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campylobacter surveillance. 19921285113
campylobacter. 19901976939
bird attack on milk bottles: possible mode of transmission of campylobacter jejuni to man.a case-control study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the rise in the rate of campylobacter jejuni infection in the brigend area of south wales during may was due to the consumption or handling of milk from bottles that had been attacked by birds. 32 of 36 cases meeting the case definition were interviewed, along with 2 controls per case, matched for age, sex, and area of residence. there were strong associations between campylobacter infection and doorstep delivery of milk bottles, a ...19901978882
cryptosporidiosis in england and wales: prevalence and clinical and epidemiological features. public health laboratory service study group.in a two year study carried out by 16 public health laboratories in england and wales 62,421 patients with presumed infective diarrhoea were investigated. cryptosporidium infection was identified in 2% (1295), ranging from 0.5% to 3.9% among laboratories. the positivity rate for cryptosporidium was highest in 1-4 year olds, and in children cryptosporidium was the second commonest pathogen after campylobacter. illness was usually limited to abdominal cramps and watery diarrhoea with six motions/2 ...19902322738
foodborne disease surveillance in england and wales 1984. communicable disease surveillance centre. 19863099897
campylobacter enteritis. 19883145059
communicable disease associated with milk and dairy products in england and wales: 1983-1984.during the period 1983-1984 32 outbreaks of disease (ii in 1983 and 21 in 1984) associated with consumption of milk and dairy products and affecting at least 714 people were reported from england and wales. twenty-seven of the outbreaks were attributed to raw milk, two to contaminated pasteurised milk and one each to cheese, cream and ice-cream. twenty-two were due to salmonellas, seven to campylobacters and one each to staphylococcus aureus, yersinia enterocolitica and streptococcus zooepidemic ...19863722841
pasteurisation and the control of milkborne infection in britain.infections carried in milk, particularly salmonellosis and campylobacter enteritis, have continued to feature in great britain in recent years. less commonly reported infections included an outbreak in 1984 in england due to streptococcus zooepidemicus, in which 12 people, eight of whom died, were admitted to hospital. the implementation of legislation in 1983 requiring heat treatment of cows' milk for sale to the public reduced the incidence of milkborne infection in scotland compared with prev ...19853926238
disease associated with milk and dairy products: 1982. 19846318880
milk-borne campylobacter infection.the common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. c jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. in england and wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk shou ...19816786504
communicable disease associated with milk and dairy products in england and wales 1951-80.in england and wales between 1951 and 1980 233 reported outbreaks of communicable disease attributed to milk or dairy products affected nearly 10 000 people, of whom four died. tuberculosis and brucellosis have been controlled, but milk-borne outbreaks of salmonellosis and campylobacter enteritis due to raw or defectively pasteurised milk are common and may be increasing in number. universal heat treatment of milk is an effective preventive measure, and it is regrettable that the continued sale ...19826805699
changing patterns of communicable disease in england and wales. part i--newly recognised diseases. 19807000261
faecal excretion of entero-pathogens in a pakistani family returning to the u.k. after a visit to rawalpindi.the family consisted of two parents and five children. while the father remained in cardiff, the mother and all the children visited rawalpindi, pakistan, for 6 weeks to stay with relatives. travel was by flight from heathrow airport to pakistan and by a short road journey to rawalpindi. mrs m. - the mother - as a guest, did no cooking on the holiday. the house which they were living in had a piped water supply, thought to be treated. there was no flush toilet but a commode was available and was ...19807005329
campylobacter enteritis - the first five years. 19827130698
foodborne disease surveillance in england and wales: 1989-1991.this review summarises reports of food poisoning, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and other acute foodborne illness to the phls communicable disease surveillance centre, and notifications of food poisoning collated by the office of population censuses and surveys, in the period 1989-1991. during this period there were continuing rises in notifications of food poisoning and reports of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis. there was considerable success in the control of foodborne listeriosis. n ...19937506611
campylobacter bacteraemia in england and wales, 1981-91.routine surveillance of infection in england and wales detected 394 cases of campylobacter bacteraemia in 11 years. this represented an average incidence of 1.5 per 1000 intestinal campylobacter infections, with a range of 0.3/1000 in children aged 1-4 years to 5.9/1000 in patients aged 65 years or more. definitive identification of 257 isolates showed that 89% were campylobacter jejuni or c. coli; other species were c. fetus (8.6%), c. lari (0.8%), c. upsaliensis (0.8%), helicobacter (campyloba ...19938519321
an outbreak of campylobacter jejuni enteritis associated with failed milk pasteurisation.this paper describes an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness affecting at least 110 people, of whom 41 had microbiological confirmation of campylobacter jejuni infection. the outbreak of infection was found to have been associated with consumption of inadequately pasteurised milk from a local dairy. the problem of enforcement of food and safety regulations when milk from dairies fails the phosphatase test is discussed. the prevalence of seroconversion to campylobacter in the community is estimat ...19958666844
a milk-borne campylobacter outbreak following an educational farm visit.after a nursery school trip to a dairy farm, 20 (53%) of 38 children and 3 (23%) of 13 adult helpers developed gastrointestinal infection. campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 15 primary cases and from 3 of 9 secondary household cases. a cohort study of the school party found illness to be associated with drinking raw milk (relative risk 5.4, 95% confidence interval 1.4-20.4, p = 0.001). there was a significant dose response relationship between amount of raw milk consumed and risk of illness ...19968972669
bird attacks on milk bottles and campylobacter infection. 19957837891
outbreaks of campylobacter infection: rare events for a common pathogen.campylobacter has been the commonest enteric pathogen isolated from humans in england and wales since 1981, but few cases are linked to outbreaks. twenty-one general outbreaks of campylobacter infection in england and wales were reported to the phls communicable disease surveillance centre from 1992 to 1994. seven hundred and six people were affected, nine cases were admitted to hospital, and no deaths were reported. the mean attack rate was 46.2% (sd 25.7%) and the mean duration of illness was ...19979080726
outbreak of campylobacter enteritis in a residential school associated with bird pecked bottle tops.an outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by campylobacter infection was identified in may 1995 in a residential school in gloucestershire for children with special needs. eight primary and four secondary cases were identified, mostly confined to one house in the school; faecal specimens from three cases grew campylobacter jejuni. a retrospective cohort study showed that drinking pasteurised milk from bottles with damaged tops was associated with illness in primary cases (p = 0.01). bird pecking of ...19979080727
general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease associated with milk and dairy products in england and wales: 1992 to 1996.twenty general outbreaks of food poisoning in england and wales associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products were reported to the phls communicable disease surveillance centre between 1992 and 1996. a total of 600 people were ill and at least 45 people were admitted to hospital but no deaths were reported. salmonella species were responsible for 11 outbreaks, campylobacter species for five, vero cytotoxin producing escherichia coli o157 (vtec) for three, and cryptosporidium parvum ...19979080728
genotype analysis of human blood isolates of campylobacter jejuni in england and wales.genomic profiles were obtained for 76 strains of campylobacter jejuni isolated from bacteraemic patients in england and wales over the period 1981-94. genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis using a random cloned dna probe, and by ribotyping with a pcr-generated c. jejuni 16s ribosomal dna probe. phenotypic characterization was achieved by heat-stable (hs) and heat-labile (hl) serogrouping, and preston phagetyping and biotyping. the blood isolates wer ...19979129583
serotyping scheme for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli based on direct agglutination of heat-stable antigens.campylobacter is now the most frequently reported cause of gastrointestinal disease in england and wales, yet few isolates are characterized beyond the genus level. the majority of isolates are campylobacter jejuni (90%), with most of the remainder being campylobacter coli. we describe an adaptation of the penner serotyping scheme in which passive hemagglutination has been replaced by detection of heat-stable antigens by direct bacterial agglutination; absorbed antisera are used where appropriat ...19989466737
outbreaks of waterborne infectious intestinal disease in england and wales, 1992-5.following the introduction of an improved surveillance system for infectious intestinal disease outbreaks in england and wales, the public health laboratory service communicable disease surveillance centre received reports of 26 outbreaks between 1 january 1992 and 31 december 1995 in which there was evidence for waterborne transmission of infection. in these 26 outbreaks, 1756 laboratory confirmed cases were identified of whom 69 (4%) were admitted to hospital. in 19 outbreaks, illness was asso ...19989747762
a campylobacter outbreak associated with stir-fried food.an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness affecting 12 of 29 customers of a 'hawaiian' theme restaurant specializing in stir-fried food occurred in cardiff, wales in february 1997. campylobacter jejuni serotype hs50 phage type 49 (pt49) was isolated from 5 cases. a total of 47 isolates of c. jejuni hs50 pt49 were identified from wales during 1997, of which 11 were isolated in late february or early march and from the cardiff area. in the outbreak, illness was associated with eating stir-fried chic ...19989825777
health risks associated with unpasteurized goats' and ewes' milk on retail sale in england and wales. a phls dairy products working group study.a pilot study to determine the microbiological quality of unpasteurized milk from goats and ewes sampled from farm shops, health food shops, and other retail premises found that 47%, (47/100) of goats' and 50% (13/26) of ewes' milk samples failed the standards prescribed by the dairy products (hygiene) regulations 1995. in addition, staphylococcus aureus, haemolytic streptococci or enterococci, were present in excess of 10(2) c.f.u./ml in 9 (7 %) 2 (2 %) and 19 (15%) samples, respectively. salmo ...199910459642
an outbreak of campylobacter food poisoning at a university campus.twelve cases of campylobacter jejuni infection were identified on a university campus in the first 12 days of november 1997. consumption of food from a single outlet, where poor food handling practices were identified, was statistically associated with infection. the epidemiological evidence suggested that what presented as a point source outbreak was a series of small cross contamination incidents associated with multiple strain types. the nature of this outbreak suggests that current surveilla ...199910462894
phage typing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli and its use as an adjunct to serotyping.campylobacter is the most commonly reported cause of gastro-intestinal infection in england and wales, with over 50,000 reported cases in 1997. the majority of human campylobacter isolates in england and wales are c. jejuni (c. 90%) with most of the remainder being c. coli. we describe the use of phage typing as an extension to serotyping for more detailed characterization within these two species. the scheme was piloted during a study of 2407 c. jejuni and 182 c. coli strains isolated in wales ...199910487641
large-scale survey of campylobacter species in human gastroenteritis by pcr and pcr-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a pcr-based study of the incidence of enteropathogenic campylobacter infection in humans was done on the basis of a detection and identification algorithm consisting of screening pcrs and species identification by pcr-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. this was applied to dna extracted from 3,738 fecal samples from patients with sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis, submitted by seven regional public health laboratories in england and wales over a 2-year period. the sending laboratories had c ...199910565897
drug resistance in campylobacter jejuni, c coli, and c lari isolated from humans in north west england and wales, 1997.to test the sensitivity of strains of campylobacter species isolated from humans in england and wales against a range of antimicrobial agents for the purpose of monitoring therapeutic efficacy and as an epidemiological marker.199910690169
sentinel surveillance of campylobacter in england and wales. 200010846290
primary care surveillance for acute bloody diarrhea, wales.a sentinel group of primary-care physicians in wales actively reported cases of acute bloody diarrhea from february 1997 through december 1998. the estimated annual rate was 18 cases per 100,000 population. most (80%) cases were due to campylobacter or salmonella; however, 18% were undiagnosed.200010905980
outbreak of campylobacter infection in a south wales valley. 200011131532
family clusters of campylobacter infection.possible family clusters of campylobacter infection among isolates referred to a single, large public health laboratory were reviewed to determine the proportion of clusters associated with more than one strain of campylobacter. a total of 23 clusters, each made up of members of a single household infected within two months of each other, were identified between september 1996 and january 1999. these accounted for about 5% of all campylobacter infections confirmed during the study period. thirte ...200011280258
current epidemiological issues in human campylobacteriosis. 200111422564
general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease linked with poultry, england and wales, 1992-1999.between 1992 and 1999, 1426 foodborne general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease (iid) were reported to the public health laboratory service communicable disease surveillance centre. a fifth were associated with the consumption of poultry. chicken was implicated in almost three quarters of these outbreaks, turkey in over a fifth and duck in 2% of outbreaks. the organisms most frequently reported were salmonella (30% of outbreaks), clostridium perfringens (21%) and campylobacter (6%). ove ...200111732355
incidence of campylobacter and salmonella isolated from retail chicken and associated packaging in south wales.to investigate the incidence of campylobacter and salmonella contamination associated with supermarket and butchers' shop chicken and related packaging.200111737630
public health implications of campylobacter outbreaks in england and wales, 1995-9: epidemiological and microbiological investigations.although campylobacter has been the most commonly recognized bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infection in england and wales since 1981, there are few reported campylobacter outbreaks. of the 2374 general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease reported to cdsc between 1995 and 1999, for which an aetiological agent was identified, campylobacter accounted for only 50 (2%). foodborne transmission was identified in 35 outbreaks and the majority took place in commercial catering establishments ...200212002527
a case-case comparison of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni infection: a tool for generating hypotheses.preventing campylobacteriosis depends on a thorough understanding of its epidemiology. we used case-case analysis to compare cases of campylobacter coli infection with cases of c. jejuni infection, to generate hypotheses for infection from standardized, population-based sentinel surveillance information in england and wales. persons with c. coli infection were more likely to have drunk bottled water than were those with c. jejuni infection and, in general, were more likely to have eaten pâté. im ...200212194770
comparison of pfge, ribotyping and phage-typing in the epidemiological analysis of campylobacter jejuni serotype hs2 infections.in this study we have evaluated the ability of three typing methods, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge), phage-typing and ribotyping, to discriminate not only between strains of differing serotypes but also between strains within a single serotype, heat stable serotype 2 (hs2). forty-five isolates derived from cases of campylobacter enteritis occurring in the cardiff area were examined. these included 18, mostly hs2, strains associated with an outbreak. the typing results for these and a fu ...19957589261
risk factors for outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease linked to domestic catering.the epidemiology of general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease associated with domestic catering for large numbers is described and compared with foodborne outbreaks in other settings. from 1 january 1992 to 31 december 1994, the phls communicable disease surveillance centre identified 101 foodborne general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease associated with domestic catering in england and wales (16% of all foodborne outbreaks). salmonella species were associated with 77 of the 1 ...19968990573
phenotypic diversity of campylobacter isolates from sporadic cases of human enteritis in northern ireland. 200312680629
point source outbreaks of campylobacter jejuni infection--are they more common than we think and what might cause them?despite being the commonest bacterial cause of infectious intestinal disease (iid) in england and wales, outbreaks of campylobacter infection are rarely reported. however, data from the campylobacter sentinel surveillance scheme suggested that outbreaks might be more common than was previously suspected, since a high proportion of cases reported other illness in the home or in the community at the same time as their illness. to identify factors that might lead to these apparent outbreaks, the ex ...200312825720
outbreaks of infectious disease associated with private drinking water supplies in england and wales 1970-2000.in england and wales over the last 30 years there have been 25 reported outbreaks of infection, associated with private water supplies (pws). the majority (16 outbreaks) were reported after the introduction of enhanced surveillance. although pws only serve 0.5% of the population, 36% of drinking water outbreaks are associated with pws. the main pathogen, campylobacter, was implicated in 13 (52%) outbreaks. most reported outbreaks (88%) occurred in commercial or category two supplies, which poten ...200312825731
campylobacter coli - an important foodborne pathogen.campylobacters are the most common bacterial cause of infectious intestinal disease (iid) in temperate countries. c. jejuni is the predominant cause of campylobacter iid, but the impact of other, less prevalent species has largely been ignored. here, we present estimates of the burden of indigenously acquired foodborne disease (ifd) due to campylobacter coli, the second most common cause of human campylobacteriosis.200312850159
hazards of healthy living: bottled water and salad vegetables as risk factors for campylobacter infection. 200314609455
campylobacter in ready-to-eat foods: the result of a 15-month survey.ready-to-eat foods at retail and catering establishments were randomly sampled at the point of sale for a period of 15 months. during this period, 4,469 food samples were examined for the presence of campylobacter with the use of plate-based methodology. a range of different ready-to-eat food types, all of which have the potential to be contaminated with the organism, were examined. no viable campylobacter cells were detected in any of the foods during the survey. there is no evidence that the f ...200314627294
baseline rates of campylobacter and salmonella in raw chicken in wales, united kingdom, in 2002.the public health laboratory service in wales, in cooperation with local authorities and the food standards agency wales, carried out a survey to establish baseline figures for the contamination of raw retail chicken with salmonella and campylobacter available within wales, a devolved part of the united kingdom with a population of approximately 3 million. seven hundred thirty-nine samples were obtained between november 2001 and december 2002. overall, 71% of samples were contaminated with campy ...200415222554
an outbreak of campylobacteriosis amongst directing staff and students at the infantry training centre, brecon, wales, march 2004.a cohort study was undertaken to determine the source of an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness affecting a number of military personnel at itc, brecon during the period 19--30 march 2004. of 105 soldiers on a field training exercise over the period 15--19 march 2004, 36 subsequently developed symptoms. nine patients had campylobacter sp identified in their stool. water was provided from a single source. this water was used for washing, shaving, drinking and the preparation of rations. although ...200415624407
temperature-driven campylobacter seasonality in england and wales.campylobacter incidence in england and wales between 1990 and 1999 was examined in conjunction with weather conditions. over the 10-year interval, the average annual rate was determined to be 78.4 +/- 15.0 cases per 100,000, with an upward trend. rates were higher in males than in females, regardless of age, and highest in children less than 5 years old. major regional differences were detected, with the highest rates in wales and the southwest and the lowest in the southeast. the disease displa ...200515640174
the seasonality of human campylobacter infection and campylobacter isolates from fresh, retail chicken in wales.seasonal peaks in both human campylobacter infections and poultry isolates have been observed in several european countries but remain unexplained. we compared weekly data on human campylobacter infections with thermophilic campylobacter isolation rates from fresh, retail chicken samples (n = 514) purchased weekly in wales between january and december 2002. human isolates (n = 2631) peaked between weeks 22 and 25 (early june) and chicken isolates (n = 364) between weeks 24 and 26 (late june). in ...200515724710
fly transmission of campylobacter.an annual increase in campylobacter infection in england and wales begins in may and reaches a maximum in early june. this increase occurs in all age groups and is seen in all geographic areas. examination of risk factors that might explain this seasonal increase identifies flies as a potential source of infection. the observed pattern of infection is hypothesized to reflect an annual epidemic caused by direct or indirect contamination of people by small quantities of infected material carried b ...200515757548
disease risks from foods, england and wales, 1996-2000.data from population-based studies and national surveillance systems were collated and analyzed to estimate the impact of disease and risks associated with eating different foods in england and wales. from 1996 to 2000, an estimated 1,724,315 cases of indigenous foodborne disease per year resulted in 21,997 hospitalizations and 687 deaths. the greatest impact on the healthcare sector arose from foodborne campylobacter infection (160,788 primary care visits and 15,918 hospitalizations), while sal ...200515757549
infectious intestinal disease in elderly people.this paper analyses routinely available data on infectious intestinal diseases occurring in people aged 65 years and over in england and wales from 1990 to 1994. these data include annual reports of consultations with general practitioners in spotter practices collated by the royal college of general practitioners, notifications of food poisoning collated by the office of population censuses and surveys, hospital admissions extracted from hospital episode statistics data, reports of general outb ...19968755672
survey of salmonella and campylobacter contamination of whole, raw poultry on retail sale in wales in 2003.a survey of the salmonella and campylobacter contamination of raw, whole chickens available to consumers in wales was performed between march and december 2003. in total, 736 samples were taken, and overall contamination rates of 73.1% for campylobacter and 5.7% for salmonella were found. this survey follows a survey performed during 2001 to 2002 by welsh local authorities and the national public health service for wales that established updated baseline rates for both pathogens in raw, whole ch ...200516013384
trends in indigenous foodborne disease and deaths, england and wales: 1992 to 2000.commitment to food safety is evidenced by high profile governmental initiatives around the globe. to measure progress towards targets, policy makers need to know the baseline from which they started.200212427786
temperature dependence of reported campylobacter infection in england, 1989-1999.campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis in england and wales, with 45000 cases reported annually. campylobacter incidence is highly seasonal; the consistent peak in late spring suggests a role for meteorological factors in the epidemiology of this organism. we investigated the relationship between ambient temperature and campylobacter enteritis using time-series analysis to study short-term associations between temperature and number of campylobacter reports adjusted ...200616409658
three-year surveillance program examining the prevalence of campylobacter and salmonella in whole retail raw chicken.a 36-month study of campylobacter and salmonella in retail raw whole chicken was carried out to measure baseline rates at the retail level, establish seasonality, and observe changes in rates over time. in total, 2,228 samples were taken between november 2001 and december 2004. the campylobacter rate was unchanged over the 3 years of the study, but the salmonella rates declined significantly between 2001 and 2004. there was also some seasonality in campylobacter rates in fresh samples. the overa ...200616629041
investigating vomiting and/or bloody diarrhoea in campylobacter jejuni infection.campylobacter jejuni infection frequently presents as acute enteritis with diarrhoea, malaise, fever and abdominal pain. vomiting and bloody diarrhoea are reported less frequently. to investigate potential host, micro-organism or environmental factors that might explain the different clinical presentations, the features of laboratory-confirmed campylobacter jejuni cases presenting with vomiting and/or bloody diarrhoea were compared with cases who did not report either clinical manifestation. sin ...200616687593
outbreaks of waterborne infectious intestinal disease in england and wales, 1992-2003.we reviewed the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of 89 reported outbreaks of waterborne infectious intestinal disease affecting 4321 people in england and wales over the period 1992-2003. public water supplies were implicated in 24 outbreaks (27%), private water supplies in 25 (28%), swimming pools in 35 (39%) and other sources in five outbreaks (6%). cryptosporidium was implicated in 69% of outbreaks, campylobacter sp. in 14%, giardia in 2%, e. coli o157 in 3% and astrovirus ...200616690002
a community outbreak of campylobacter jejuni infection from a chlorinated public water supply.an outbreak of campylobacter jejuni infection occurred in a south wales valleys housing estate. illness in estate residents was associated with tap water consumption [population attributable risk (par) 50%, relative risk (rr) 2.53, 95% confidence interval (ci) 1.9-3.37] and residence in the upper estate (par 49%, rr 2.44, 95% ci 1.83-3.24). amongst upper estate residents, rates of diarrhoeal illness increased with rates of water consumption (or 18, 95% ci 3.5-92.4 for heaviest consumers, chi2 tr ...200717288640
salmonella and campylobacter in united kingdom retail raw chicken in 2005.the united kingdom food standards agency commissioned a survey of salmonella and campylobacter in raw, whole chickens at retail in wales and northern ireland between march and december 2005 to measure the baseline prevalence rates of these two significant pathogens. in total, 877 retail samples were examined for campylobacter and salmonella by enrichment methods. overall contamination rates of 70.2% for campylobacter and 4.0% for salmonella were found. there was a statistically significant diffe ...200717803153
risk factors for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in young cattle on english and welsh farms.campylobacter jejuni and c. coli are the most prevalent causes of bacterial diarrhoea in most of the western world. in great britain, the source remains unknown for the majority of cases, though poultry is considered the main source of infection. molecular typing methods identify cattle as a potential source of a proportion of the non-source-attributed cases, mainly through direct contact, environmental contamination or milk, but little is known about the epidemiology of campylobacter in cattle. ...200918835052
rainfall and outbreaks of drinking water related disease and in england and wales.a case-crossover study compared rainfall in the 4 weeks before drinking water related outbreaks with that in the five previous control years. this included public and private drinking water related outbreaks in england and wales from 1910 to 1999. of 111 outbreaks, 89 met inclusion criteria and the implicated pathogens included giardia, cryptosporidium, e. coli, s. typhi, s. paratyphi, campylobacter and streptobacillus moniliformis. weather data was derived from the british atmospheric data cent ...200918957770
demographic determinants for campylobacter infection in england and wales: implications for future epidemiological studies.despite a significant public health burden the epidemiology of human campylobacter infection remains blurred. the identification of demographic determinants for campylobacter infection is therefore essential for identifying potential areas for intervention. demographic data from an active, population-based sentinel surveillance system for campylobacter infection (from 2000 until 2003, n=15 907) were compared with appropriate denominator data from the 2001 united kingdom census. incidence was hig ...200819000328
temporal patterns and risk factors for escherichia coli o157 and campylobacter spp, in young cattle.escherichia coli o157 and campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are zoonotic pathogens originating from farm animals. cattle are the main reservoir for e. coli o157 and also contribute to human cases of campylobacteriosis through contaminated milk, direct contact, and environmental contamination. thirty groups of young cattle on 30 farms were observed for 7 months and sampled on 4 to 6 separate occasions for e. coli o157 and c. jejuni/coli to characterize shedding patterns and identify ris ...200919343935
a re-evaluation of the impact of temperature and climate change on foodborne illness.the effects of temperature on reported cases of a number of foodborne illnesses in england and wales were investigated. we also explored whether the impact of temperature had changed over time. food poisoning, campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, salmonella typhimurium infections and salmonella enteritidis infections were positively associated (p<0.01) with temperature in the current and previous week. only food poisoning, salmonellosis and s. typhimurium infections were associated with temperatur ...200919371450
short-term and medium-term clinical outcomes of quinolone-resistant campylobacter infection.campylobacter species is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. quinolone resistance has emerged as an increasing problem among persons with campylobacter infection over the past decade, but the clinical consequences are unclear.200919400688
microbiological study of ready-to-eat salad vegetables from retail establishments uncovers a national outbreak of salmonellosis.the increasing availability of bagged prepared salad vegetables reflects consumer demand for fresh, healthy, convenient, and additive-free foods that are safe and nutritious. during may and june 2001 a study of retail bagged prepared ready-to-eat salad vegetables was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of these vegetables. examination of the salad vegetables revealed that the vast majority (3,826 of 3,852 samples; 99.3%) were of satisfactory or acceptable microbiological quality ...200312636292
prevalence of campylobacter spp. in raw retail poultry on sale in northern ireland.a year-long survey of fresh, retail poultry products on sale in northern ireland was undertaken to define the prevalence of campylobacter spp. by using protocols based on iso (standard) 10272-1:2006. incubation at 37 and 42 degrees c was undertaken to increase the diversity of isolates obtained. overall, 652 isolates were identified as campylobacter spp. by using pcr and amplified fragment length polymorphic typing. phenotyping wrongly identified 21% of isolates. prevalences of campylobacter fou ...200919777882
age patterns of persons with campylobacteriosis, england and wales, 1990-2007.to explore hypotheses for age-related changes in the incidence of campylobacter infections in england and wales during 1990-2007, we analyzed electronic laboratory data. disease incidence was reduced among children, and the greatest increase in risk was for those >/=60 years of age. risk factors for campylobacteriosis in the elderly population should be identified.200919961698
using the internet for rapid investigation of an outbreak of diarrhoeal illness in mountain bikers.in summer 2008, we investigated an outbreak of diarrhoeal illness in participants of a mountain-bike event in wales (uk) which had been affected by heavy rain. we conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the cause using an internet-based questionnaire. fifty-three percent of those contacted responded, and 161 (46·5%) out of the 347 responders, reported gastrointestinal symptoms. median day of onset was 3 days following the event. ten riders reported receiving a laboratory-confirmed ...201020587125
a 17-year review of foodborne outbreaks: describing the continuing decline in england and wales (1992-2008).systematic national surveillance of foodborne disease outbreaks effectively serves the development of public health policy on food safety. the health protection agency has maintained a collaborative surveillance system for foodborne outbreaks in england and wales since 1992. up to 2008, 2429 foodborne outbreaks were identified, described and analysed for changes over time. salmonella spp. accounted for half of the outbreaks, although the proportion of these decreased over the surveillance period ...201120696086
a recipe for disaster: outbreaks of campylobacteriosis associated with poultry liver pâté in england and wales.despite the frequency of campylobacter as the principal cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the uk, outbreaks attributed to this pathogen are rare. one hundred and fourteen general foodborne outbreaks of campylobacteriosis were reported to the health protection agency from 1992 to 2009 with most occurring in food service establishments (64%, 73/114). poultry meat (38%, 43/114) was the most commonly reported vehicle of infection, of which poultry liver pâté, and undercooking, were strongly asso ...201020727250
microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods: results from a long-term surveillance program (1995 through 2003).the coordination of food sampling activities across wales, a part of the united kingdom with a population of approximately 3 million, led to the establishment in 1995 of a coordinated food-sampling program designed to monitor on a long-term basis the microbiological quality and safety of specific ready-to-eat products. this surveillance system has been ongoing for 9 years and has generated a database of microbiological and associated demographic results for 15,228 ready-to-eat food samples. the ...200521132974
laboratory-based surveillance of campylobacter and salmonella infection and the importance of denominator data.summarylaboratory data are the cornerstone in surveillance of infectious disease. we investigated whether changes in reported incidence of campylobacter and salmonella infection might be explained by changes in stool sampling rates. data were extracted from a national database on 585 843 patient stool samples tested by microbiology laboratories in wales between 1998 and 2008. salmonella incidence fell from 43 to 19 episodes/100 000 population but campylobacter incidence after declining from 111/ ...201222217369
is campylobacter jejuni enteritis a weekend disease? 200515780425
an evaluation and comparison of three commonly used statistical models for automatic detection of outbreaks in epidemiological data of communicable diseases.we evaluated three established statistical models for automated 'early warnings' of disease outbreaks; counted data poisson cusums (used in new zealand), the england and wales model (used in england and wales) and spotv2 (used in australia). in the evaluation we used national swedish notification data from 1992 to 2003 on campylobacteriosis, hepatitis a and tularemia. the average sensitivity and positive predictive value for cusums were 71 and 53%, for the england and wales model 87 and 82% and ...200616371181
risk factors for ciprofloxacin-resistant campylobacter infection in wales.to identify risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in both travel-related and domestically acquired campylobacter infection.200919454522
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