detection of influenza a viruses and influenza epidemics in wild pelagic birds by sentinels and population studies.field experiments with domestic ducks as sentinels and virological and serological population observations on wild pelagic birds on a seabird-breeding island in the baltic sea and on rivers and lakes near berlin were conducted to detect the influenza a virus circulation and epidemics in wild pelagic bird populations. influenza a virus isolates were detected in tracheal and cloacal swabs from sentinel ducks and from healthy pelagic birds. influenza a virus epidemics with different subtypes in an ...19827170852
phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from germany in 2006 and 2007 suggest at least three separate introductions of h5n1 spring 2006, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) of subtype h5n1 was detected in germany in 343 dead wild birds, as well as in a black swan (cygnus atratus) kept in a zoo, three stray cats, one stone marten (martes foina), and in a single turkey farm. in 2007 (june-july) the virus reoccurred in 96 wild birds at six geographically separate locations in the southeast of germany. in addition, a backyard mixed duck and goose holding was affected. real-time rt-pcr [hoffmann, b., harder ...200818031958
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