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lyme disease surveillance in england and wales, 1986 1998.improved surveillance indicates that lyme borreliosis, an emerging zoonosis in the united kingdom, has increased from 0.06/100,000 during 1986-1992 to 0.32/100,000 since 1996. case reports peaked in the third quarter of each year. several high-incidence localities were identified. erythema migrans was reported in 41% of patients; arthritis in 4%; musculoskeletal symptoms in 18%; and neuroborreliosis in 15%.200010905978
borrelia burgdorferi serosurvey in wild deer in england and wales.lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the united kingdom and its incidence has been increasing in recent years. however, limited information is available on its epidemiology and dynamics in the u.k. a survey in wild deer to investigate the presence of antibodies reactive to borrellia burgdorferi was conducted to obtain initial information on the distribution pattern of the spirochete in england and wales. samples from roe deer (n=604) and red deer (n=80) were collected in eight ...201222448654
distribution of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodes ricinus populations across central britain.lyme borreliosis is rapidly emerging in the united kingdom, with over 1000 cases per annum now reported. lyme borreliosis is caused by the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) group of spirochetes, which are transmitted by ixodid ticks. in the united kingdom, ixodes ricinus is recognized as the principal vector of the spirochetes, and this tick species is widely distributed across the country. however, as yet, it is unclear whether the distribution of b. burgdorferi essentially mirrors that of ...201323421892
distribution of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. spirochaete dna in british ticks (argasidae and ixodidae) since the 19th century, assessed by pcr.the distribution of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the lyme borreliosis agent, was surveyed in british ticks in the collection of the natural history museum, london. alcohol-preserved specimens of eight species of ticks known to attack humans were studied: ixodes ricinus, i. hexagonus, i. uriae, i. trianguliceps, dermacentor reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, rhipicephalus sanguineus and argas vespertilionis. the sample comprised all life stages and originated from a wide range of host speci ...19989513944
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