outbreak of type c botulism in birds and mammals in the emilia romagna region, northern italy.over a 7-day period beginning 8 august 2011, a large number of wild birds of several species were found dead or with neurologic clinical signs along the shore of crostolo stream, in the emilia romagna region, italy. twenty-eight mallards (anas platyrhynchos), two hooded crows (corvus corone cornix), and three coypus (myocastor coypus) were found moribund on the crostolo stream bank, collected, and sent to istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale della lombardia e dell'emilia romagna, reggio emilia ...201324502738
antigenic variation among avian influenza a viruses.a total of 16 strains of influenza a virus isolated in 1965-66 from quail, ducks, turkeys, pheasants and chickens bred in poultry farms situated in pavia and surrounding districts in northern italy were investigated from the point of view of antigenic grouping by the complement-fixation test.all strains were antigenically related but not identical to each other. most but not all strains were antigenically related to virus n and some to duck/england/62, turkey/canada/63 and turkey/massachussets/6 ...19675301736
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