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endemic eastern equine encephalomyelitis in florida: a twenty-year analysis, 1955-1974.research and surveillance programs relating to the circulation of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in florida between 1955 and 1974 are summarized. all available data suggest that eee virus is 1) endemic in many florida fresh water swamps and waterways, 2) active in a continuous cycle throughout the year with a peak between may and august, and 3) circulating in culiseta melanura. it has been isolated also from eight other mosquito species.197612669
antigenic relationship between the tokyo and the miami strains of equine influenza subtype 2 virus. 197721985
occurrence and distribution of western equine encephalomyelitis in florida.research and surveillance programs relating to the occurrence and distribution of western equine encephalomyelitis virus in florida, conducted between 1955 and 1976, suggest that the virus is (1) an endemic arbordae, (2) transmitted in a continuous cycle throughout the year by culiseta melanura mosquitoes, and (3) restricted to fresh water swamps and waterways in central, north, and northwest florida.197823372
wildlife and environmental health: raccoons as indicators of zoonoses and pollutants in southeastern united states.inasmuch as terrestrial fauna are an integral part of our natural environment and are directly exposed to disease and pollutants, it follows that certain wild populations could serve to detect subtle alterations within ecosystems. a collection of studies on raccoons is presented to stimulate other researchers to develop the potential of our wildlife resources as monitors of environmental health. raccoons have been used as serologic sentinels for st louis encephalitis and venezuelan equine enceph ...1975170239
an evaluation of military sentry dogs as a sentinel system to everglades virus (venezuelan equine encephalitis fe3-7c strain). 1975812018
hypercalcemia and calcinosis in florida horses: implication of the shrub, cestrum diurnum, as the causative agent.a chronic debilitating disease is described in florida horses. there is progress weight loss and lameness of increasing severity. plasma calcium is elevated to moderate or severe degree. anatomical changes include dystrophic calcinosis of elastic tissues, viz. major arteries, tendons and ligaments. a generalized osteopetrosis is present and may be related to hypoparathyroidsim and hypercalcitoninism. the presence of cestrum diurnum (day-blooming jessamine, day cestrum, wild jasmin) in areas acce ...19751112096
arbovirus surveillance in florida: wild vertebrate studies 1965-1974.wildlife species from 38 of florida's 67 counties were surveyed over a 10 year period for the presence of antibody to the five major arboviruses circulating in the state. the routine screening of 7891 sera from wild birds and mammals via the hemagglutination-inhibition (h1) test with selected reactors subjected to serum neutralization testing has 1) provided information regarding geographic distribution and seasonality of circulation of these viruses 2) identified enzootic foci of infection and ...19751152173
detection of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in rural communities of southern florida by exposure of sentinel hamsters.venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) virus strains were recovered from sentinel hamsters exposed in close proximity to homes in rural south florida. sentinel hamster surveillance methods over extended periods offer one effective way of uncovering vee virus activity in relation to human habitation.19751155708
isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus from aedes albopictus in florida.fourteen strains of eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus were isolated from aedes albopictus mosquitoes collected in polk county, florida. these are the first isolations of an arbovirus of proven public health and veterinary importance from naturally infected ae. albopictus in the united states since established populations of this introduced mosquito were first discovered in 1985. the widespread distribution of ae. albopictus in florida and in other areas of the united states where eee is en ...19921321985
eastern equine encephalitis virus associated with aedes albopictus--florida, 1991. 19921736088
from the centers for disease control. eastern equine encephalitis virus--florida, 1991. 19921740844
eastern equine encephalitis--florida, eastern united states, 1991.the florida department of health and rehabilitative services (hrs) has confirmed five human cases of eastern equine encephalitis (eee) in elderly residents of bradford, duval, and washington counties in northern florida. dates of illness onset were in mid-june and early july. one patient partially recovered and has residual neurologic deficits, two patients remain comatose, and two patients died.(abstract truncated at 250 words)19911861668
distribution of st. louis encephalitis viral antibody in sentinel chickens maintained in sarasota county, florida: 1978-1988.sentinel chicken flocks monitored arboviral transmission at 12 sites in sarasota county, fla., from 1978 through 1988. during this time, 3,452 serum samples were analyzed for hemagglutination inhibition antibody to st. louis encephalitis virus (sle) and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eee). overall, 91 chickens seroconverted to sle and three to eee. the intensity of sle transmission showed considerable year-to-year variation. chickens from south-county flocks were more likely to seroconv ...19912033613
equine culicoides hypersensitivity in florida: biting midges aspirated from horses.nine species of culicoides were aspirated from horses in florida during the second phase of a study of equine culicoides hypersensitivity (chs). approximately 90% of the 2933 midges were culicoides insignis lutz, 4% were c.stellifer (coquillett), 3% were c.niger root and hoffman, 2% were c.alachua jamnback and wirth and the remaining 1% included c.venustus hoffman, c.scanloni wirth and hubert, c.lahillei iches (= c.debilipalpis lutz), c.pusillus lutz, and c.edeni wirth and blanton. culicoides we ...19902133005
distribution of equine infectious anemia in equids in southeastern united states.state veterinarians in 11 southeastern states completed a questionnaire designed to determine the proportion of equids in the region that were seropositive for equine infectious anemia (eia). cases of eia were diagnosed in each of the states surveyed. distinct geographic clusters of cases were apparent in tennessee and kentucky adjacent to the mississippi river, in the piedmont of north carolina at the virginia border, in north central georgia, and throughout the florida peninsula. it is suggest ...19902173692
epidemiology of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in north america based on histologically confirmed cases. a report.following a workshop on equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (epm) convened at the veterinary medical forum of the american college of veterinary internal medicine in 1988, this survey of epm in north america was developed. it is based upon 364 histologically confirmed case records from california, florida, illinois, kentucky, new york, ohio, oklahoma, ontario, pennsylvania, and texas up to 1988. the highest rate of infection was found in young thoroughbred, standardbred, and quarter horses. diffe ...19902342022
an update on aedes albopictus in florida.aedes albopictus has been reported from 2 florida counties. this note updates those 2 infestations and reports 9 new county records, tests of pooled mosquitoes for eastern equine encephalitis virus and the current status of regulations concerning waste tires in the state.19902370540
identification of highlands j virus from a florida horse.a virus, strain 64a-1519, isolated from the brain of a horse dying of encephalitis in florida in 1964, was identified as western equine encephalomyelitis (wee) virus. recently, we used polyclonal and monoclonal immune reagents to identify this isolate by comparing it to 2 strains of wee virus and to highlands j (hj) virus in hemagglutination-inhibition, immunofluorescent antibody, and plaque-reduction neutralization tests. these tests demonstrate that strain 64a-1519 is a strain of hj virus dist ...19882849884
equine culicoides hypersensitivity in florida: biting midges collected in light traps near horses.twenty-three species of culicoides were trapped near pruritic horses during a 2-year survey in florida. nearly 99% of the biting midges collected were represented by culicoides insignis lutz, c. edeni wirth and blandon, c. stellifer (coquillett), c. niger root and hoffman, c. haematopotus malloch and c. venustus hoffman. the relative contribution to the total catch by each of these species varied among collection sites. seasonally, different species attain their largest population sizes at diffe ...19882980168
prevalence of equine onchocerciasis in southeastern and midwestern united states.of 664 horses reported to have originated in southeastern and midwestern united states, 341 (51.4%) were positive for onchocerca cervicalis cutaneous microfilariasis. the highest prevalence of 68.8% was recorded for horses from virginia. horses with the highest concentrations of microfilariae (as high as 19,770 microfilariae/mg in 1 horse) were from the southeast (georgia, florida, tennessee, and alabama). for horses from south carolina, the prevalence of infection was 57.1%; from the midwest (k ...19854008301
venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in florida: endemic virus circulation in native rodent populations of everglades hammocks. 19744150911
[venezuelan equine encephalitis. its history and geographic distribution]. 19734273163
arbovirus studies in south florida, with emphasis on venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. 19694387911
agents encountered during arboviral ecological studies: tampa bay area, florida, 1963 to 1970. 19724400812
transmissibility of an attenuated venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis vaccine virus. 19724402529
persistence of antibody to venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus in cotton mice. 19744473443
florida's program against e.i.a. 19744534757
history and geographic distribution of venezuelan equine encephalitis. 19744604536
ecological investigation of vertebrate hosts of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus in south florida. 19734684882
human venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in florida. 19744823800
serologic evidence of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infections in raccoons of south central florida. 19715156482
the natural occurrence of venezuelan equine encephalitis in the united states. 19705410814
antigenic variants of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus: their geographic distribution and epidemiologic significance. 19695773424
control of equine piroplasmosis in florida. 19695813490
biology of equine piroplasmosis. 19695816130
western equine encephalomyelitis in a florida horse. 19665948102
encephalitis in horses in hillsborough county, florida, 1964. 19676070959
equine anhidrosis: a review of pathophysiologic mechanisms.anhidrosis is loss of the ability to sweat. the problem is seen in horses kept in a hot humid climate, and it may cause severe impairment of thermoregulation in the equine athlete. british thoroughbreds imported to her tropical colonies are the earliest recorded cases, and since then the syndrome has come to be described as one of thoroughbreds, usually performance athletes, undergoing acclimatization to heat and humidity. a recent epidemiologic study of cases in florida has shown, however, that ...19836359664
antibodies to st. louis encephalitis virus in armadillos from southern florida.from january 1990 through march 1991, 189 armadillos (dasypus novemcinctus) were collected from brevard and glades counties in southern florida (usa). the sera were analyzed for hemagglutination-inhibition (hai) antibodies against st. louis encephalitis (sle) and eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) viruses. none of the armadillos had detectable hai antibody to eee virus, but 59 (31%) had antibodies against sle virus. sera from 31 of the hai-positive armadillos contained significant levels of ...19957563416
comparison of chickens and pheasants as sentinels for eastern equine encephalitis and st. louis encephalitis viruses in florida.pheasants and chickens were compared as sentinels for monitoring the transmission of arboviruses of public health significance in florida during 1991-93. results suggest that pheasants are better sentinels for eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus. they detected virus transmission 3-6 weeks earlier in epizootic years, 2-4 times more frequently during the season, and twice as many birds within a flock seroconverted during a given week. pheasants detected virus transmission at 2 sites during 2 i ...19947707062
arboviruses in water birds (ciconiiformes, pelecaniformes) from florida.sera from 360 ciconiform and pelecaniform birds collected in florida (usa) from 1974 to 1990 were tested for serum neutralizing (sn) antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (eee), st. louis encephalitis (sle), and everglades (eve) viruses. serum neutralizing antibodies to eee virus were detected in 2%, to sle virus in 7%, and to eve virus in none of the samples. pelecaniform birds (16%) had a higher antibody prevalence (p < 0.02) for sle virus than did ciconiform birds (5%). virus could not be ...19948028106
experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by strains of aedes albopictus and a. taeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae).the vector competence of aedes taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) and four strains of aedes albopictus (skuse) was assessed for eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus isolated from ae. albopictus collected in polk county, florida. both species became infected with and transmitted eee virus by bite after feeding on 1-d-old chicks that had been inoculated with eee virus (viremia = 10(10.1) plaque-forming units [pfu] per ml of blood). however, when fed on an older chick with a lower viremia (viremia = 10( ...19948189419
arboviruses associated with mosquitoes from nine florida counties during 1993.mosquitoes were collected for virus isolation tests from 36 sites in bradford, lake, leon, manatee, orange, osceola, pasco, putnam, and sarasota counties, fl, from april 6 through october 11, 1993. a total of 158,129 adult specimens were collected in 726 trap nights using cdc light traps, usually baited with dry ice. at least 35 species were represented, although 60% of the collections was made up of 3 species (aedes infirmatus, 6.5%; anopheles crucians, 14.4%; and culex nigripalpus, 39.4%). fou ...19968827602
antibodies to arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses in small mammals from southern florida.from 1987 through 1991, blood samples were collected from 10 species of small mammals in indian river country, florida (usa). sera from 1,347 animals were analyzed for hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) antibody to st. louis encephalitis (sle) and eastern equine encephalitis (eee) viruses. of these, 75 (5.6%) were positive for hi antibody to sle virus and 121 (9.0%) were positive for eee antibody. sera from five mammalian species were tested for neutralizing (nt) antibody to sle, eee, highlands j ...19968827668
transmission patterns of st. louis encephalitis and eastern equine encephalitis viruses in florida: 1978-1993.sentinel chickens were maintained at field sites in 40 florida counties for varying periods between 1978 and 1993. for each county, the total number of st. louis encephalitis virus (sle) or eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus seroconversions were divided by the number of chickens exposed to calculate a mean annual seroconversion rate. these rates were used to evaluate the annual and geographical distributions of these viruses within florida. for sle, the rates in counties that reported human ...19968906917
seroprevalence of selected disease agents from free-ranging black bears in florida.sera obtained from 66 free-ranging florida black bears (ursus americanus floridanus) from three geographic areas of florida (usa) between november 1993 and august 1995 were tested for antibodies to 13 disease agents. antibody prevalences were 3 positive of 37 tested (8%) coxiella burnetti, 37 of 66 (56%) toxoplasma gondii, 3 of 61 (5%) bluetongue virus/epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (btv/ehdv), 4 of 66 (6%) canine adenovirus-type 1, 5 of 66 (8%) canine distemper virus (cdv), 10 of 62 (16%) ...19989706572
screwworm turns heads in florida. 200010767945
race-start characteristics and risk of catastrophic musculoskeletal injury in thoroughbred racehorses.to identify race-start characteristics associated with catastrophic musculoskeletal (ms) injury in thoroughbred racehorses at 2 racetracks in florida during 1995 through 1998.200111149721
diverged evolution of recent equine-2 influenza (h3n8) viruses in the western hemisphere.we reported previously that equine-2 influenza a virus (h3n8) had evolved into two genetically and antigenically distinct "eurasian" and "american" lineages. phylogenetic analysis, using the ha1 gene of more recent american isolates, indicated a further divergence of these viruses into three evolution lineages: a south american lineage, a kentucky lineage, and a florida lineage. these multiple evolution pathways were not due to geographic barriers, as viruses from different lineages co-circulate ...200111504416
seasonal abundance of culex nigripalpus theobald and culex salinarius coquillett in north florida, usa.north florida is a transition zone between widespread culex nigripalpus populations to the south and focal culex salinarius populations to the north. culex nigripalpus is a vector of st. louis encephalitis (sle) and eastern equine encephalitis (eee) viruses in south florida, while cx. salinarius is a suspected new world vector of west nile (wn) virus. abundant vector populations are often a prerequisite for epidemic and epizootic transmission of arboviruses. extensive sle transmission has never ...200212125867
introduced ticks and tick-borne diseases: the threat and approaches to eradication.exotic tick species and tick-borne diseases are serious threats to live-stock, companion animals, and wildlife in the united states. recurring introductions of exotic tick species into the united states are a significant indicator of the degree of risk. successful tick-eradication campaigns, such as the national program that eradicated boophilus annulatus and b. microplus from the united states, the cattle fever tick eradication program of the us department of agriculture's veterinary services t ...200212442574
seasonal effects on the aerobic bacterial and fungal conjunctival flora of normal thoroughbred brood mares in florida.to evaluate seasonal effects on the presence or absence of fungal and aerobic bacterial flora of the conjunctival fornix of normal florida thoroughbred horses.200312641842
surveillance for acute insecticide-related illness associated with mosquito-control efforts--nine states, 1999-2002.ground and aerial applications of insecticides are used to control populations of adult mosquitoes, which spread such diseases as west nile virus--related illness, eastern equine encephalitis, and dengue fever. this report summarizes investigations of illnesses associated with exposures to insecticides used during 1999-2002 to control mosquito populations in nine states (arizona, california, florida, louisiana, michigan, new york, oregon, texas, and washington) (estimated 2000 population: 118 mi ...200312855943
a new influenza virus associated with equine respiratory disease. 196314077956
equine piroplasmosis--a mixed strain of piroplasma caballi and piroplasma equi isolated in florida and studied by the fluorescent-antibody technique. 196414103219
distribution of the tropical horse tick in the united states, with notes on associated cases of equine piroplasmosis. 196414138371
venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from south florida.venezuelan equine encephalitis virus was isolated three times from the culex (melanoconion) species of mosquitoes collected in south florida in june, july, and october, 1963. specific antibody was present in 16 of 28 peromyscus gossypinus (cotton mice) and 3 of 16 sigmodon hispidus (cotton rats) sampled from one of the infected sites in january 1964.196414171567
serological evidence of arbovirus infection in the seminole indians of southern florida.a serological survey of the seminole indians in south florida for evidence of exposure to arbovirus infection indicated not only past infection with the recognized north american encephalitis viruses-a high incidence for st. louis encephalitis-but exposure to a bunyamwera group agent and to venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, activity of which had not been previously recognized north of panama.196414171866
a comparison of equine piroplasmosis in south africa and the united states. 196414231084
changes in antibiotic resistance in equine bacterial ulcerative keratitis (1991-2000): 65 horses.to document changes in antibiotic resistance of organisms in cases of equine bacterial ulcerative keratitis over a 10-year time period.200314641828
alternate circulation of recent equine-2 influenza viruses (h3n8) from two distinct lineages in the united states.phylogenetic and antigenic analyses indicate that recent circulating equine-2 influenza viruses in the united states have been alternating between two genetic and antigenic distinct lineages since 1996. the evolution rates for these two lineages, the kentucky and the florida lineage, are very similar. for the earlier isolates in the kentucky lineage, there are multiple and sequential nonsynonymous substitutions at antigenic sites b and d. however, there are no changes at any of these antigenic s ...200415019234
arboviral infection in two species of wild jays (aves: corvidae): evidence for population impacts.we examined the prevalence of antibodies to three mosquito-borne arboviruses in blue jays, cyanocitta cristata, and florida scrub-jays, aphelocoma coerulescens, to identify the effects on host survival, the influence of sex and age on infection, and the temporal patterns of antibody prevalence. blood samples from 306 blue jays and 219 florida scrub-jays were collected at archbold biological station (lake placid, fl) from april 1994 through december 1995. sera were analyzed for hemagglutination-i ...200415061281
diagnostic contribution of thoracic ultrasonography in 17 foals with rhodococcus equi pneumonia.the aim of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical usefulness of thoracic ultrasonography compared to thoracic radiography in evaluation of rhodococcus equi pneumonia. criteria for patient inclusion in this study were: (1) isolation of r. equi from transtracheal aspirate, (2) radiographic evaluation of the pulmonary parenchyma, and (3) sonographic evaluation of the pulmonary parenchyma. seventeen foals met this criteria and their medical records were reviewed. pyogranulomatous pne ...200415072151
west nile virus activity--united states, june 23-29, 2004.as of june 29, eight states had reported a total of 57 human cases of west nile virus (wnv) illness to cdc through arbonet in 2004. a total of 38 cases had been reported from arizona, 10 from california, three from new mexico, two from florida, and one each from michigan, nebraska, south dakota, and wyoming. thirty-six (64%) of the cases occurred in males; the median age of patients was 53 years (range: 9-84 years), and dates of illness onset ranged from april 23 to june 15. of the 57 cases, one ...200415229416
performance after partial arytenoidectomy without mucosal closure in 27 thoroughbred racehorses.to examine the effect of partial arytenoidectomy without mucosal closure on postoperative racing performance and long-term complications in thoroughbred racehorses treated for laryngeal hemiplegia, arytenoid chondropathy, or failed laryngoplasty.200415230845
west nile virus activity--united states, july 14-20, 2004.during the week of july 14-20, a total of 74 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from seven states (arizona, california, florida, new mexico, new york, south dakota, and texas).200415269701
west nile virus activity--united states, july 28-august 3, 2004.during july 28-august 3, a total of 141 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 11 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, nevada, new york, north dakota, south dakota, and texas). during 2004, a total of 20 states have reported a total of 406 cases of human wnv illness to cdc through arbonet. of these, 247 (61%) were reported from arizona. a total of 226 (57%) of the 406 cases occurred in males; the median age of patients was 51 years (range: 1 ...200415295314
west nile virus activity--united states, august 4-10, 2004.during august 4-10, a total of 89 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 14 states (alabama, arizona, california, florida, illinois, kentucky, louisiana, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, north dakota, south dakota, and wyoming).200415306758
west nile virus activity--united states, august 11-17, 2004.during august 11-17, a total of 194 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 17 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, louisiana, maryland, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, ohio, south dakota, texas, utah, and virginia).200415318160
retrospective comparison of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin for the treatment of foals with rhodococcus equi pneumonia.the objective of this retrospective study was to compare the efficacy of azithromycin-rifampin, clarithromycin-rifampin, and erythromycin-rifampin for the treatment of pneumonia caused by rhodococcus equi in foals. eighty-one foals with naturally acquired pneumonia caused by r. equi were included in the study. information on age, sex, breed, physical examination findings, laboratory testing, and thoracic radiography was abstracted from each medical record. foals were divided in 3 groups based on ...200415320600
west nile virus activity--united states, august 18-24, 2004.during august 18-24, a total of 154 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, connecticut, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, south dakota, tennessee, and wisconsin).200415329654
west nile virus activity--united states, august 25-31, 2004.during august 25-31, a total of 210 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 14 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, minnesota, montana, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, and pennsylvania).200415343148
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
west nile virus activity--united states, september 15-21, 2004.during september 15-21, a total of 218 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 21 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, south dakota, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415385920
west nile virus activity--united states, september 29-october 5, 2004.during september 29-october 5, a total of 81 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, florida, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, minnesota, missouri, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, texas, and virginia).200415470326
west nile virus activity--united states, october 6-12, 2004.during october 6-12, a total of 86 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (arizona, florida, illinois, kansas, louisiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, nevada, new jersey, new mexico, north dakota, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, tennessee, texas, and utah).200415483530
prevalence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes on horse farms.to determine prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostome nematodes of horses in the southern united states.200415485051
west nile virus activity--united states, october 20-26, 2004.during october 20-26, a total of 80 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 16 states (arizona, california, florida, iowa, kentucky, louisiana, michigan, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, new york, ohio, south dakota, texas, and utah).200415514584
experimental everglades virus infection of cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus).everglades virus (evev), an alphavirus in the venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) serocomplex, circulates among rodents and vector mosquitoes and infects humans, causing a febrile disease sometimes accompanied by neurologic manifestations. evev circulates near metropolitan miami, which indicates the potential for substantial human disease, should outbreaks arise. we characterized evev infection of cotton rats in south florida, usa, to validate their role in enzootic transmission. to evaluate wh ...200415663857
transmission of equine influenza virus to dogs.molecular and antigenic analyses of three influenza viruses isolated from outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in racing greyhounds revealed that they are closely related to h3n8 equine influenza virus. phylogenetic analysis indicated that the canine influenza virus genomes form a monophyletic group, consistent with a single interspecies virus transfer. molecular changes in the hemagglutinin suggested adaptive evolution in the new host. the etiologic role of this virus in respiratory disease ...200516186182
use of colonic luminal pressure to predict outcome after surgical treatment of strangulating large colon volvulus in horses.to evaluate the relationship of colonic luminal pressure (clp) measurements to outcome in horses with large colon volvulus (lcv) after either manual correction or large colon resection and anastomosis (lcra).200616756616
amniotic membrane transplantation for corneal surface reconstruction after excision of corneolimbal squamous cell carcinomas in nine horses.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of permanent amniotic membrane transplantation as an adjunctive treatment to superficial keratectomy alone or combined with strontium-90 irradiation for treatment of equine corneolimbal squamous cell carcinoma (scc) to decrease corneal scarring and recurrence rate.200617076873
serologic evidence of widespread everglades virus activity in dogs, florida.everglades virus (evev), an alphavirus in the venezuelan equine encephalitis complex, circulates among rodents and vector mosquitoes in florida and occasionally infects humans. it causes febrile disease, sometimes accompanied by neurologic manifestations. although previous surveys showed high seroprevalence in humans, evev infections may be underdiagnosed because the disease is not severe enough to warrant a clinic visit or the undifferentiated presentations complicate diagnosis. documented evev ...200617326938
venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of cotton rats.venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (veev) is an emerging pathogen of equids and humans, but infection of its rodent reservoir hosts has received little study. to determine whether responses to infection vary among geographic populations, we inoculated 3 populations of cotton rats with 2 enzootic veev strains (co97-0054 [enzootic id subtype] and 68u201 [enzootic ie subtype]). the 3 populations were offspring from wild-caught cotton rats collected in a vee-enzootic area of south florida, usa; wi ...200717953085
influenza a virus (h3n8) in dogs with respiratory disease, florida.in 2004, canine influenza virus subtype h3n8 emerged in greyhounds in the united states. subsequent serologic evidence indicated virus circulation in dog breeds other than greyhounds, but the virus had not been isolated from affected animals. in 2005, we conducted virologic investigation of 7 nongreyhound dogs that died from respiratory disease in florida and isolated influenza subtype h3n8 virus. antigenic and genetic analysis of a/canine/jacksonville/2005 (h3n8) and a/canine/miami/2005 (h3n8) ...200818507900
equestrian injuries in children.equestrian activities are regarded by some as high-risk sports, and our recent experience suggested this to be true. we undertook this study to review our experience with pediatric equestrian injuries.200919159733
prevalence of antibodies to west nile virus and other arboviruses among crested caracaras (caracara cheriway) in florida.we documented the antibody prevalence to three arboviruses, st. louis encephalitis virus (slev), eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev), and west nile virus (wnv), in crested caracaras (caracara cheriway; n = 80) in florida from 2007 to 2008. antibody prevalence to wnv was higher (9%) than for the other viruses. most seropositive birds were adults (< or =3 yr of age), with 55% of adults testing positive for antibodies to at least one virus. adults were significantly more likely to have antibod ...200919617494
microevolution of canine influenza virus in shelters and its molecular epidemiology in the united states.canine influenza virus (civ) emerged around 2000 when an equine influenza virus (eiv) was transmitted to dogs in florida. after 2003, the canine virus was carried by infected greyhounds to various parts of the united states and then became established in several large animal shelters, where it has continued to circulate. to better understand the evolution of civ since its emergence, and particularly its microevolution in spatially restricted populations, we examined multiple gene segments of civ ...201020943966
infectivity and pathogenicity of canine h3n8 influenza a virus in horses.equine h3n8 influenza a viruses (eivs) cause respiratory disease in horses and circulate among horses worldwide. in 2004, an outbreak of canine h3n8 influenza a virus (civ) occurred among dogs in florida and has spread among dogs in the united states (us). genetic analyses revealed that this civ is closely related to the recent eivs. although civ-infected dogs could be the source of h3n8 influenza a virus for horses, it remains unclear whether the civ circulating in the united states still maint ...201020958928
high prevalence of eee in michigan. 201021090150
assessing permethrin resistance in the stable fly (diptera: muscidae) in florida by using laboratory selections and field evaluations.insecticide resistance in the stable fly, stomoxys calcitrans (l.) (diptera: muscidae),has been demonstrated previously, but mostly with insecticides that are no longer used, such as the organochlorines. resistance to commonly used pyrethroids has been evaluated twice, but only in the midwestern united states. stable fly susceptibility to a commonly used pyrethroid, permethrin, was determined in florida to assess the possibility of resistance development. diagnostic concentration evaluations of ...201021309252
clarification on language barriers during an outbreak investigation. 201121462598
phylogenetic analysis of eastern equine encephalitis virus isolates from florida.abstract. florida has the highest degree of endemicity for eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) of any state in the united states and is the only state with year-round transmission of eeev. to further understand the viral population dynamics in florida, the genome sequence of six eeev isolates from central florida were determined. these data were used to identify the most polymorphic regions of the eeev genome from viruses isolated in florida. the sequence of these polymorphic regions was th ...201121540379
Serological evidence of H3N8 canine influenza-like virus circulation in USA dogs prior to 2004.H3N8 canine influenza virus (H3N8 CIV) was first reported as a novel canine respiratory pathogen in racing greyhounds and shelter dogs in the USA in 2004. Phylogenetic analyses determined that this host-adapted pathogen originated from interspecies transmission of an equine influenza virus (EIV), but it is unknown when the transmission occurred prior to discovery in 2004. The objective of this study was to determine if racing greyhound and shelter dog sera collected from 1984 to 2004 had serolog ...201122178358
the ability of selected pupal parasitoids (hymenoptera: pteromalidae) to locate stable fly hosts in a soiled equine bedding substrate.the ability of spalangia cameroni perkins, spalangia endius walker, and muscidifurax raptorellus kogan and legner to locate and attack stable fly hosts was evaluated under laboratory conditions. postfeeding third-instar stable fly larvae were released and allowed to pupate in two arena types: large 4.8 liter chambers containing a field-collected, soiled equine bedding substrate; or 120-ml plastic cups containing wood chips. at the time of fly pupariation, parasitoids were released and permitted ...201122182616
detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodid ticks from equine-inhabited sites in the southeastern united states.abstract anaplasma phagocytophilum is a vector-borne, obligate intracellular bacterium that invades the neutrophils and eosinophils of infected individuals, causing granulocytic anaplasmosis. equine cases have previously been reported in the united states from california, florida, and connecticut, but limited surveillance studies in the southeast have been conducted. the objective of this study was to determine a. phagocytophilum prevalence in ixodes scapularis ticks at southeastern u.s. horse ...201222214269
diagnostic ultrasonography of equine lens and posterior segment abnormalities.to define the indications for equine ocular ultrasonography and to provide representative ultrasonographic images of lens and posterior segment diseases.200414982592
training failure among yearling horses.to compare financial returns between pinhooked yearling horses (ie, bought and trained for approximately 5 months with the goal of selling the horse at "2-year-olds in training" sales) that had mild or severe training failure and horses that had planned versus nonplanned training failure.200111560271
visual outcome and ocular survival following iris prolapse in the horse: a review of 32 cases.the medical records of 32 horses treated for iris prolapse (ip) during an 8 year period, at the university of florida veterinary medical teaching hospital, were reviewed. iris prolapse was associated with perforated corneal ulcers in 15 horses (47%), ruptured stromal abscesses in 2 horses (6%), and full thickness corneal lacerations in 15 horses (47%). initial ophthalmic examinations revealed ip with severe iridocyclitis in all eyes and keratomalacia in 8 eyes with corneal ulcers, one with a str ...19979031861
eastern equine encephalitis transmission to emus (dromaius novaehollandiae) in volusia county, florida: 1992 through 1994.from may 1992 through october 1994, sera were collected from 204 domestic emus (dromaius novaehollandiae) at a ranch in volusia county, fl, and tested for antibody evidence of arboviral infection. hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) and neutralizing (nt) antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus were identified in sera collected during each year. in addition, hi and nt antibodies to st. louis encephalitis virus were detected in 3 naturally infected emus. isolations of eee virus were mad ...19968887222
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