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borreliosis in equids in northeastern united states.during 1982 and 1985, blood samples from 705 equids were examined for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi. by indirect immunofluorescence staining, igm and total immunoglobulin (igm and igg) antibodies were detected in 37 (5.3%) and 90 (12.8%) serum specimens, respectively. the geometric mean titer for igm antibody (140.4) was highest during july, whereas total immunoglobulin ranged from 94.1 in october to 338 in may. eighty-six equids with total immunoglobulin to b burgdorferi lived in areas of ...19883282461
hemocytic rickettsia-like organisms in ticks: serologic reactivity with antisera to ehrlichiae and detection of dna of agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by pcr.ixodid ticks were collected from connecticut, massachusetts, missouri, pennsylvania, rhode island, and british columbia (canada) during 1991 to 1994 to determine the prevalence of infection with hemocytic (blood cell), rickettsia-like organisms. hemolymph obtained from these ticks was analyzed by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody (fa) staining methods with dog, horse, or human sera containing antibodies to ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia equi, or rickettsia rickettsii. of the 693 nymphal and a ...19958567911
host feeding patterns of connecticut mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).blood-engorged coquillettidia perturbans, psorophora ferox, culex, culiseta, and aedes mosquitoes were collected principally by sweep net from salt marsh and woodland habitats in connecticut. of the 570 mosquitoes tested, precipitin tests identified the origins of 517 blood meals and revealed distinct host feeding patterns. aedes mosquitoes fed chiefly on mammals; a. abserratus, a. cantator, and a. vexans showed selectivity for cattle and (or) horses. a. cantator also obtained blood from avian h ...197717310
identification of avian- and mammalian-derived bloodmeals in aedes vexans and culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae) and its implication for west nile virus transmission in connecticut, u.s.a.to evaluate the host-feeding patterns of aedes vexans (meigen) and culiseta melanura (coquillett) as secondary vectors of west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) in northeastern united states, we identified the source of vertebrate bloodmeals by sequencing portions of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial dna. analysis of polymerase chain reaction products from a total of 119 ae. vexans revealed that 92.4% of individuals acquired blood solely from mammalian and 2.5% from av ...200617017250
west nile virus activity--united states, august 18-24, 2004.during august 18-24, a total of 154 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, connecticut, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, south dakota, tennessee, and wisconsin).200415329654
isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus and west nile virus from crows during increased arbovirus surveillance in connecticut, 2000.the emergence of the west nile virus (wnv) in the northeastern united states has drawn emphasis to the need for expanded arbovirus surveillance in connecticut. although the state of connecticut began a comprehensive mosquito-screening program in 1997, only since 1999 have there been efforts to determine the prevalence of arboviruses in bird populations in this state. herein, we report on our results of an arbovirus survey of 1,704 bird brains. included in this report are the first known isolatio ...200212164299
surveillance for avian-borne arboviruses in connecticut, 2000. 200111797792
eastern equine encephalitis virus in mosquitoes and their role as bridge vectors.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian hosts. other mosquito species that feed opportunistically on mammals have been incriminated as bridge vectors to humans and horses. to evaluate the capacity of these mosquitoes to acquire, replicate, and potentially transmit eeev, we estimated the infection prevalence and virus titers in mosquitoes collected in connecticut, usa, by cell culture, plaque titration, and quant ...201021122215
equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis in connecticut caused by an agent resembling the human granulocytotropic ehrlichia.the first recognized cases of equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis in new england are described. the dna sequence of the 16s rrna gene of the causative ehrlichia was found to be identical to that of the human granulocytotropic ehrlichia, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.19968789032
multiple isolations of eastern equine encephalitis and highlands j viruses from mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) during a 1996 epizootic in southeastern connecticut.thirty-six isolations of eastern equine encephalitis virus were obtained from 8 species of mosquitoes collected from 5 september through 18 october 1996 during an epizootic in southeastern connecticut. these included culiseta melanura (coquillett) (19 isolates), culex pipiens l. (8), culiseta morsitans (theobald) (3), aedes sollicitans (walker) (2), aedes cantator (coquillett) (1), aedes trivittatus (coquillett) (1), aedes vexans (meigen) (1), and coquillettidia perturbans (walker) (1). isolatio ...19989615549
"Horse and buggy days". 201121905540
detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in naturally infected horses in the usa by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using whole-cell and recombinant antigens.blood samples were collected from 98 horses suspected of having borreliosis or granulocytic ehrlichiosis in connecticut and new york state, usa during 1985, 1995, and 1996. serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), based on whole-cell and recombinant antigens, in 82 (84%) horses. of the 181 sera tested, 59% were positive, using whole-cell antigens, compared to 48% with protein (p)37 and 35% with vlse antigens. an elisa containing eith ...200515924926
west nile virus surveillance in connecticut in 2000: an intense epizootic without high risk for severe human disease.in 1999, connecticut was one of three states in which west nile (wn) virus actively circulated prior to its recognition. in 2000, prospective surveillance was established, including monitoring bird deaths, testing dead crows, trapping and testing mosquitoes, testing horses and hospitalized humans with neurologic illness, and conducting a human seroprevalence survey. wn virus was first detected in a dead crow found on july 5 in fairfield county. ultimately, 1,095 dead crows, 14 mosquito pools, 7 ...200111585525
ticks and biting insects infected with the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi.members of 18 species of ticks, mosquitoes, horse flies, and deer flies were collected in southeastern connecticut and tested by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining methods for borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease. an infection rate of 36.2% (116 tested), recorded for immature ixodes dammini, exceeded positivity values for all other arthropod species. prevalence of infection for hematophagous insects ranged from 2.9% of 105 hybomitra lasiophthalma to 14.3% of seven hybomi ...19883170711
eastern equine encephalitis in quebec and connecticut, 1972: introduction by infected mosquitoes on the wind?in 1972 there were outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis in the eastern townships, quebec, canada and in connecticut, usa. climatic data including northern hemisphere synoptic charts were examined. the findings indicate that the virus could have been brought to lac brome by infected mosquitoes carried on surface winds from meriden, connecticut, on the night of august 22-23, 1972. the distance of 400 km would have been covered in 14-16 h at a speed of 25-30 km h-1 and at a temperature of 15 de ...19892563337
host-feeding patterns of potential mosquito vectors in connecticut, u.s.a.: molecular analysis of bloodmeals from 23 species of aedes, anopheles, culex, coquillettidia, psorophora, and uranotaenia.we evaluated the blood-feeding patterns in several mosquito species that may serve as vectors of disease agents in the northeastern united states. blood-fed mosquitoes were collected from 91 different sites throughout connecticut over a 6-yr period (june-october 2002-2007), and the host-feeding patterns of 23 mosquito species representing six genera were examined by using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay and sequencing portions of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial dna. this study was ...200819058640
tracking eastern equine encephalitis virus perpetuation in the northeastern united states by phylogenetic analysis.epidemics and epizootics of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) occur sporadically in temperate regions where transmission is seasonal from late summer to early fall. these outbreaks may derive from virus that overwinters locally or perhaps results from reintroduction of virus from other sites. to evaluate these possibilities, we compared the phylogenetic relationships of eeev isolates obtained from mosquitoes collected during statewide arbovirus surveillance in connecticut, in addition to ...200818689638
detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodid ticks from equine-inhabited sites in the southeastern united states.abstract anaplasma phagocytophilum is a vector-borne, obligate intracellular bacterium that invades the neutrophils and eosinophils of infected individuals, causing granulocytic anaplasmosis. equine cases have previously been reported in the united states from california, florida, and connecticut, but limited surveillance studies in the southeast have been conducted. the objective of this study was to determine a. phagocytophilum prevalence in ixodes scapularis ticks at southeastern u.s. horse ...201222214269
west nile encephalitis: an emerging disease in the united states.in 1999, an epidemic of west nile virus (wnv) encephalitis occurred in new york city (nyc) and 2 surrounding new york counties. simultaneously, an epizootic among american crows and other bird species occurred in 4 states. indigenous transmission of wnv had never been documented in the western hemisphere until this epidemic. in 2000, the epizootic expanded to 12 states and the district of columbia, and the epidemic continued in nyc, 5 new jersey counties, and 1 connecticut county. in addition to ...200111595987
an epizootic of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in connecticut. 19734766571
western equine encephalitis mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis.a patient with severe encephalitis had focal findings suggesting herpes simplex encephalitis. after brain biopsy and administration of vidarabine, the patient's condition improved but was ultimately diagnosed as a case of western equine encephalitis. further complicating laboratory diagnosis, an endogenous murine coronavirus was isolated from newborn mice inoculated with the patient's brain biopsy tissue. this case illustrates the need for caution in attributing therapeutic responses to antivira ...19807190194
mosquito and arbovirus surveillance in connecticut, 1991-1992.a surveillance program for mosquito-borne arboviruses was conducted in connecticut following an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (eee) in horses and domestic birds during 1990. mosquito trapping was done weekly using co2-baited miniature light traps at 12 freshwater swamp sites that were located mostly in the southeastern portion of the state. trapping was conducted from june 27 to october 11, 1991 and from june 2 to september 30, 1992. totals of 7,435 (1991) and 13,912 (1992) adult fema ...19947707064
reactivity of serum samples of dogs and horses tested by use of class-specific recombinant-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of granulocytic ehrlichiosis.to test serum samples of dogs and horses by use of class-specific recombinant-based elisa for establishing a diagnosis of granulocytic ehrlichiosis attributable to infection with organisms from the ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup.200111560261
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1989.in 1989, 4,808 cases of rabies in animals other than human beings were reported to the centers for disease control, 1.8% more (4,724 to 4,808) than in 1988. eighty-eight percent (4,224/4,808) of those affected were wild animals and 12% (584/4,808) were domestic animals. cases were reported from 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico; hawaii remained rabies-free. skunks (1,657) continued to be the most commonly reported rabid wild animal. for the second consecutive year, more cats ( ...19902276949
prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to sarcocystis neurona in skunks (mephitis mephitis), raccoons (procyon lotor), and opossums (didelphis virginiana) from connecticut.equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is the most important protozoan disease of horses in north america and is usually caused by sarcocystis neurona. natural cases of encephalitis caused by s. neurona have been reported in skunks (mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (procyon lotor). opossums (didelphis spp.) are the only known definitive host. sera from 24 striped skunks, 12 raccoons, and 7 opossums (d. virginiana) from connecticut were examined for agglutinating antibodies to s. neurona using the s. ...200212435152
update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, 2000.data reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
reactivity of human sera to different strains of granulocytic ehrlichiae in immunodiagnostic assays.sera from 35 patients diagnosed with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in connecticut were tested by indirect ifa staining methods with 5 strains of ehrlichia equi or the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent to assess the suitability of different strains in laboratory analyses. antigens included horse-derived infected neutrophils (mrk and bds strains) and human isolates cultured in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (nch-1, rch, and webster). of 35 sera, 23 (65.7%) reacted to all 5 strains. serop ...19989815246
equine ehrlichial colitis (potomac horse fever): recognition of the disease in pennsylvania, new jersey, new york, ohio, idaho, and connecticut.equine ehrlichial colitis (potomac horse fever), a newly identified colitis of the horse, was first recognized in maryland. in this report, we document occurrence of the disease in pennsylvania, new jersey, new york, ohio, idaho, and connecticut. enzootic areas were recognized by a characteristic pattern. frequently there was a seasonal pattern and high prevalence of sporadic colitis in unstressed horses. the attack rate per farm generally was low. horses on pasture, as well as those stabled, we ...19863744978
multistate surveillance system in place for west nile virus. 200010638307
arboviral encephalitis: the need for clinical suspicion in connecticut. 19846723298
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