rabies surveillance in the united states during 1989, 4,808 cases of rabies in animals other than human beings were reported to the centers for disease control, 1.8% more (4,724 to 4,808) than in 1988. eighty-eight percent (4,224/4,808) of those affected were wild animals and 12% (584/4,808) were domestic animals. cases were reported from 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico; hawaii remained rabies-free. skunks (1,657) continued to be the most commonly reported rabid wild animal. for the second consecutive year, more cats ( ...19902276949
eastern equine encephalitis in quebec and connecticut, 1972: introduction by infected mosquitoes on the wind?in 1972 there were outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis in the eastern townships, quebec, canada and in connecticut, usa. climatic data including northern hemisphere synoptic charts were examined. the findings indicate that the virus could have been brought to lac brome by infected mosquitoes carried on surface winds from meriden, connecticut, on the night of august 22-23, 1972. the distance of 400 km would have been covered in 14-16 h at a speed of 25-30 km h-1 and at a temperature of 15 de ...19892563337
equine dermatophilosis in southwestern virginia. 19734490301
ticks and antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from mammals at cape hatteras, nc and assateague island, md and va.results of a survey for ixodid ticks and/or serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from 14 species of small to large mammals from eastern coastal areas of the united states are presented. most samples were obtained from july 1987 through june 1989 (excluding december-march) at 3 locales: assateague is. national seashore, worcester co., md., and accomack co., va. (approximately 38 degrees 05' n 75 degrees 10' w), and cape hatteras national seashore, dare co., nc (approximately 35 degrees 30' n ...199910534951
update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
sporocyst size of isolates of sarcocystis shed by the virginia opossum (didelphis virginiana).the virginia opossum (didelphis virginiana) is a definitive host for multiple sarcocystis species including sarcocystis neurona, one of the causative agents of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (epm), a severe, neuromuscular disease of horses. size and morphologic characteristics of isolates of sarcocystis shed by the opossum were examined to determine if differences were useful in discriminating between the isolates and/or species. collections of sporocysts from 17 opossums were molecularly ch ...200111223210
reactivity of serum samples of dogs and horses tested by use of class-specific recombinant-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of granulocytic test serum samples of dogs and horses by use of class-specific recombinant-based elisa for establishing a diagnosis of granulocytic ehrlichiosis attributable to infection with organisms from the ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup.200111560261
necropsy findings and arbovirus surveillance in mourning doves from the southeastern united states.mourning doves (zenaida macroura) are the most abundant and widespread native member of the columbid family, as well as a major migratory game species, in the united states. however, there is little information on mortality factors in mourning doves. records of necropsy accessions at the southeastern cooperative wildlife disease study (scwds) from 15 southeastern states, from 1971 through 2005, were reviewed. one hundred thirty-five mourning doves were submitted from nine states during the 35-yr ...200717347403
five-year surveillance of west nile and eastern equine encephalitis viruses in southeastern investigate the occurrence of west nile virus (wnv) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (eee) in southeastern virginia, the bureau of laboratories at the norfolk department of public health (ndph) analyzed mosquito pools and the sera of sentinel chickens from the southeastern virginia area each year from 2000 to 2004. mosquito pool supernatants were screened for the presence of viral rna by conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and taqman rt-pcr with the i-cy ...200616696451
clinical field efficacy and safety of pyrantel pamoate paste (19.13% w/w pyrantel base) against anoplocephala spp. in naturally infected horses.clinical field trials were conducted at five geographical locations in the usa (oklahoma, wisconsin, tennessee, virginia and idaho) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pyrantel pamoate paste (19.13%, w/w, pyrantel base) administered at the recommended dosage of 13.2 mg pyrantel base/kg (6.0 mg pyrantel base/lb) body weight (b.w.) against tapeworm infections of anoplocephala spp. in naturally infected horses. horses at each study site were allocated by restricted randomization based on the ces ...200616434142
prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to sarcocystis neurona in raccoons (procyon lotor) from an urban area of virginia.equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is the most important protozoan disease of horses in north america and is usually caused by sarcocystis neurona. natural and experimentally induced cases of encephalitis caused by s. neurona have been reported in raccoons (procyon lotor) and raccoons are an intermediate host for this parasite. a 3-yr-long serological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to s. neurona in raccoons collected from fairfax county, virginia, a ...200415357091
prevalence of antibodies to sarcocystis neurona in cats from virginia and pennsylvania.sarcocystis neurona is best known as the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis of horses in the americas. domestic cats ( felis domesticus ) were the first animals described as an intermediate host for s. neurona . however, s. neurona -associated encephalitis has also been reported in naturally infected cats in the united states. thus, cats can be implicated in the life cycle of s. neurona as natural intermediate hosts. the present study examined the seroprevalence of igg antibod ...201020476809
endoscopic findings of the gastric antrum and pylorus in horses: 162 cases (1996-2000).medical records and endoscopy images were examined for 209 horses that had gastroscopic examinations performed with a 2.5- or 3-m-long endoscope by one of the authors (mjm) during a 4-year period (1996-2000). the antrum and pylorus were viewed in 162 horses, and the duodenum was viewed in 94 horses. of these 162 horses, the gastric squamous mucosa was seen in 157 horses and 50% or more of the glandular mucosa of the body of the stomach was seen in 156 horses. erosions or ulcers were seen in the ...200111467600
reproduction in feral horses: an eight-year study.the reproductive rate and foal survival of the free-ranging ponies on assateague island national seashore were studied for 8 years, 1975 to 1982. most (52%) of the 86 foals were born in may, 13% were born in april, 22.6% in june, 10.4% in july, and less than 1% in august and september. the mean foaling rate was 57.1 +/- 3.9% and the survival rate was 88.3 +/- 3.6%. forty-eight colts and 55 fillies were born (sex ratio 53% female). mares less than 3 years old did not foal and the foaling rate of ...19846732036
equine herpesvirus type 2: prevalence and seroepidemiology in foals.whole blood and serum were collected from foals to determine the prevalence of equine herpesvirus type 2 (ehv 2) infection in foals, age at which infection can first be identified and serological responses to infection. equine herpesvirus type 2 was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from 68 of 69 foals, 1-8-months-old, sampled once. virus isolation was performed twice at intervals of 2-7 months on pbmcs from 33 foals and ehv2 was isolated on both occasions in all but one fo ...19969049491
echinococcus granulosus (taeniidae) and autochthonous echinococcosis in a north american horse.we report the first documented case of autochthonous echinococcosis in a horse of north american origin. three fully mature and viable unilocular hydatid cysts of echinococcus granulosus (batsch, 1786) were an incidental finding at necropsy in the liver of a 14-yr-old gelding thoroughbred that had been foaled in virginia and raised in maryland. protoscolices were armed with 2 rows of 28-37 rostellar hooks; small hooks measured 23-30 microns; large hooks measured 26-33 microns. morphologically, t ...19948308647
eastern equine encephalomyelitis with hematuria and bladder dysfunction.we have described a patient with eastern equine encephalomyelitis acquired in central virginia, an area in which eee is not ordinarily considered endemic. the unusual presenting features of our patient's encephalomyelitis were bladder dysfunction and hematuria as well as prominent mood and affect disturbances, which are usually seen in association with st. louis encephalitis. the diagnosis of arboviral encephalomyelitis was considered because of the severe cns manifestations and spinal cord invo ...19938100647
west nile virus activity--united states, august 11-17, 2004.during august 11-17, a total of 194 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 17 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, louisiana, maryland, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, ohio, south dakota, texas, utah, and virginia).200415318160
acute diarrhea in horses of the potomac river area: examination for clostridial toxins.fecal specimens from horses in montgomery county, md, and in fairfax and loudoun counties, va, were examined for clostridium perfringens type a enterotoxin and for c difficile cytotoxin (92 and 108 specimens, respectively). the toxins were found in feces from horses that had experienced an acute diarrhea syndrome and from clinically normal horses. the toxins did not appear to be primary determinants of the diarrhea syndrome, although they may have contributed to the spectrum of clinical entities ...19846469842
generalized viral illness caused by an intermediate strain of adenovirus (21/h21 + 35).ten isolates of an antigenically intermediate strain of adenovirus were recovered from eight persons who presented febrile upper respiratory illness, pneumonia, or multisystem disease between november 1976 and august 1978. six isolates were recovered from four members of an extended family in which the other nine members all had serologic evidence of infection; the other four isolates were epidemiologically unrelated. the isolates were placed in hemagglutination group ib on the basis of results ...19806245153
west nile virus activity--united states, september 29-october 5, 2004.during september 29-october 5, a total of 81 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, florida, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, minnesota, missouri, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, texas, and virginia).200415470326
race horse helps scholarship fund, has hospital unit named for him. 198410265071
prevalence of equine onchocerciasis in southeastern and midwestern united states.of 664 horses reported to have originated in southeastern and midwestern united states, 341 (51.4%) were positive for onchocerca cervicalis cutaneous microfilariasis. the highest prevalence of 68.8% was recorded for horses from virginia. horses with the highest concentrations of microfilariae (as high as 19,770 microfilariae/mg in 1 horse) were from the southeast (georgia, florida, tennessee, and alabama). for horses from south carolina, the prevalence of infection was 57.1%; from the midwest (k ...19854008301
ecological evidence against vertical transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) on the delmarva peninsula, usa. 19872881000
distribution of equine infectious anemia in equids in southeastern united states.state veterinarians in 11 southeastern states completed a questionnaire designed to determine the proportion of equids in the region that were seropositive for equine infectious anemia (eia). cases of eia were diagnosed in each of the states surveyed. distinct geographic clusters of cases were apparent in tennessee and kentucky adjacent to the mississippi river, in the piedmont of north carolina at the virginia border, in north central georgia, and throughout the florida peninsula. it is suggest ...19902173692
experimental equine influenza in chincoteague ponies. 19676066960
experimental human b influenza virus infection in chincoteague ponies. 19685673022
what really causes colic in horses? epidemiology's role in elucidating the ultimate multi-factorial disease. 19979413710
pediatric equestrian injuries: assessing the impact of helmet assess the impact of helmet use on the pattern, and severity of pediatric equestrian injuries.19957700745
prospective study of equine colic incidence and mortality.a prospective study of one year was conducted on 31 horse farms to obtain population based estimates of incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of equine colic. farms with greater than 20 horses were enrolled by randomly selecting horse owners from 2 adjacent counties of virginia and maryland. descriptive information for 1427 horses was collected at the initiation of the study and updated at 3 month intervals. time on the farm during the study was tabulated for each horse. when colic was report ...19979413717
prospective study of equine colic risk factors.a 1 year prospective study was conducted on 31 horse farms to identify risk factors for equine colic. farms were randomly selected from a list from 2 adjacent counties of virginia and maryland, usa. the association between colic and farm or individual horse risk factors related to management, housing, pasture, use, nutrition, health and events was first examined by univariate statistical analysis. individually significant (p < = 0.25 for farm factors, p < = 0.10 for horse factors) variables were ...19979413718
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