from cattle and sheep feces from northeastern (63 farms, 414 samples) and southwestern (71 farms, 449 sampl ...200919700557
prevalence of campylobacter spp. in raw retail poultry on sale in northern ireland.a year-long survey of fresh, retail poultry products on sale in northern ireland was undertaken to define the prevalence of campylobacter spp. by using protocols based on iso (standard) 10272-1:2006. incubation at 37 and 42 degrees c was undertaken to increase the diversity of isolates obtained. overall, 652 isolates were identified as campylobacter spp. by using pcr and amplified fragment length polymorphic typing. phenotyping wrongly identified 21% of isolates. prevalences of campylobacter fou ...200919777882
campylobacter excreted into the environment by animal sources: prevalence, concentration shed, and host intensive study of 443 isolates of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from 2031 fecal samples excreted by animal sources including cattle, sheep, and pigs, a range of wild and domesticated avian species and pets is described. the prevalence found in the majority of animal sources ranged from 22% to 28% with poultry being highest at 41% and cats and dogs lowest (<5%). the average count excreted for each animal source was found not to be significantly different ranging from approximate ...200919839759
multi-locus sequence types of campylobacter carried by flies and slugs acquired from local ruminant assess whether flies and slugs acquire strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli present in local ruminant faeces.201020337762
risk of carcase contamination with campylobacter in sheep sent for slaughter into an abattoir in scotland.campylobacter species have been identified as the major cause of acute bacterial enteritis in the uk. however, the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis remains poorly understood. it has been suggested that the role of sheep in the epidemiology of campylobacter has been underestimated. the objective of the present study was to assess the infection risk of campylobacter in sheep meat as a potential risk for human campylobacteriosis and to establish any possible associations between the epidemiologic ...201020381181
geographic determinants of reported human campylobacter infections in scotland.campylobacteriosis is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in most developed countries. people are exposed to infection from contaminated food and environmental sources. however, the translation of these exposures into infection in the human population remains incompletely understood. this relationship is further complicated by differences in the presentation of cases, their investigation, identification, and reporting; thus, the actual differences in risk must be considered alongside ...201020633277
evolution of an agriculture-associated disease causing campylobacter coli clade: evidence from national surveillance data in scotland.the common zoonotic pathogen campylobacter coli is an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide but its evolution is incompletely understood. using multilocus sequence type (mlst) data of 7 housekeeping genes from a national survey of campylobacter in scotland (2005/6), and a combined population genetic-phylogenetics approach, we investigated the evolutionary history of c. coli. genealogical reconstruction of isolates from clinical infection, farm animals and the environment, reveal ...201021179537
a survey of ethnic foods for microbial quality and aflatoxin content.a range of ethnic foods was examined for their microbiological content in relation to total viable counts (tvc) of aerobic bacteria, counts of presumptive coliforms, yeast and mould counts; presence of salmonella spp., listeria monocytogenes, escherichia coli o157:h7 and campylobacter spp.; total enumeration of clostridium perfringens, staphylococcus aureus and bacillus spp.; identification of moulds and the presence of total aflatoxins. samples, which included cereals, nuts, dried fruits, herbs ...200111288910
molecular epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of campylobacter jejuni identifies a dominant clonal line within scottish serotype hs55 populations.three molecular typing methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), ribotyping, and flagellin (flaa) gene typing, were used to discriminate within a group of 28 campylobacter jejuni, heat-stable serotype 55 (hs55) isolates derived from cases of campylobacter enteritis occurring throughout scotland, including 9 isolates associated with an outbreak. pfge was found to be most discriminatory, identifying 6 distinct profiles, followed by ribotyping (5 profiles), and then flagellin gene typing (4 ...199910459638
campylobacter infection in urban and rural populations in scotland.a review of campylobacter infection in scotland over five years (1978-82), during which 7808 human isolates were recorded (mean annual isolation rate of 30 per 100000), revealed differences in the epidemiology of the disease between rural and urban populations which were not apparent in the national data. the incidence of infection in the two rural areas studied was greatest in the early months of the year, whereas that in the two urban areas showed a third-quarter predominance. in both urban an ...19853839516
campylobacter-associated diarrhoea in edinburgh. 1977912385
putative household outbreaks of campylobacteriosis typically comprise single mlst genotypes.during a 15-month period in scotland a small but important number of human campylobacter cases (3·2%) arose from 91 putative household outbreaks. of the 26 outbreaks with known strain composition, 89% were composed of the same mlst which supports the potential use of mlst in public health epidemiology. the number of cases associated with household outbreaks is much larger than general outbreaks and there is some evidence to indicate that there may be secondary transmission, although this is rela ...201020587120
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