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characterization of new jersey vesicular stomatitis virus isolates from horses and black flies during the 1982 outbreak in colorado.vesicular stomatitis viruses isolated from horses, afflicted during the recent outbreak in the western united states, and from black flies (simuliidae) were characterized with respect to the homology of their genomic rnas and the mobility of their proteins in polyacrylamide gels. all the isolates were very similar, if not identical, with respect to these two parameters. when the black fly isolate was compared to other vsv isolates, this virus appeared to belong in the hazelhurst subgroup of the ...19852997995
nigropallidal encephalomalacia in horses in colorado. 19705461699
arbovirus surveillance in northern colorado, 1987 and 1991.arbovirus surveillance was conducted during an epizootic of western equine encephalitis (wee) during 1987 and during a nonepizootic year, 1991, in the same area in northern colorado. mosquitoes were collected in larimer county, co, during weeks 33-37 (10 august to 7 september) in 1987 and during weeks 26-35 (24 june to 26 august) in 1991. in total, 13,099 mosquitoes in 694 pools collected during 1987 and 8,672 mosquitoes in 242 pools collected during 1991 were tested for virus. wee virus was iso ...19938433334
epizootic vesicular stomatitis in colorado, 1982: epidemiologic studies along the northern colorado front range.epidemiologic evaluations were made of farm personnel on vesicular stomatitis-affected premises along the front range of the rocky mountains in colorado during the 1982 epizootic. a similar antibody prevalence was noted to that of veterinarians and research and regulatory personnel who were involved with the same epizootic. risk of infection resulted from intimate physical contact with infected horses or cows. incidence and infection rates in horses were 45%; rates in cows were much lower, only ...19873028193
serologic survey for selected infectious disease agents in swift and kit foxes from the western united states.a serologic survey of swift fox (vulpes velox) and kit fox (v. macrotis) from the western usa was conducted for 12 infectious diseases. samples from swift fox were collected between 1987 and 1992 from colorado (n = 44), kansas (n = 10), and wyoming (n = 9). samples from kit fox were collected in california (n = 86), new mexico (n = 18), utah (n = 9), and arizona (n = 6). overall antibody prevalence rates were 33 of 110 (30%) for canine parvovirus (cpv), 9 of 72 (13%) for canine distemper virus ( ...200011085448
grazing of spotted locoweed (astragalus lentiginosus) by cattle and horses in arizona.spotted locoweed (astragalus lentiginosus var. diphysus) is a toxic, perennial plant that may, if sufficient precipitation occurs, dominate the herbaceous vegetation of pinyon-juniper woodlands on the colorado plateau. six cow/calf pairs and four horses grazed a 20-ha pasture with dense patches of locoweed in eastern arizona during spring 1998. locoweed density was 0.7 plants/m2 in the pasture. locoweed averaged 30.4% ndf and 18.4% cp. concentrations of the locoweed toxin, swainsonine, fluctuate ...200312968704
arboviral infections in the united states.arboviruses are important considerations in the differential diagnosis of encephalitis and other acute infections. alterations in the environment and in human behaviors contribute to changing patterns of arboviral transmission. these trends, the periodic epidemic resurgence of arboviral diseases such as st. louis encephalitis, and the discovery of new arboviruses present a continued challenge to infectious disease clinicians.19911646839
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
west nile virus activity--united states, july 28-august 3, 2004.during july 28-august 3, a total of 141 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 11 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, nevada, new york, north dakota, south dakota, and texas). during 2004, a total of 20 states have reported a total of 406 cases of human wnv illness to cdc through arbonet. of these, 247 (61%) were reported from arizona. a total of 226 (57%) of the 406 cases occurred in males; the median age of patients was 51 years (range: 1 ...200415295314
arbovirus surveillance in six states during 1972.a virus surveillance project was established and maintained during 1972 along 10 major river drainages in six states. mosquitoes, biting flies, and blood specimens from sentinel equines were collected during 83 field trip visits to 141 arthropod collecting sites and 22 sentinel locations from april into december 1972. there were 173,074 mosquitoes tested and 303 arboviruses isolated from 11 of 41 species. from 13,388 biting flies tested, 8 arbovirus isolations were obtained in 1 of 5 species. th ...19767148
nigropallidal encephalomalacia in horses fed russian knapweed--centaurea repens l. 19705460161
outbreak of salmonella infantis infection in a large animal veterinary teaching hospital.during the past 11 years, there have been numerous reports of outbreaks of salmonellosis involving horses in veterinary teaching hospitals. some of these outbreaks have been associated with salmonella serotypes not commonly associated with infection of horses. salmonella infantis is among the more common salmonella serotypes isolated from human beings, and is an important pathogen in the broiler chicken industry. however, it was not commonly isolated from horses or cattle on a national basis bet ...19979412683
west nile virus activity--united states, august 18-24, 2004.during august 18-24, a total of 154 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, connecticut, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, south dakota, tennessee, and wisconsin).200415329654
a serologic survey of mule deer and elk in utah.sera from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus canadensis) in central and northern utah were tested for the prevalence of antibodies to 11 diseases communicable to man or domestic livestock. antibodies to francisella tularensis (at 1:20) were found in 47 of 88 (53.4%) elk and 1 of 89 (1.1%) deer. a screening slide agglutination test for titers to brucella (at 1:20) showed two reactors in elk but none in deer sera. no positive antibody titers were obtained in tests for anaplasmosis, co ...1978105153
molecular epidemiologic features of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from horses.to characterize isolates of corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from horses, cattle, and sheep in colorado, kentucky, utah, and california in samples collected during perceived epidemics of infection (increased numbers of cases identified) in 2002 and 2003, and determine how closely isolates were related and their possible source.200415631043
west nile virus activity--united states, august 11-17, 2004.during august 11-17, a total of 194 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 17 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, louisiana, maryland, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, ohio, south dakota, texas, utah, and virginia).200415318160
epidemiologic study of ocular/adnexal squamous cell carcinoma in horses.proportional hospital accession ratios for equine ocular/adnexal squamous cell carcinoma (scc) were determined for 14 colleges of veterinary medicine participating in the veterinary medical data program between january 1978 and december 1986. comparison of the ratios with their respective geographical, physical data has shown an increased prevalence of scc with an increase in longitude, altitude, or mean annual solar radiation. in contrast, prevalence of scc increased with a decrease in latitude ...19912004985
persistent west nile virus transmission and the apparent displacement st. louis encephalitis virus in southeastern california, 2003-2006.west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) invaded the colorado desert biome of southern california during summer 2003 and seemed to displace previously endemic st. louis encephalitis virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, slev, an antigenically similar flavivirus in the japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex). western equine encephalomyelitis virus (family togaviridae, genus alphavirus, weev), an antigenically distinct alphavirus, was detected during 2005 and 2006, ind ...200818533445
occurrence of culex erythrothorax in southeastern colorado and report of virus isolations from this and other mosquito species.significant numbers of culex erythrothorax were collected during arbovirus surveillance in 1987 and 1988 at las animas, bent county, on the high plains of southeastern colorado. this finding extends the range of this species to the eastern side of the rocky mountains. the isolation of western equine encephalitis virus in 1988 from both cx. tarsalis and cx. erythrothorax suggests that the latter also may be involved in the endemic cycle of this virus in the area. st. louis encephalitis, hart park ...19892614403
a five-year survey of the incidence and location of equine carpal chip fractures. 19715107078
management factors affecting the risk for vesicular stomatitis in livestock operations in the western united states.to identify management factors affecting the risk of animals developing vesicular stomatitis (vs).199910553436
phylogeographical structure and evolutionary history of two buggy creek virus lineages in the western great plains of north america.buggy creek virus (bcrv) is an unusual arbovirus within the western equine encephalitis complex of alphaviruses. associated with cimicid swallow bugs (oeciacus vicarius) as its vector and the cliff swallow (petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrow (passer domesticus) as its amplifying hosts, this virus is found primarily in the western great plains of north america at spatially discrete swallow nesting colonies. for 342 isolates collected in oklahoma, nebraska, colorado and north dakota, from ...200818753221
outcome of equids with clinical signs of west nile virus infection and factors associated with death.to determine outcome of equids in the western united states with clinical signs of west nile virus (wnv) infection and identify factors associated with risk of death in infected equids.200415323385
subtype analysis of cryptosporidium specimens from sporadic cases in colorado, idaho, new mexico, and iowa in 2007: widespread occurrence of one cryptosporidium hominis subtype and case history of an infection with the cryptosporidium horse genotype.subtyping was conducted in late 2007 on 57 cryptosporidium specimens from sporadic cases in colorado, idaho, new mexico, and iowa. one previously rare cryptosporidium hominis subtype was identified in 40 cases (70%) from all four states, and the cryptosporidium horse genotype was identified in a pet shop employee with severe clinical symptoms.200919587303
use of sentinel herds to study the epidemiology of vesicular stomatitis in the state of colorado.approximately 20 sentinel premises in colorado were visited quarterly during a 3-year prospective study to investigate the persistence of vs viruses in horses. a survey to assess management practices, health events, animal movements and environmental data was completed at each visit. collection of serum samples and oral swabs along with a clinical examination of sentinel horses were performed at each visit. serum samples were tested by 2 or more of 4 available serological tests. the data collect ...200212381592
outbreak of q fever associated with a horse-boarding ranch, colorado, 2005.coxiella burnetii is a bacterium located worldwide that can cause q fever when inhaled. we describe an outbreak of q fever associated with a horse-boarding ranch that had acquired two herds of goats. we conducted case finding and cohort studies among persons who boarded horses on the ranch and ranchers and among residents in the surrounding community, and conducted sampling of the goats and environment, to determine risk factors for infection and guide public health interventions. sixty-six ranc ...200717896873
a review of horse-related injuries in a rural colorado hospital: implications for outreach education.the literature contains many studies on the types of injuries sustained in horseback riding incidents. most advocate the use of equestrian helmets to prevent head trauma. however, information is limited on other specific prevention strategies.200516198726
study: west nile virus cost equine industries in colorado, nebraska millions in 2002. 200312830851
foaling-management practices associated with the occurrence of enterocolitis attributed to clostridium perfringens infection in the equine neonate.enterocolitis associated with clostridium perfringens (c. perfringens) infection in neonatal foals is often severe and has been associated with a high case-mortality risk. we designed a premises-based survey to evaluate the associations of regional foaling practices, premises environmental management, periparturient foal and brood-mare management, and periparturient brood-mare ration with the occurrence of neonatal enterocolitis attributed to c. perfringens infection. potential risk factors indi ...200010854936
oral vesicular lesions in horses without evidence of vesicular stomatitis virus infection.to report clinical and serologic findings in horses with oral vesicular lesions that were consistent with vesicular stomatitis (vs) but apparently were not associated with vs virus (vsv) infection.200010800509
monitoring and detection of acute viral respiratory tract disease in horses.to develop a system to monitor and detect acute infections of the upper respiratory tract (i.e., nares, nasopharynx, and pharynx) in horses and to assess the association among specific viral infections, risk factors, and clinical signs of disease.19989702229
west nile virus activity--united states, october 13-19, 2004.during october 13-19, a total of 200 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 20 states (arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, illinois, indiana, iowa, kansas, maryland, michigan, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415499683
occurrence of infectious upper respiratory tract disease and response to vaccination in horses on six sentinel premises in northern colorado.horses vaccinated against common agents of infectious upper respiratory disease (iurd) may not have detectable serum antibody and may not be protected from clinical disease.200312553466
west nile virus activity--united states, july 21-27, 2004.during july 21-27, a total of 83 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 13 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, illinois, iowa, missouri, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, and south dakota).200415282450
trajectory analysis of winds and vesicular stomatitis in north america, 1982-5.outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis, serotype new jersey, during epidemics in the united states and northern mexico, 1982-5, were examined by backward trajectories of winds to investigate spread and possible sources. the outbreaks selected for analysis did not involve introduction of disease by infected animals. the findings indicate that wind could have been responsible for carrying infection from northern mexico to arizona and new mexico and thence to colorado and utah and on to wyoming, idaho a ...19902157606
evaluation of factors associated with positive igm capture elisa results in equids with clinical signs compatible with west nile virus infection: 1,017 cases (2003).to describe the prevalence of west nile virus (wnv) infection and evaluate factors associated with positive igm capture elisa results in equids with clinical signs compatible with wnv infection.200616448369
isolation of non-o1 vibrio cholerae associated with enteric disease of herbivores in western colorado.non-o1 vibrio cholerae was isolated from a horse (equus caballus), a lamb (genus ovis), and two american buffalo (bison bison) suffering from enteric disease in the western part of colorado. in 1981, a foal died of apparent respiratory failure. necropsy findings included heart failure and gastroenteritis. v. cholerae serovar 347 (smith) was isolated from the colon of this animal. v. cholerae serovar 27 (smith) was isolated in 1983 from the intestine of a feedlot lamb suffering from pneumonia and ...19854077968
detection and management of an outbreak of equine herpesvirus type 1 infection and associated neurological disease in a veterinary teaching hospital.because of the serious disease sequelae associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infections, awareness and control measures used to control outbreaks are important issues for all horse populations.201020584137
public veterinary medicine: public health. serologic evaluation of vesicular stomatitis virus exposure in horses and cattle in 1996.to determine potential risk factors for vesicular stomatitis (vs) in colorado livestock in 1995 and evaluate vs virus (vsv) exposure of colorado livestock in 1996.19989810380
rattlesnake venom poisoning in horses: 32 cases (1973-1993).to determine the clinical manifestations, morbidity, mortality, and treatment methods for rattlesnake venom poisoning in horses.19968675476
characterization of fort morgan virus, an alphavirus of the western equine encephalitis virus complex in an unusual ecosystem.an alphavirus isolated from nestling cliff swallows (petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrows (passer domesticus) and from cimicid bugs (oeciacus vicarius) in eastern colorado, for which we propose the name fort morgan (fm) virus, is sensitive to the action of sodium deoxycholate, unstable at ph 2.0-4.0, and demonstrates no characteristics of temperature-sensitive mutants. unpassaged field strains are nonpathogenic, or of low pathogenicity, for suckling mice; however, plaque-purified fm viru ...19807446830
west nile virus activity - united states, 2009.west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in the western hemisphere in 1999 in new york city and has since caused seasonal epidemics of febrile illness and neurologic disease across the united states, where it is now the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis. this report updates a previous report and summarizes wnv activity in the united states reported to cdc in 2009. a total of 38 states and the district of columbia (dc) reported 720 cases of wnv disease. of these, 33 states and dc reported 3 ...201020592686
epidemiologic study of salmonellae shedding in the feces of horses and potential risk factors for development of the infection in hospitalized horses.a study was designed to identify epidemiologic factors associated with the development and spread of salmonellae in horses in a veterinary teaching hospital, through a case-control study and a longitudinal follow-up prospective study. in the case-control study, 44 horses shedding salmonellae in feces were compared with 99 control horses not shedding salmonellae in feces; regarding breed, sex, age and initial diagnosis, none of the odds ratios for study factors was significant. the factors found ...19902347754
factors associated with vesicular stomatitis in animals in the western united states.to identify factors associated with development of vesicular stomatitis (vs).200818275393
chiropractic, veterinary groups negotiate roles in animal care. 201020336852
report of the second havemeyer ehv-1 workshop, steamboat springs, colorado, usa, september 2008.this report summarises the findings of the second havemeyer ehv-1 workshop, which was held in steamboat springs, colorado, usa in september 2008. a total of 38 delegates, consisting of veterinary clinicians and scientists from academia and industry participated in a series of sessions that focused on equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm). each session consisted of a review, followed by short presentations on current research topics. the sessions included ehm epidemiology, in vivo and in v ...201020716200
microevolution of canine influenza virus in shelters and its molecular epidemiology in the united states.canine influenza virus (civ) emerged around 2000 when an equine influenza virus (eiv) was transmitted to dogs in florida. after 2003, the canine virus was carried by infected greyhounds to various parts of the united states and then became established in several large animal shelters, where it has continued to circulate. to better understand the evolution of civ since its emergence, and particularly its microevolution in spatially restricted populations, we examined multiple gene segments of civ ...201020943966
Prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in northern Colorado shelter animals.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have been recognized as significant pathogens in veterinary medicine. There have been documented cases of MRSA infection and colonization in veterinary critical care units, in veterinary personnel, and in equine and feline patients. To date, there have been no studies examining the prevalence of MRSA or MRSP colonization of cats and dogs in animal shelters in the United States. The purpose of the curren ...201121908352
west nile virus activity united states, july 7-13, 2004.during the week of july 7-13, a total of 30 human west nile virus illness cases were reported from four states (arizona, california, colorado, and iowa). during 2004, a total of 10 states have reported a total of 108 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness to cdc through arbonet. of these, 66 (61%) were reported from arizona. sixty-one (58%) of the 108 cases occurred in males; median age of patients was 52 years (range: 1-84 years); dates of illness onset ranged from april 23 to july 5; and ...200415254454
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-august 15, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain daylight time, august 15, 2006. a total of 26 states had reported 388 cases of human wnv illness to cdc. a total of 214 (56%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 49 years (range: 2-91 years). dates of illness onset ranged from january 6 to august 10; a total of 13 cases were fatal. a total of 68 presumptive west nile viremic blood ...200616915222
phylogenetic analysis of buggy creek virus: evidence for multiple clades in the western great plains, united states of america.we present the first detailed phylogenetic analysis of buggy creek virus (bcrv), a poorly known alphavirus with transmission cycles involving a cimicid swallow bug (oeciacus vicarius) vector and cliff swallows (petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrows (passer domesticus) as the principal avian hosts. nucleotide sequences of a 2,075-bp viral envelope glycoprotein-coding region, covering the entire pe2 gene, were determined for 33 bcrv isolates taken from swallow bugs at cliff swallow colonies ...200616936062
infectivity and pathogenicity of canine h3n8 influenza a virus in horses.equine h3n8 influenza a viruses (eivs) cause respiratory disease in horses and circulate among horses worldwide. in 2004, an outbreak of canine h3n8 influenza a virus (civ) occurred among dogs in florida and has spread among dogs in the united states (us). genetic analyses revealed that this civ is closely related to the recent eivs. although civ-infected dogs could be the source of h3n8 influenza a virus for horses, it remains unclear whether the civ circulating in the united states still maint ...201020958928
medically important arboviruses of the united states and canada.of more than 500 arboviruses recognized worldwide, 5 were first isolated in canada and 58 were first isolated in the united states. six of these viruses are human pathogens: western equine encephalitis (wee) and eastern equine encephalitis (eee) viruses (family togaviridae, genus alphavirus), st. louis encephalitis (sle) and powassan (pow) viruses (flaviviridae, flavivirus), lacrosse (lac) virus (bunyaviridae, bunyavirus), and colorado tick fever (ctf) virus (reoviridae, coltivirus). their scien ...19948118792
1995 epizootic of vesicular stomatitis (new jersey serotype) in the western united states: an entomologic perspective.entomologic and epizootic data are reviewed concerning the potential for transmission of vesicular stomatitis (vs) virus by insects, including field data from case-positive premises in new mexico and colorado during the 1995 outbreak of the new jersey serotype (vsnj). as with previous outbreaks of vsnj in the western united states, the 1995 epizootic illustrated that risk of exposure is seasonal, increasing during warm weather and decreasing with onset of cool weather; virus activity spread from ...199910071485
injuries and illnesses of big game hunters in western colorado: a 9-year analysis.the purpose of this study was to characterize big game hunter visits to a rural hospital's emergency department (ed). using data collected on fatalities, injuries, and illnesses over a 9-year period, trends were noted and comparisons made to ed visits of alpine skiers, swimmers, and bicyclists. out-of-hospital hunter fatalities reported by the county coroner's office were also reviewed. cautionary advice is offered for potential big game hunters and their health care providers.200717447709
bacillus piliformis infection (tyzzer's disease) in a colorado foal. 19846469834
west nile virus disease and other arboviral diseases --- united states, 2010.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. since west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in the western hemisphere in 1999, it has become the leading cause of neuroinvasive arboviral disease in the united states. however, several other arboviruses continue to cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease (i.e., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis). this report summarizes su ...201121814163
the role of protective lead clothing in reducing radiation exposure rates to personnel during equine bone scintigraphy.bone scintigraphy is often used in horses because of its sensitivity and noninvasive nature. a 99mtc labeled radiopharmaceutical is injected at a dose of between 5.7 and 7.3gbq. images are acquired immediately postinjection and 2-4h post. people are often in the room with the horse during the acquisition process. objectives of this study were to (a) document the radiation exposure rates at different distances from various sites of the horse at varying times post injection and (b) study the usefu ...200516396274
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