eastern equine encephalitis presenting with a focal brain lesion.eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus causes a severe meningoencephalitis with high morbidity and mortality. despite numerous clinical reports of eee, there are only 11 patients in whom cranial computed tomographic (ct) findings are described. in 6 patients, ct was normal and in 5 patients diffuse edema was present; none had a focal brain lesion. based on these reports, it has been suggested that focal findings on ct support the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis rather than eee. the fir ...19921476580
duration of alphavirus neutralizing antibody in naturally infected birds.native birds, mostly passerine species, ecologically associated with culiseta melanura, the enzootic vector of eastern equine encephalomyelitis and highlands j viruses in the eastern united states, were examined over a 12-year period in southeastern massachusetts. these studies concentrated on those individual birds known, by banding returns, to be residents of large wooded swamps where both eastern equine encephalomyelitis and highlands j viruses were known to be enzootic. of 8,417 birds sample ...19882829638
hemocytic rickettsia-like organisms in ticks: serologic reactivity with antisera to ehrlichiae and detection of dna of agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by pcr.ixodid ticks were collected from connecticut, massachusetts, missouri, pennsylvania, rhode island, and british columbia (canada) during 1991 to 1994 to determine the prevalence of infection with hemocytic (blood cell), rickettsia-like organisms. hemolymph obtained from these ticks was analyzed by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody (fa) staining methods with dog, horse, or human sera containing antibodies to ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia equi, or rickettsia rickettsii. of the 693 nymphal and a ...19958567911
case records of the massachusetts general hospital. weekly clinicopathological exercises. case 17-2003. a 38-year-old woman with fever, headache, and confusion. 200312773652
clinical manifestations of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in pheasants. 19655855812
occurrence of nervous-tissue tumors in cattle, horses, cats and dogs.from 11 north american veterinary university hospitals and clinics, 248 animals were a confirmed diagnosis of nervous-tissue tumor were identified; 7 tumors were found in cattle, 28 in horses, 14 in cats, 199 in dogs, and none in other species. tumors were divided for analysis into three categories-glial, meningeal, and peripheral nerve. in cattle and horses, all tumors involved peripheral nerves, the risk of which, in horses, reached a plateau at 4-6 years of age and remained constant thereafte ...1975165149
eastern equine encephalitis in massachusetts, 1957-1976. a prospective study centered upon analyses of mosquitoes.reappearance of eastern equine encephalitis (eee) in massachusetts residents in the 1970's provided an opportunity to assess the predictive value of data on rainfall, eee in horses, and carriage of eee virus (eeev) by mosquitoes, factors which had been studied annually since the last eee outbreak in 1955-1956. the cycle of multiple cases during 1973-1975 started in a second consecutive year of rainfall that exceeded the annual mean by more than 20 cm, conditions recapitulating the 1955-1956 expe ...197823676
silver bullet or trojan horse? the effects of inclusionary zoning on local housing markets in the united states.many local governments are adopting inclusionary zoning (iz) as a means of producing affordable housing without direct public subsidies. in this paper, panel data on iz in the san francisco metropolitan area and suburban boston are used to analyse how much affordable housing the programmes produce and how iz affects the prices and production of market-rate housing. the amount of affordable housing produced under iz has been modest and depends primarily on how long iz has been in place. results f ...201121275196
a description of the tufts cummings school of veterinary medicine-massachusetts equine clinic combined equine medicine internship program. 200919566452
eastern equine encephalitis--new hampshire and massachusetts, august-september 2005.during august-september 2005, the new hampshire department of health and human services reported seven cases of human eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) disease, the first laboratory-confirmed, locally acquired cases of human eeev disease reported from new hampshire in 41 years of national surveillance. also during august--september 2005, the massachusetts department of public health reported four cases of human eeev disease, five times the annual average of 0.8 cases reported from massach ...200616810146
human eastern equine encephalitis in massachusetts: predictive indicators from mosquitoes collected at 10 long-term trap sites, 1979-2004.human eastern equine encephalitis (eee) is a life-threatening mosquito-borne disease. to determine whether mosquito abundance and eee virus infection rates are associated with human eee disease, we evaluated retrospectively a total of 592,637 mosquitoes and onset dates for 20 confirmed human cases over 26 years in massachusetts. annual culiseta melanura populations at 10 defined sites decreased over the study period (p = 0.002). weekly infection rates and number of infected culiseta melanura cap ...200717297037
toward the incrimination of epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in massachusetts: abundance of mosquito populations at epidemic foci.putative epidemic/epizootic eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eee) vector populations were compared at 15 recent (1982-90) human and horse case sites in bristol and plymouth counties in southeastern massachusetts. carbon dioxide-baited american biophysics corporation light traps were used for trapping adult mosquitoes to estimate biting risk in these foci of known transmission. population data suggest that coquillettidia perturbans, aedes canadensis, and culex salinarius are more likely ve ...199910612612
reactivity of human sera to different strains of granulocytic ehrlichiae in immunodiagnostic assays.sera from 35 patients diagnosed with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in connecticut were tested by indirect ifa staining methods with 5 strains of ehrlichia equi or the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent to assess the suitability of different strains in laboratory analyses. antigens included horse-derived infected neutrophils (mrk and bds strains) and human isolates cultured in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (nch-1, rch, and webster). of 35 sera, 23 (65.7%) reacted to all 5 strains. serop ...19989815246
sampling with light traps and human bait in epidemic foci for eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in southeastern estimate human exposure to potential vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus, we compared collections of putative eee virus vectors from human biting collections with collections from cdc, ab (american biophysics), and new jersey light traps and resting boxes in enzootic/epidemic foci of eee virus in southeastern massachusetts. human biting collections caught significantly more host-seeking females than resting boxes or unbaited light traps (p < 0.05). regression analysis of h ...19979474561
sampling methods for potential epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in determine which of 11 trapping methods best sampled populations of 6 potential epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus, we compared new jersey (nj) light trap, cdc light trap, cdc with octenol, cdc with co2, cdc with co2 plus octenol, american biophysics light trap with flickering light (ab flicker), ab steady light, ab flicker with octenol, ab flicker with co2, ab flicker with co2 plus octenol, and 3 resting boxes. there was no significant difference between cdc and ...19979474560
media attention and public perceptions of cancer and eastern equine encephalitis.previous research has found that members of the public have a skewed sense of health risk. the purpose of this research was to investigate how mass media use influences perceptions of threat from cancer and eastern equine encephalitis (eee). investigators performed a media content analysis of 253 health-related articles from 11 massachusetts newspapers, then used logistic regression to analyze responses to a health communication survey of 613 massachusetts adults. a greater proportion of cancer ...201020352480
the economic burden imposed by a residual case of eastern estimate the economic burden imposed by eastern encephalitis (ee), we identified a series of residents of eastern massachusetts who had survived ee infection and enumerated any costs that could be attributed to their experience. the records of three people who suffered only a transient episode of disease were analyzed as well as those of three who suffered severe residual sequelae. transiently affected subjects mainly required assistance for direct medical services; the average total cost per ...19957856830
emergence of eastern encephalitis in massachusetts.the 20th century emergence in massachusetts of zoonotic eastern encephalitis was interpreted in terms of recorded environmental change. the main mosquito vector of the infection, cs. melanura, appears to have been scarce in eastern north america before the 1930s. its relative scarcity resulted from destruction of the swamps that had been lumbered or drained for farming in the 18th and 19th centuries. when swamps matured once again early in the 1900s, the formation of subsurface pools of water be ...19947840447
eastern "equine" encephalitis in masachusetts. 19714397600
prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to sarcocystis neurona in raccoons, procyon lotor, from the united states.equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (epm) is the most important protozoal disease of horses in north america and it is caused by sarcocystis neurona. natural cases of encephalitis due to s. neurona have been reported in raccoons, procyon lotor. we examined 99 raccoons for agglutinating antibodies to s. neurona using the s. neurona agglutination test (sat) employing formalin-fixed merozoites as antigen. raccoons originated in florida (n=24, collected in 1996), new jersey (n=25, collected in 1993), ...200111698158
vector competence of mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) from massachusetts for a sympatric isolate of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.we tested susceptibility to per os infection and potential salivary transmission for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in aedes canadensis (theobald), aedes vexans (meigen), anopheles quadrimaculatus (say), anopheles punctipennis (say), coquillettidia perturbans (walker), and culex salinarius (coquillett). culiseta melanura (coquillett), the documented enzootic vector of eee virus, was our control. based on these estimates of laboratory vector competence and other behavioral and ecolo ...19979151501
pheasant susceptibility at different ages to eastern encephalitis virus from various sources in massachusetts.thirteen isolates of eastern encephalitis (ee) virus recovered from various hosts in massachusetts differed significantly in pathogenicity for pheasants, 21 days old or older, inoculated subcutaneously with graded doses of virus. among the least pathogenic were two isolates from culiseta melanura mosquitoes, and among the most pathogenic isolates was one of pheasant origin. nine-day-old pheasant chicks were highly susceptible to ee virus. mortality did not appear to be totally dose-related, for ...1978697655
virologic and serologic survey for eastern equine encephalomyelitis and certain other viruses in colonial bats of new test the hypothesis that hibernating colonial bats serve as an overwintering reservoir host of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) and certain other arthropod-borne viruses in southern new england, 1128 bats of 4 species were collected from 1966 through 1976. blood and tissue samples and ectoparasites from these bats were tested in suckling mice, wet chicks, and/or chick-embryo tissue cultures for virus. rabies, the only virus isolated, was recovered from the brain, salivary glands, and br ...1979501851
equus caballus. 19751152914
occult subchondral osseous cyst-like lesions of the equine tarsocrural report the clinical signs, diagnosis, management, and outcome of horses with occult sub-chondral osseous cyst-like lesions of the tarsocrural joint.200415362996
update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
an educational campaign for mosquito control in lexington, massachusetts. 19863507482
eastern equine encephalitis in massachusetts: a report of 16 cases, 1970-1984.we studied the case records of 16 patients with eastern equine encephalitis (eee) in massachusetts from 1970 to 1984 and compared their presentations, courses, and outcomes with the data available from previous epidemics. in recent years, there has been a greater frequency of eee in adults, whereas in the past it was considered a disease of children. also, prognosis for a good functional recovery seems to be correlated with age over 40 years, a long prodromal course (5 to 7 days) of constitution ...19883362371
the effect of hormone replacement on physical performance in community-dwelling elderly women.our aim was to determine the effect of hormone replacement on physical performance measures, functional ability, physical activity, falls, and cognitive function in elderly women.200516271907
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