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distribution of neutralizing antibodies to california and bunyamwera serogroup viruses in horses and rodents in california.neutralization tests were done on sera from 141 horses from high elevation regions of california. antibody prevalences to jamestown canyon, snowshoe hare, and california encephalitis viruses in the california serogroup and northway virus in the bunyamwera serogroup were 55%, 43%, 18%, and 46%, respectively. in 51 horses from rural low elevation regions, seroprevalences were 31%, 35%, 35%, and 37%, respectively. twenty-four horses from a suburban lowland area were seronegative, except for a singl ...19902107770
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1989.in 1989, 4,808 cases of rabies in animals other than human beings were reported to the centers for disease control, 1.8% more (4,724 to 4,808) than in 1988. eighty-eight percent (4,224/4,808) of those affected were wild animals and 12% (584/4,808) were domestic animals. cases were reported from 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico; hawaii remained rabies-free. skunks (1,657) continued to be the most commonly reported rabid wild animal. for the second consecutive year, more cats ( ...19902276949
hematologic and blood chemical characteristics of feral horses from three management areas.blood was collected from 486 feral horses of mixed sex and age classes captured from three wild horse management areas in nevada and oregon from december 1985 to february 1986. males were significantly outnumbered by females in the flanigan area, but both sexes were represented in approximately equal numbers in the wassuk and beaty's butte areas. hematology and chemistry values averaged 16.4 +/- 0.11, 46.3 +/- 0.28, 9.9 +/- 0.07, 6.9 +/- 0.10, 47.1 +/- 0.24, 16.6 +/- 0.09, 35.2 +/- 0.09, 10.4 +/ ...19883373630
population genetics of great basin feral horses.the genetic make-up of great basin wild (feral) horses was investigated by blood typing studies. blood samples of 975 feral horses from seven trap sites in nevada and oregon were tested by serological and electrophoretic techniques for genetic markers at 19 polymorphic loci. the average number of variants for the seven feral populations [72.1 +/- 3.2 (sem), range 62-85] was not significantly different from that of 16 domestic breeds (75.0 +/- 11.5, range 58-105). the expected average frequency o ...19947943986
association of ixodes pacificus (acari: ixodidae) with the spatial and temporal distribution of equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis in california.this study was conducted to determine if the biology of certain ticks associated with horses regulates the spatial and temporal distribution of equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis (ege) in california north of monterey county. we compared the spatial and temporal distribution of ege cases with the seasons of activity and life histories of ticks that infest horses. spatially, cases collected from equine veterinarians clustered around each other in a manner different from the way in which control citi ...199910534948
relationships among weather, mosquito abundance, and encephalitis virus activity in california: kern county 1990-98.the summer abundance of culex tarsalis in kern county, california, during 1990-98 was related quantitatively to rainfall, snow depth and water content, and runoff of the kern river. total monthly rain that fell during winter, lagged by 4-6 months, explained only 13% of the variability in the number of host-seeking females collected per trap night per month during summer. in contrast, regression analysis showed that river runoff 1 month earlier explained 67% of the variability in mosquito abundan ...200010757487
cross-sectional study of faecal shedding of giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium parvum among packstock in the sierra nevada range.faecal specimens from 305 horses and mules used as packstock at one of 17 commercial or governmental (national park service, us forest service) operations were examined for giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium parvum using immunofluorescent microscopy. fourteen packstock (4.6%) were shedding g. duodenalis cysts, with herd-level prevalences ranging 0-22%. number of packstock in the corral, size of corral and density of packstock in the corral were associated with the odds of shedding g. duodena ...200010836481
porcine zona pellucida (pzp) immunocontraception of wild horses (equus caballus) in nevada: a 10 year study.porcine zona pellucida (pzp) immunocontraception was investigated for possible use in free-roaming wild horses in the western usa. a protocol of two injections (3-4 weeks apart) of vaccine lasting 1 year was first used and a single-injection controlled-release vaccine of 1 year duration was developed and tested in the field. studies of a presumptive vaccine of 2 year duration were initiated. the parameters of anti-pzp antibody titre response, pregnancy testing and offspring production were used, ...200212220157
west nile virus activity--united states, july 28-august 3, 2004.during july 28-august 3, a total of 141 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 11 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, nevada, new york, north dakota, south dakota, and texas). during 2004, a total of 20 states have reported a total of 406 cases of human wnv illness to cdc through arbonet. of these, 247 (61%) were reported from arizona. a total of 226 (57%) of the 406 cases occurred in males; the median age of patients was 51 years (range: 1 ...200415295314
west nile virus activity--united states, august 18-24, 2004.during august 18-24, a total of 154 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, connecticut, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, south dakota, tennessee, and wisconsin).200415329654
west nile virus activity--united states, august 25-31, 2004.during august 25-31, a total of 210 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 14 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, minnesota, montana, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, and pennsylvania).200415343148
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
west nile virus activity--united states, september 15-21, 2004.during september 15-21, a total of 218 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 21 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, south dakota, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415385920
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
west nile virus activity--united states, october 6-12, 2004.during october 6-12, a total of 86 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (arizona, florida, illinois, kansas, louisiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, nevada, new jersey, new mexico, north dakota, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, tennessee, texas, and utah).200415483530
west nile virus activity--united states, october 13-19, 2004.during october 13-19, a total of 200 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 20 states (arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, illinois, indiana, iowa, kansas, maryland, michigan, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415499683
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-august 15, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain daylight time, august 15, 2006. a total of 26 states had reported 388 cases of human wnv illness to cdc. a total of 214 (56%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 49 years (range: 2-91 years). dates of illness onset ranged from january 6 to august 10; a total of 13 cases were fatal. a total of 68 presumptive west nile viremic blood ...200616915222
multiple isotope forensics of nitrate in a wild horse poisoning incident.multiple stable isotope analysis can be a powerful technique in forensic sciences. oxygen and nitrogen isotopes were used to determine the source of nitrate that was responsible for the poisoning deaths of 71 wild horses in the nevada desert. the nitrate was present in a water-filled hole known as 'the main lake depression.' nitrate from the main lake depression had delta(18)o and delta(15)n values that were very positive (+32 per thousand, +37 per thousand), and delta(17)o values of approximate ...201020236779
seroprevalence of west nile virus in feral horses on sheldon national wildlife refuge, nevada, united states.we screened 1,397 feral horses (equus caballus) on sheldon national wildlife refuge, nevada, united states, for igm and igg against flavivirus during 2004-2006, 2008, and 2009. positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) and st. louis encephalitis virus (slev). one animal was positive for antibody against wnv in 2004, but all others tested in 2004-2006 were negative. in 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, wherea ...201121460023
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