phylogenetic analysis of west nile virus isolated in italy in italy the first occurrence of west nile virus (wnv) infection was reported in tuscany region during the late summer of 1998. in august 2008, the wnv infection re-emerged in italy, in areas surrounding the po river delta, and involving three regions lombardy, emilia romagna and veneto. wnv was isolated from blood and organs samples of one horse, one donkey, one pigeon (columba livia) and three magpies (pica pica). the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates, conducted on 255 bp in the region cod ...200819040827
re-emergence of west nile virus in august 2008, west nile disease re-emerged in italy. the infection is affecting the north eastern regions and, as of november 2008, has caused 33 clinical cases and five fatalities in horses. until now, no deaths have been reported in birds. mosquitoes, blood, serum and tissue samples, from horses and birds, within and around the outbreak area, have been collected and tested by various methods both serologically and virologically. west nile virus strains have been isolated from blood samples o ...201019638165
Spatio-temporal patterns of distribution of West Nile virus vectors in eastern Piedmont Region, Italy.ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission in Italy was first reported in 1998 as an equine outbreak near the swamps of Padule di Fucecchio, Tuscany. No other cases were identified during the following decade until 2008, when horse and human outbreaks were reported in Emilia Romagna, North Italy. Since then, WNV outbreaks have occurred annually, spreading from their initial northern foci throughout the country. Following the outbreak in 1998 the Italian public health authority def ...201122152822
gender effect on the relation between diabetes and hospitalization for heart failure.cardiovascular risk among diabetic patients is at least twice as much the one for non-diabetic individuals and even greater when diabetic women are considered. heart failure (hf) is a common unfavorable outcome of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. however, since the comparison among sexes of heart failure prevalence in diabetic patients remains limited, this study is aimed at expanding the information about this point.we have evaluated the association between diabetes and hf by reviewing the m ...201121915814
cystic echinococcosis in equids in italy.between march 2003 and february 2007, the livers and the lungs of 2,231 horses from various italian regions were examined for cystic echinococcosis presence at the time of slaughter. hydatid cysts were found in six horses, namely four from sardinia, one from sicily, and one from tuscany. the location, number, morphology, and fertility of the cysts found were determined. dna was extracted from the germinal layers and protoscoleces of the fertile cysts and polymerase chain reactions (pcr) were per ...200818180956
cystic echinococcosis in italy from the 1950s to italy the epidemiological pattern of cistic echinococcosis (ce) is incomplete and the information for most regions is out of date, contradictory, and almost exclusively limited to the intermediate hosts. the disease is found most frequently in particular social and economic conditions: widespread use of extensive or semi-extensive sheep farming, illegal slaughtering, and high numbers of sheepdogs and other types of dogs. the highest incidence in sheep is found in sardinia (70.6-92.8%), sicily ...200416044697
geographical and seasonal distribution of the bluetongue virus vector, culicoides imicola, in central italy.following the first incursion of bluetongue virus (btv) into italy, the geographical and seasonal distribution of the biting midge culicoides imicola kieffer (diptera: ceratopogonidae), the main vector of btv and african horse sickness virus, was investigated in two regions of central italy (lazio and tuscany). surveillance of culicoides was carried out between july 2001 and december 2002 using light traps: 1917 collections were made in 381 trap sites, well distributed across both regions. durin ...200314651652
[epidemiological remarks on the "s. arizonae" strains isolated from various animals in tuscany during 1969-1978 (author's transl)].after a review of the taxonomic history of the genus arizona culminated in the insertion of these bacteria in the kauffmann-white schema, the most significant references concerning their pathogenicity and occurrence are related. in this paper, the outbreaks and sporadic cases by s. arizonae which occurred in tuscan area during 1969-1978 are reported; between several animal species, turkeys were found frequently infect and the same serotype (s. arizonae 18:z4,z32:-) was identified. the epidemiolo ...19807195690
potential vectors of west nile virus following an equine disease outbreak in the late summer of 1998, an outbreak of equine encephalomyelitis due to west nile virus (wnv) occurred in the tuscany region of central italy. the disease was detected in 14 race horses from nine localities in four provinces: firenze, lucca, pisa and pistoia. the outbreak area included fucecchio wetlands (1800 ha), the largest inland marsh in italy, and the adjacent hilly cerbaie woodlands with farms breeding horses. to detect potential vectors of wnv, entomological surveys of fucecchio and c ...200415009441
west nile virus epidemic in horses, tuscany region, italy.during the late summer of 1998, veterinary authorities in tuscany, italy, received reports of cases of neurologic disease among horses residing in a large wetland area located in the provinces of florence and pistoia. west nile virus was isolated from two of the six horses that died or were euthanized. a retrospective epidemiologic study identified 14 clinical neurologic cases that occurred from august 20 to october 6 (attack rate of 2.8%). a serologic survey conducted over a 700-km2 area in sta ...200212498650
clinical and neuropathological features of west nile virus equine encephalomyelitis in italy.west nile (wn) virus infection is a mosquito-borne flavivirosis endemic in africa and asia. clinical disease is usually rare and mild and only in a few cases the infection causes encephalomyelitis in horses, fever and meningoencephalitis in man. we report here the clinical and pathological findings in an epidemic of the disease involving 14 horses from tuscany, italy. all cases were observed from august to october 1998. affected horses showed ataxia, weakness paresis of the hindlimbs and, in 6 c ...200010661382
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