isolation of type a influenza viruses from the migratory waterfowl along the mississippi flyway.four type a infleunza viruses were isolated from tracheal swabs taken from apparently healthy ducks (mallards, anas platyrhynchos) along the mississippi flyway in minnesota. inital identification of group a influenza was made possible by the use of the agar gel precipitin test.19751152175
isolation of avian paramyxoviruses from sentinel ducks and turkeys in a 4-year study (1980-1983) involving the use of sentinel ducks that intermingled with wild ducks, a total of 98 paramyxovirus (pmv) isolates (84 newcastle disease virus, 14 pmv-6) were obtained from 3652 sentinel duck cloacal samples (2.7% isolation rate) collected between june and mid-november each year. pmv infection of sentinel ducks appeared to be seasonal, with the onset of infection occurring between mid-july and mid-august. pmv was not isolated from sentinel turkeys that co-mingled wit ...19854026734
epizootiology of avian influenza--simultaneous monitoring of sentinel ducks and turkeys in minnesota.isolation-reared mallards (anas platyrhynchos) were placed on ponds in turkey-rearing areas in minnesota, and their cloacae were periodically swabbed to attempt isolating virus from embryonated chicken eggs. nearby turkeys were sampled by taking cloacal and tracheal swabs as well as blood samples. hemagglutinating viruses were identified at the national veterinary services laboratory, u.s. department of agriculture, ames, iowa. during this two-year study, the weekly influenza virus-isolation rat ...19836847552
avian pneumovirus (apv) rna from wild and sentinel birds in the united states has genetic homology with rna from apv isolates from domestic turkeys.nasal turbinates or swabs were collected from wild ducks, geese, owls, sparrows, swallows, and starlings and from sentinel ducks placed next to turkey farms experiencing avian pneumovirus (apv) infections and were analyzed for apv genome and infectious particles. apv rna was detected in samples examined from geese, sparrows, and starlings. apv rna and antibodies were also detected in two different groups of sentinel ducks. infectious apv was recovered from sentinel duck samples. the apv m gene i ...200011060113
avian influenza viruses in minnesota ducks during 1998-2000.although wild ducks are known to be a major reservoir for avian influenza viruses (aiv), there are few recent published reports of surveillance directed at this group. predominant aiv hemagglutinin (ha) subtypes reported in previous studies of ducks in north america include h3, h4, and h6, with the h5, h7, and h9 subtypes not well represented in these host populations. the objective of this study was to determine whether these subtype patterns have persisted. each september from 1998 to 2000, cl ...200314575079
canada geese and the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses.canada geese (branta canadensis) are numerous, highly visible, and widely distributed in both migratory and resident populations in north america; as a member of the order anseriformes, they are often suggested as a potential reservoir and source for avian influenza (ai) viruses. to further examine the role of canada geese in the ecology of ai, we re-evaluated existing literature related to ai virus in this species and tested breeding populations of canada geese from three states (georgia, west ...201020688710
influenza a viruses in american white pelican (pelecanus erythrorhynchos).the role of many wild waterbird species in the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (aiv) remains unclear. we report the first isolation of aiv from american white pelicans (pelecanus erythrorhynchos; pelecaniformes) in north america. two h13n9 aivs were isolated from hatchling birds in breeding colonies in minnesota, usa, during 2007 and 2008. based on molecular sequencing of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes, the 2008 virus was genetically related to aivs previously isol ...201020966281
Waterfowl abundance does not predict the dominant avian source of beach Escherichia coli.The horizontal, fluorophore enhanced, rep-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting technique was used to identify potential sources of in water, nearshore sand, and sediment at two beaches in the Duluth-Superior Harbor, near Duluth, MN, and Superior, WI, during May, July, and September 2006. An animal or environmental source could be identified for 35, 29, and 30% of strains in water, sand, and sediments, respectively. Waterfowl, including Canada geese, ring-billed gulls, and mallard ducks, were the lar ...201122031576
influenza-a viruses in ducks in northwestern minnesota: fine scale spatial and temporal variation in prevalence and subtype diversity.waterfowl from northwestern minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for avian influenza virus (aiv) from july-october in 2007 and 2008. aiv was detected in 222 (9.1%) of 2,441 ducks in 2007 and in 438 (17.9%) of 2,452 ducks in 2008. prevalence of aiv peaked in late summer. we detected 27 aiv subtypes during 2007 and 31 during 2008. ten hemagglutinin (ha) subtypes were detected each year (i.e., h1, 3-8, and 10-12 during 2007; h1-8, 10 and 11 during 2008). all neuraminidase (na) subtypes were d ...201121931636
reassortant influenza a viruses in wild duck populations: effects on viral shedding and persistence in water.wild ducks of the genus anas represent the natural hosts for a large genetic diversity of influenza a viruses. in these hosts, co-infections with different virus genotypes are frequent and result in high rates of genetic reassortment. recent genomic data have provided information regarding the pattern and frequency of these reassortant viruses in duck populations; however, potential consequences on viral shedding and maintenance in the environment have not been investigated. on the basis of full ...201222859590
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