PMID(sorted ascending)
ecological studies of culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae) in relation to eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses on the eastern shore of maryland. 1975235650
eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and culiseta melanura activity at the patuxent wildlife research center, 1985-90.mosquito population densities, virus isolations and seroconversion in sentinel quail were used to monitor eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eee) activity at the patuxent wildlife research center, laurel, maryland, from 1985 through 1990. a dramatic increase in the number of culiseta melanura collected in 1989, as compared with the 3 previous years, was associated with virus isolations from this species (5/75 pools; n = 542 mosquitoes) and with seroconversion in sentinel quail (4/22 birds p ...19921357091
trajectory analysis of winds and eastern equine encephalitis in usa, 1980-5.backward trajectories of winds were determined to identify possible sources of eastern equine encephalitis virus associated with isolation of virus from mosquitoes or birds or outbreaks in horses between 1980 and 1985 in maryland, new jersey, new york and michigan, usa. the results of the trajectory analyses suggested that eastern equine encephalitis virus could have been carried by infected mosquitoes on surface winds at temperatures 13 degrees c or higher from north carolina north-eastwards al ...19901969804
blunt traumatic cardiac rupture. a 5-year experience.blunt traumatic cardiac rupture is associated with a high rate of mortality. a review of the computerized trauma registry (1983 to 1988) identified 32 patients with this injury (ages 19 to 65 years; mean age, 39.5 years; 21 men and 11 women). twenty-one patients (65.6%) were injured in vehicular crashes, 3 (9.4%) in pedestrian accidents, 3 (9.4%) in motorcycle accidents; 3 (9.4%) sustained crush injury; 1 (3.1%) was injured by a fall; and 1 (3.1%) was kicked in the chest by a horse. anatomic inj ...19902256761
serologic survey for borrelia burgdorferi antibody in horses referred to a mid-atlantic veterinary teaching hospital.blood samples obtained from 13 of 100 (13%) and 6 of 91 (7%) horses at the george d. widener hospital for large animals in the months of june and october, respectively, had antibody to borrelia burgdorferi as determined by elisa. horses from the states of new york, maryland, delaware, new jersey, and pennsylvania were seropositive for b burgdorferi. the frequency of antibody response in horses from new jersey was greater (p less than 0.05) than the frequency of antibody response in horses from p ...19902332371
a survey of whole blood selenium concentrations of horses in maryland.we surveyed the whole blood selenium status of a randomly sampled population of horses from 4 contiguous counties in northern maryland. two hundred and two horses from 74 farms were sampled. whole blood selenium levels greater than or equal to 0.100 parts per million (ppm) were considered adequate; blood levels less than 0.100 ppm were considered marginal or deficient. the average blood selenium concentration of the horses sampled was 0.137 ppm, with a standard deviation of 0.041 ppm. blood sele ...19902364704
eastern equine encephalitis in quebec and connecticut, 1972: introduction by infected mosquitoes on the wind?in 1972 there were outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis in the eastern townships, quebec, canada and in connecticut, usa. climatic data including northern hemisphere synoptic charts were examined. the findings indicate that the virus could have been brought to lac brome by infected mosquitoes carried on surface winds from meriden, connecticut, on the night of august 22-23, 1972. the distance of 400 km would have been covered in 14-16 h at a speed of 25-30 km h-1 and at a temperature of 15 de ...19892563337
white-footed mice: tick burdens and role in the epizootiology of potomac horse fever in hundred ten white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) were captured on horse farms in south-central maryland, examined for ticks, and tested for specific antibodies to ehrlichia risticii, the causative agent of potomac horse fever. peromyscus leucopus were consistently infested with immature american dog ticks (dermacentor variabilis), with monthly prevalences as high as 80%. sera from all 97 p. leucopus tested for antibodies to e. risticii were negative. this indicates that p. leucopus is not ...19892668569
epidemiology of potomac horse fever: an investigation into the possible role of non-equine mammals.a serological study of antibodies to ehrlichia risticii was carried out on 10 species of wild and domestic mammals found on or near 21 horse farms in an area of the usa in which potomac horse fever is endemic. no antibodies were found in 133 peridomestic rodents (norway rats and house mice), nor in 108 wild rodents (white-footed mice and meadow voles) captured on farms. three of the six domestic animal species examined, cats, pigs and a goat, showed serological evidence of exposure to e risticii ...19892773237
ecological evidence against vertical transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) on the delmarva peninsula, usa. 19872881000
a prospective field evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay: detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus antigen in pools of culiseta melanura.a prospective field study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme immunoassay (eia) compared to virus isolation in cell culture for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in naturally infected mosquitoes. a total of 10,811 adult female culiseta melanura were collected in light traps during 1985 from four locations in maryland. eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from 5 of 495 mosquito pools in african green monkey kidney and ...19872904960
mortality of captive whooping cranes caused by eastern equine encephalitis virus.of 39 captive whooping cranes (grus americana), 7 died during a 7-week period (sept 17 through nov 4, 1984) at the patuxent wildlife research center, laurel, md. before their deaths, 4 cranes did not develop clinical signs, whereas the other 3 cranes were lethargic and ataxic, with high aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and lactic acid dehydrogenase activities, and high uric acid concentrations. necropsies indicated that the birds had ascites, intestinal mucosal discoloration, ...19863505915
the prevalence of indoor allergens in the baltimore area: house dust-mite and animal-dander antigens measured by immunochemical techniques.mattress dust samples from 42 homes in baltimore, md., were analyzed by elisa and rocket immunoelectrophoresis (rie) for major excrement allergens (p1 [equal to dp 42], df 6, and dm 6) of house dust mites, dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, d. farinae, and d. microceras, by rie for cat major epithelial allergen (cat ag 1) and horse major epithelial antigen (horse ag 11), and by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (ccie) for cat and dog antigens. dp 42 was detected by elisa in 24 samples (57%) and ...19873668118
equine ehrlichial colitis (potomac horse fever): recognition of the disease in pennsylvania, new jersey, new york, ohio, idaho, and connecticut.equine ehrlichial colitis (potomac horse fever), a newly identified colitis of the horse, was first recognized in maryland. in this report, we document occurrence of the disease in pennsylvania, new jersey, new york, ohio, idaho, and connecticut. enzootic areas were recognized by a characteristic pattern. frequently there was a seasonal pattern and high prevalence of sporadic colitis in unstressed horses. the attack rate per farm generally was low. horses on pasture, as well as those stabled, we ...19863744978
american dog tick (acari: ixodidae), summer activity on equine premises enzootic for potomac horse fever in south-central maryland. 19863753991
relationship of density of culiseta melanura mosquitoes to infection of wild birds with eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses. 19744153042
ecology of arboviruses in a maryland freshwater swamp. i. population dynamics and habitat distribution of potential mosquito vectors. 19724403121
ecology of arboviruses in a maryland freshwater swamp. ii. blood feeding patterns of potential mosquito vectors. 19724403122
ecology of arboviruses in a maryland freshwater swamp. 3. vertebrate hosts. 19724403123
chlorine gas poisoning in farm livestock: case report and review. 19714926539
workshop on comparative pathology of hematopoietic and lymphoreticular neoplasms. 19715000995
wild birds as eastern (eee) and western (wee) equine encephalitis sentinels. 19715156487
occurrence of a cattle eyeworm, thelazia gulosa (nematoda: thelaziidae), in an imported giraffe in california and t. lacrymalis in a native horse in maryland. 19715157171
experimental equine influenza in chincoteague ponies. 19676066960
acute diarrhea in horses of the potomac river area: examination for clostridial toxins.fecal specimens from horses in montgomery county, md, and in fairfax and loudoun counties, va, were examined for clostridium perfringens type a enterotoxin and for c difficile cytotoxin (92 and 108 specimens, respectively). the toxins were found in feces from horses that had experienced an acute diarrhea syndrome and from clinically normal horses. the toxins did not appear to be primary determinants of the diarrhea syndrome, although they may have contributed to the spectrum of clinical entities ...19846469842
spiroplasmas in the tabanidae.spiroplasmas were observed in seven species of the family tabanidae (horse flies and deer flies). this is the fifth family of the order diptera now known to harbor spiroplasmas. noncultivable spiroplasmas were seen in the hemolymph of three species of the genus tabanus, and cultivable forms were isolated from the guts of six species in three genera. isolates from t. calens and t. sulcifrons were serologically similar and closely related to a spiroplasma in the lampyrid beetle, ellychnia corrusca ...19846511308
reproduction in feral horses: an eight-year study.the reproductive rate and foal survival of the free-ranging ponies on assateague island national seashore were studied for 8 years, 1975 to 1982. most (52%) of the 86 foals were born in may, 13% were born in april, 22.6% in june, 10.4% in july, and less than 1% in august and september. the mean foaling rate was 57.1 +/- 3.9% and the survival rate was 88.3 +/- 3.6%. forty-eight colts and 55 fillies were born (sex ratio 53% female). mares less than 3 years old did not foal and the foaling rate of ...19846732036
host-seeking of blacklegged tick (acari: ixodidae) nymphs and adults at the woods-pasture clarify the risk of pastured livestock for exposure to ixodes scapularis say (acari: ixodidae), we estimated the host-seeking activity of nymph and adult blacklegged ticks at the woods-pasture interface on horse farms in maryland. parallel linear transects of 100 m length and 1 m width were sampled repeatedly in pastures and adjacent woodland locations during periods of nymph (early summer) and adult (fall and spring) host-seeking activity. data collected over two successive years indicated t ...19948189420
autochthonous echinococcosis in a horse. 19938244853
echinococcus granulosus (taeniidae) and autochthonous echinococcosis in a north american horse.we report the first documented case of autochthonous echinococcosis in a horse of north american origin. three fully mature and viable unilocular hydatid cysts of echinococcus granulosus (batsch, 1786) were an incidental finding at necropsy in the liver of a 14-yr-old gelding thoroughbred that had been foaled in virginia and raised in maryland. protoscolices were armed with 2 rows of 28-37 rostellar hooks; small hooks measured 23-30 microns; large hooks measured 26-33 microns. morphologically, t ...19948308647
equine herpesvirus type 2: prevalence and seroepidemiology in foals.whole blood and serum were collected from foals to determine the prevalence of equine herpesvirus type 2 (ehv 2) infection in foals, age at which infection can first be identified and serological responses to infection. equine herpesvirus type 2 was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from 68 of 69 foals, 1-8-months-old, sampled once. virus isolation was performed twice at intervals of 2-7 months on pbmcs from 33 foals and ehv2 was isolated on both occasions in all but one fo ...19969049491
efficacy of eastern equine encephalitis immunization in whooping epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (eee) at the patuxent wildlife research center (pwrc), laurel, maryland (usa), in 1989 provided an opportunity to determine if eee immunization protected whooping cranes (grus americana). based on seroconversion of 31% of sympatric hatch-year sandhill cranes, grus canadensis, and a previous 35% case fatality rate in whooping cranes, 17 (37%) of the 46 susceptible whooping cranes should have been exposed to virus and six should have died. as there were ...19979131565
what really causes colic in horses? epidemiology's role in elucidating the ultimate multi-factorial disease. 19979413710
prospective study of equine colic incidence and mortality.a prospective study of one year was conducted on 31 horse farms to obtain population based estimates of incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of equine colic. farms with greater than 20 horses were enrolled by randomly selecting horse owners from 2 adjacent counties of virginia and maryland. descriptive information for 1427 horses was collected at the initiation of the study and updated at 3 month intervals. time on the farm during the study was tabulated for each horse. when colic was report ...19979413717
prospective study of equine colic risk factors.a 1 year prospective study was conducted on 31 horse farms to identify risk factors for equine colic. farms were randomly selected from a list from 2 adjacent counties of virginia and maryland, usa. the association between colic and farm or individual horse risk factors related to management, housing, pasture, use, nutrition, health and events was first examined by univariate statistical analysis. individually significant (p < = 0.25 for farm factors, p < = 0.10 for horse factors) variables were ...19979413718
ticks and antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from mammals at cape hatteras, nc and assateague island, md and va.results of a survey for ixodid ticks and/or serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from 14 species of small to large mammals from eastern coastal areas of the united states are presented. most samples were obtained from july 1987 through june 1989 (excluding december-march) at 3 locales: assateague is. national seashore, worcester co., md., and accomack co., va. (approximately 38 degrees 05' n 75 degrees 10' w), and cape hatteras national seashore, dare co., nc (approximately 35 degrees 30' n ...199910534951
effect of exogenous gonadotropins on the weaning-to-estrus interval in sows.the efficacy of pg 600 (400 iu pmsg and 200 iu hcg) for accelerating the onset of estrus was determined for sows weaned during the summer. yorkshire sows (average parity = 4.6), nursing 8.6 +/- 0.2 pigs (mean +/- sem) were weaned after 27.7 +/- 0.4 d of lactation and were treated intramuscularly with either pg 600 (n = 35) or with 0.9% saline (n = 35). sows were checked for estrus once daily in the presence of a mature boar. treatment with pg 600 increased (p < 0.05) the percentage of sows in es ...199810732090
update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
a geospatial study of the potential of two exotic species of mosquitoes to impact the epidemiology of west nile virus in maryland.we used geospatial techniques to study the potential impact of 2 exotic mosquitoes, aedes albopictus and ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus, on the epidemiology of west nile virus in maryland. these 2 species have established populations in maryland over the past 15 years. larvae of both mosquito species are found in natural and artificial water-holding cavities and containers, particularly water in tires. therefore, we used locations of licensed tire dealers and of tire dumps scheduled for clean ...200314524539
absence of effects from immunocontraception on seasonal birth patterns and foal survival among barrier island wild horses.despite a large body of safety data, concern exists that porcine zonae pellucidae (pzp) immunocontraception--used to manage wild horse populations--may cause out-of-season births with resulting foal mortality. our study at assateague, maryland indicated the effects of immunocontraception on season of birth and foal survival between 1990 and 2002 on wild horses from assateague island. among 91 mares never treated, 69 (75.8%) of foals were born in april, may, and june (in season). among 77 treated ...200314965784
west nile virus activity--united states, august 11-17, 2004.during august 11-17, a total of 194 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 17 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, louisiana, maryland, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, ohio, south dakota, texas, utah, and virginia).200415318160
west nile virus activity--united states, august 25-31, 2004.during august 25-31, a total of 210 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 14 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, minnesota, montana, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, and pennsylvania).200415343148
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
west nile virus activity--united states, september 15-21, 2004.during september 15-21, a total of 218 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 21 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, south dakota, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415385920
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
west nile virus activity--united states, october 13-19, 2004.during october 13-19, a total of 200 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 20 states (arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, illinois, indiana, iowa, kansas, maryland, michigan, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415499683
west nile virus activity--united states, november 3-8, 2004.during november 3-8, a total of 41 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from seven states (california, maryland, minnesota, new mexico, oregon, tennessee, and texas).200415538322
west nile virus activity--united states, november 9-16, 2004.during november 9-16, a total of 31 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from eight states (arizona, georgia, maryland, michigan, missouri, new york, pennsylvania, and texas).200415549023
use of remote sensing techniques to determine the effects of grazing on vegetation cover and dune elevation at assateague island national seashore: impact of horses.the effects of grazing by feral horses on vegetation and dune topography at assateague island national seashore were investigated using color-infrared imagery, lidar surveys, and field measurements. five pairs of fenced and unfenced plots (300 m2) established in 1993 on sand flats and small dunes with similar elevation, topography, and vegetation cover were used for this study. color-infrared imagery from 1998 and field measurements from 2001 indicated that there was a significant difference in ...200415633024
risk of occupationally acquired illnesses from biological threat agents in unvaccinated laboratory workers.many vaccines for bioterrorism agents are investigational and therefore not available (outside of research protocol use) to all at-risk laboratory workers who have begun working with these agents as a result of increased interest in biodefense research. illness surveillance data archived from the u.s. offensive biological warfare program (from 1943 to 1969) were reviewed to assess the impact of safety measures on disease prevention (including biosafety cabinets [bscs]) before and after vaccine a ...200415650438
frozen semen management in equine breeding programs.success with frozen semen requires attention to detail and a basic understanding of the techniques for properly handling and thawing and inseminating frozen semen. practitioners should also be familiar with strategies used for managing mares for insemination with thawed semen. this manuscript will review those techniques and also present fertility data collected in a commercial setting. factors that affect pregnancy rates for mares inseminated with frozen-thawed semen such as timing and frequenc ...200515967491
seawater and shellfish (geukensia demissa) quality along the western coast of assateague island national seashore, maryland: an area impacted by feral horses and agricultural runoff.we evaluated the quality of seawater and ribbed mussels (gukensia demissa) at six sites along the west coast of assateague island national seashore (asis), a barrier island popular with tourists and fishermen. parameters evaluated were summertime temperature, ph, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite levels for seawater and total heterotrophic plate counts and total vibrionaceae levels for the ribbed mussels. approximately 150 feral horses (equus cabal ...200919132436
biodefense. army halts work at lab after finding untracked material. 200919213883
challenges in biodefense research and the role of us army veterinary pathologists.for years the nation's development of medical countermeasures to biowarfare agents has primarily existed as the domain of the united states military, but it has taken on increased urgency in the last few years. the realization that the civilian population is also at risk from biological agents has resulted in the institution of new biodefense programs at a variety of nonmilitary organizations. usamriid, a long-time leader in the nation's biodefense effort, will soon be joined by other us governm ...200720088227
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