risk factors for pertussis in adults and teenagers in england.pertussis is a vaccine-preventable respiratory infection caused by bordetella pertussis which can be fatal in infants. although high vaccine coverage led to prolonged disease control in england, a national outbreak of pertussis in 2011 led to the largest increase in over two decades, including a marked increase in cases aged ⩾15 years. a case-control study in four regions of england was undertaken to investigate risk factors for pertussis in adolescents and adults, specifically employment type a ...201728065204
the influence of environment on the mouse weight-gain test for estimating the toxicity of bordetella pertussis vaccines. 19695379952
letter: whooping-cough vaccination. 197547031
trends in hospital admission rates for whooping cough in england across five decades: database studies.our aim was to report on trends in hospitalisation rates for pertussis in england from the 1960s to 2011; and to provide context for the recent unexpected activity of bordetella pertussis in the uk.201424526463
Mycoplasma pneumoniae and respiratory virus infections in children with persistent cough in England: a retrospective analysis.Persistent cough following an acute respiratory tract infection is common in children, but clinicians may find it difficult to give accurate prognostic information on likely duration of cough without a microbiologic diagnosis. This study estimates the prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) and assesses the prognostic value of detecting Mp and respiratory viruses in children with persistent cough.201121857262
bordetella pertussis surveillance in england and wales: 1995-7.available data sources on disease due to bordetella pertussis, including notifications, hospital admissions, deaths, and an enhanced laboratory-based surveillance system commenced in january 1994, were reviewed for the period 1995-7. pertussis notifications continued their approximately 3-year cycle although at historically reduced levels. a slight seasonal increase in late summer/early autumn existed over and above a relatively constant background rate. over time, the proportion of pertussis ca ...199910694150
the epidemiology of pertussis in england and wales.recovery in the uptake of whole-cell pertussis vaccine from 30% in 1978 to 91% in 1992 has resulted in a major reduction in the incidence of pertussis and in the proportion of cases occurring in pre-school children. this has been accompanied by a decline in pertussis mortality rates, with no deaths reported since september 1990. seventy-four per cent of the 50 fatal cases reported since 1980 have been infants under one year of age, demonstrating the importance of completing primary immunisation ...19921285134
antimicrobial susceptibility testing of historical and recent clinical isolates of bordetella pertussis in the united kingdom using the etest method.reports of the development of antimicrobial resistance by bordetella pertussis to macrolides in the united states and taiwan, together with a recent increase in pertussis notifications and laboratory-confirmed cases in england and wales in 2008, prompted the examination of historical and recent clinical isolates from patients for evidence of such resistance in our collection. isolates submitted to our laboratory as part of the enhanced surveillance scheme for pertussis, from 2001 to 2009, were t ...201020521155
outbreak of bordetella pertussis among oncology nurse specialists.we describe an outbreak of pertussis with transmission between health care workers (hcws) in a hospital oncology department and a patient identified as a possible source. three of the four hcws testing positive for pertusssis had received primary immunization as children, consistent with waning immunity into adulthood. the fourth health care worker was unimmunized. no evidence of onward nosocomial acquisition within the patient group was found; however, transmission within the household of one h ...201020407043
whooping cough in school age children with persistent cough: prospective cohort study in primary estimate the proportion of school age children with a persistent cough who have evidence of a recent bordetella pertussis infection.200616829538
sero-epidemiology of bordetella pertussis in england and wales.the incidence of pertussis infection can be estimated in the population by defining a single high titre of anti pertussis toxin (pt) immunoglobulin g (igg) antibody predictive of recent infection. sera samples collected in 1986, 1996 or annually between 1987 and 1998 were tested for anti-pt igg antibody. in 1996, the age-adjusted prevalence of pertussis infection was 1.2% and was higher in children than in adults. amongst samples collected annually, older age and female sex, but none of the temp ...200415003661
serological evidence of pertussis in patients presenting with cough in general practice in birmingham.three hundred and fifty-six patients in a large suburban practice (registered population 10,400), were diagnosed clinically with acute laryngitis/tracheitis or whooping cough (acute spasmodic cough of three weeks duration) between march 1996 and november 1997. forty out of 145 who provided specimens for serological testing had evidence of recent infection with bordetella pertussis. during the study a further 18 patients (mostly younger patients who presented early) had a diagnosis of pertussis c ...200010902257
microbiological and serological diagnosis of pertussis.swedish vaccine trials have been used to examine sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures for bordetella pertussis infection. the proportions of cases diagnosed by culture and serology were 55% and 45%, respectively, when both methods were optimized. the culture method included nasopharyngeal aspiration, direct inoculation on plates, enrichment, and repeated collection of samples. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for igg antibodies to pertussis toxin (pt) and to filamentous hemag ...199910447026
efficacy of pertussis vaccination in england. report from the phls epidemiological research laboratory and 21 area health authorities.a national assessment of the efficacy of pertussis vaccination was made in 21 area health authorities in england. notification rates for children given either three doses of diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccine or diphtheria/tetanus vaccine were studied during the two and a half-year period january 1978-june 1980. a survey of home circumstances showed that the two vaccine groups could be validly compared. home visits were made to assess the severity of the illness, the attack rates in home conta ...19826284296
the recurrence of whooping cough: possible implications for assessment of vaccine efficacy. 19826121976
role of pcr in the diagnosis of pertussis infection in infants: 5 years' experience of provision of a same-day real-time pcr service in england and wales from 2002 to part of an enhanced surveillance programme for pertussis in england and wales, a real-time pcr service for the detection of bordetella pertussis was introduced for infants aged <or=6 months admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit or paediatric ward with a respiratory illness compatible with pertussis. two real-time fluorescent resonance energy transfer hybridization probe lightcycler (roche diagnostics) pcr assays were used. one (designed in-house) targeted the pertussis toxin s1 promote ...200919528165
opposite patterns of synchrony in sympatric disease metapopulations.measles epidemics in uk cities, which were regular and highly synchronous before vaccination, are known to have become irregular and spatially uncorrelated in the vaccine era. whooping cough shows the reverse pattern, namely a shift from spatial incoherence and irregularity before vaccination to regular, synchronous epidemics afterward. models show that these patterns can arise from disease-specific responses to dynamical noise. this analysis has implications for vaccination strategies and illus ...199910542154
protection by pertussis vaccine. little cause for was estimated from a survey of 418 children aged three weeks to twelve years with bacteriologically confirmed whooping-cough that about 95% of vaccinated children are protected by current vaccine. protection could be increased even further by the greater use of adsorbed rather than plain vaccine and by closer adherence to a vaccination schedule. the lower incidence of infection, resulting from widespread acceptance of this highly effective vaccine, would also greatly reduce the exposure of in ...197657464
estimating the duration of pertussis immunity using epidemiological notifications of pertussis have shown an increase in a number of countries with high rates of routine pediatric immunization. this has led to significant public health concerns over a possible pertussis re-emergence. a leading proposed explanation for the observed increase in incidence is the loss of immunity to pertussis, which is known to occur after both natural infection and vaccination. little is known, however, about the typical duration of immunity and its epidemiological implication ...200919876392
severity of whooping cough in england before and after the decline in pertussis immunisation.since the decline of pertussis immunisation, hospital admission and death rates from whooping cough have fallen unexpectedly. although this might be taken to indicate that the disease is becoming less severe, a comparison of admissions and deaths in england and wales before and after the decline in immunisation suggests that several factors other than disease severity--a shift in the social class distribution of the disease, an increase in the proportion of milder cases notified, and improved ca ...19846322706
modelling the unidentified mortality burden from thirteen infectious pathogenic microorganisms in infants.official statistics routinely underestimate mortality from specific microorganisms and deaths are assigned to non-specific syndromes. here we estimate mortality attributed to specific pathogens by modelling non-specific infant deaths from laboratory reports and codes on death certificates for these pathogens, 1993-2000 in england and wales using a generalized linear model. in total, 22.4-59.8% of non-specific deaths in infants (25-66 deaths a year) are attributable to specific pathogens. yearly ...200716740187
the enigma of pertussis. the marc daniels lecture 1984. 19852860246
effect of vaccination on severity and dissemination of whooping cough.a study was undertaken in general practice to clarify those factors, especially vaccinations, that influence the clinical picture and infectivity of whooping cough in the community. although the range of the disease encountered was fairly mild, its duration was notable (mean +/- sd 50.9 +/- 32.1 days). by using multiway contingency table analysis it was found that in the more severe cases of whooping cough vaccination significantly shortened the illness (p less than 0.005) and reduced the number ...19816263402
a search for subclinical infection during a small outbreak of whooping cough: implications for clinical diagnosis.the transmission of whooping cough in a general practice community was followed after the identification of the first case for nearly three years. intensive case-finding was undertaken to detect contacts of known cases of whooping cough and to take pernasal swabs from those with any cough; 102 swabs were taken. in three months 39 cases of whooping cough were clinically diagnosed, 17 (44%) of which were confirmed bacteriologically. all had a prolonged paroxysmal cough, one-third reported a catarr ...19863668903
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