infectious causes of equine respiratory disease on ontario standardbred racetracks.upper respiratory disease has been a serious problem in standardbred horses on racetracks in ontario, with outbreaks occurring once or twice annually in late winter and early spring seasons. to determine the causes of these epidemics, a 3-year investigation was carried out in which nasal swabs and serum samples were obtained at intervals from apparently healthy horses and from horses suffering from upper respiratory disease. the nasal swabs were used to isolate bacteria and viruses. the serum sa ...1977192757
case report: an outbreak of herpesvirus myeloencephalitis in vaccinated the foaling season of 1977, five vaccinated horses in a standardbred breeding stable were affected with herpesvirus myeloencephalitis. respiratory and abortigenic forms also occurred in other individuals on the premises. equine herpesvirus type 1 was isolated from the brain of one case of myeloencephalitis and from lungs of two aborted fetuses. twelve of 16 horses demonstrated fourfold or greater increases in titres to equine herpesvirus type 1.1979216473
epidemiology of equine upper respiratory tract disease on standardbred racetracks.the outbreaks of upper respiratory tract infections in horses at standardbred racetracks were investigated over a three year period. the most serious epidemics of respiratory disease occurred in the winter and spring seasons. both influenza viruses and equine herpesvirus 1 were shown to be present in the horse population. the herpesvirus was associated with respiratory disease particularly in the winter but the equine influenza viruses apparently were responsible for the major epidemics of respi ...1979218705
association of microbiologic flora with clinical, endoscopic, and pulmonary cytologic findings in foals with distal respiratory tract infection.undifferentiated distal respiratory tract disease (nasal discharge, cough, pneumonia) in foals (1 to 8 months old) is a burdensome economic problem on breeding farms; yet, the infective agents associated with these episodes have not been well described. possible causes of these episodes of illness were investigated by culturing specimens of proximal and distal airways of clinically diseased foals (n = 101), prior to any treatment, for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and viruses (rhinoviruses, equ ...19938250386
infectious agents in acute respiratory disease in horses in ontario.a study of acute respiratory disease in horses in ontario was undertaken to determine the identity of current causative infectious agents. a nasopharyngeal swab was designed and utilized to maximize isolation of viruses, mycoplasma, and pathogenic bacteria. serum samples were collected for parallel determination of antibody titers to equine influenza virus type a subtype 1 (h7n7) and subtype 2 (h3n8), equine rhinovirus types 1 and 2, equine herpesvirus type 1, mycoplasma equirhinius, and mycopla ...19979087920
restriction endonuclease analysis of equine herpesvirus-1 isolates recovered in ontario, 1986-1992, from aborted, stillborn, and neonatal foals.ninety-two equine herpesvirus type 1 isolates were recovered from aborted, stillborn, or neonatal foals from ontario, canada, from 1986 to 1992. from this total, 32 strains were randomly chosen for further study. four or 5 isolates from each winter were selected, each from a different premises, and characterized by restriction enzyme analysis using bamhi, kpni, bglii, hindiii, and ecori. additional isolates from 2 premises and from a zebra foal were also assessed. for the strains isolated in 198 ...19979211232
surveillance of equine respiratory viruses in ontario.the objective of this project was to develop and implement an active surveillance program for the early and rapid detection of equine influenza viruses in ontario. for this purpose, from october 2003 to october 2005, nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from 115 client-owned horses in 23 outbreaks of respiratory disease in ontario. sera were paired and tested for antibody to equine influenza 1 (ae1-h7n7), equine influenza 2 (ae2-h3n8), equine herpesvirus 1 ...201021197227
equid herpesvirus 9 (ehv-9) isolates from zebras in ontario, canada, 1989 to 2007.the objective of this study was to identify and partially characterize 3 equid herpesviruses that were isolated postmortem from zebras in ontario, canada in 1989, 2002, and 2007. these 3 virus isolates were characterized by plaque morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of their genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (dna), real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay, and sequence analyses of the full length of the glycoprotein g (gg) gene (orf70) and a portion of the dna polymera ...201525852233
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