serological studies of mucosal disease virus in england and wales.a survey of the cattle population in england and wales showed that about 62 per cent of animals had neutralising (sn) antibody to bvd-md virus in their serum. fewer seropositive individuals were detected by immunodiffusion (53 per cent), and complement fixation (cf) tests (34 per cent). the prevalence of antibody was not affected by herd size, but some variation was found between various regions of the country, and the proportion of animals seropositive rose markedly with age. the immunodiffusio ...1978203990
genetic variation in wild horse mice: where natural selection and history meet. 1978623400
the epidemiology of echinococcus granulosus in great britain. v. the status of subspecies of echinococcus granulosus in great britain.twenty-five years ago williams and sweatman suggested that in great britain there are two subspecies of echinococcus granulosus--e. granulosus granulosus and e. granulosus equinus. echinococcus granulosus granulosus does not mature either in foxes or in horses: e. granulosus equinus will mature in either. the prepatent period of e. granulosus granulosus in the definitive host is about 42 days while that of e. granulosus equinus is about 70 days. each subspecies has a characteristic morphology. m ...19892596902
suspected ehrlichiosis in a gelding in wales. 19892773204
prevalence of anoplocephala perfoliata in horses and ponies in clwyd, powys and adjacent english marches.the prevalence of anoplocephala perfoliata in 103 horses and ponies from clwyd, powys and the adjacent english marches, slaughtered during january 1987, was 69 per cent.19883212902
a survey to establish the incidence of sweet itch in ponies in the united kingdom. 19734777484
salmonellosis. 19674918279
acute hepatic failure in the horse. 19715161355
prevalence of equine sarcocystis in british horses and a comparison of two detection methods.sarcocystis was detected in oesophageal samples from 245 (62 per cent) of 394 horses and ponies killed at a cheshire abattoir between february and august 1981. prevalence of infection was closely related to age, increasing from 28.6 per cent of animals up to two years old to 88.9 per cent of those over eight years old. there were no significant regional differences in prevalence between horses from north west england, yorkshire or south wales. significantly more female horses were infected (69.7 ...19846437049
observations on the epidemiology of equine hydatidosis in britain.of 1388 horses and ponies examined at two abattoirs in the north of england from november 1979 to september 1981, 123 (8.7 per cent) showed evidence of hydatid infection. prevalence of infection was closely related to age, rising from nil in animals up to two years old to over 20 per cent of those over eight years. full-mouthed horses and ponies had similar prevalence rates (14.9 and 14.5 per cent, respectively), but horses had nearly twice as many viable infections as ponies. the prevalence of ...19827101713
salmonella hindmarsh infection in sheep and ponies. 19979292977
case-control study to investigate risk factors for horse falls in hurdle racing in england and wales.between march 1, 2000 and august 31, 2001, a case-control study was conducted on 12 racecourses in england and wales to identify and quantify the risk factors associated with horse falls in hurdle races. the cases and controls were defined so that variables relating to the horse, the jockey, the race and racecourse, and the jump could be considered. the cases were defined as a jumping effort at a hurdle flight that resulted in a fall, and the controls were defined as a successful jump over a hur ...200312762486
identification of cryptosporidium parvum genotype 2 in domestic horses. 200515675524
gasterophilus pecorum in the soft palate of a british pony. 200515765898
clustering of equine grass sickness cases in the united kingdom: a study considering the effect of position-dependent reporting on the space-time k-function.equine grass sickness (egs) is a largely fatal, pasture-associated dysautonomia. although the aetiology of this disease is unknown, there is increasing evidence that clostridium botulinum type c plays an important role in this condition. the disease is widespread in the united kingdom, with the highest incidence believed to occur in scotland. egs also shows strong seasonal variation (most cases are reported between april and july). data from histologically confirmed cases of egs from england and ...200515816161
long-term cryptosporidium typing reveals the aetiology and species-specific epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis in england and wales, 2000 to improve understanding of the aetiology and epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis, over 8,000 cryptosporidium isolates were submitted for typing to the species level over a four year period. the majority were either cryptosporidium parvum (45.9%) or cryptosporidium hominis (49.2%). dual infection occurred in 40 (0.5%) cases and six other known cryptosporidium species or genotypes were found in 67 (0.9%) cases. these were cryptosporidium meleagridis, cryptosporidium felis, cryptosporidium can ...200919161717
a nationwide surveillance scheme for equine grass sickness in great britain: results for the period 2000-2009.reasons for performing study: equine grass sickness (egs) remains a frequently fatal disease of equids in great britain (gb). the first nationwide surveillance scheme for egs was developed to obtain information on the occurrence of egs and to help facilitate future proposed intervention studies, such as vaccine trials. objectives: to collect both retrospective and prospective data on cases of egs occurring in gb since 2000 and to assess potential risk factors for categories of egs and survival a ...201121649713
identification of risk factors for traumatic injury in the general horse population of north-west england, midlands and north wales.reasons for performing study: traumatic injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the horse and consequently pose a serious threat to horses' wellbeing. to date, there have been no published studies assessing the frequency of injuries in the general horse population of the uk. objectives: to obtain information regarding husbandry management strategies and injury prevalence in horses aged ôëñ15 years, with the aim of identifying predisposing risk factors for injury. methods: a post ...201121696429
the epidemiology of sporadic human infections with unusual cryptosporidia detected during routine typing in england and wales, 2000-2008.summaryroutine typing of 14 469 isolates from human cryptosporidiosis cases between 2000 and 2008 revealed that 7439 (51-à4%) were cryptosporidium (c.) hominis, 6372 (44-à0%) c. parvum, 51 (0-à4%) both c. hominis and c. parvum, 443 (3-à1%) were not typable and 164 (1-à1%) were other cryptosporidium species or genotypes. of the latter, 109 were c. meleagridis, 38 c. felis, 11 c. ubiquitum, one c. canis, two horse, two novel and one skunk genotype. c. hominis monkey genotype and c. cuniculus were ...201121733255
do we pay too dearly for our sport and leisure activities? an investigation into fatalities as a result of sporting and leisure activities in england and wales, 1982-1988.analysis of deaths from sports and leisure activities in england and wales during 1982-88 found that horse riding (98 deaths), air sports (92 deaths), motor sports (86 deaths) and mountaineering (74 deaths) were the most hazardous activities. the most hazardous activity for children was horse riding (19 deaths). the commonest activities resulting in drowning in adults were swimming (128 deaths) and fishing (82 deaths). the main drowning deaths in children followed swimming (24 deaths). when expo ...19902274645
disease prevalence in geriatric horses in the united kingdom: veterinary clinical assessment of 200 cases.reasons for performing study: geriatric horses (aged ôëñ15 years) represent a substantial proportion of the equine population, yet few studies have investigated the prevalence of diseases within this population in the uk. objectives: to describe the findings of veterinary clinical examination of 200 geriatric horses and ponies in north west england and north wales, and to assess the effect of animal age and type (horse or pony) on the presence or absence of clinical signs and veterinary diagnose ...201121668494
a survey of health care and disease in geriatric horses aged 30years or older.this study reports on aspects of preventive health care and on the prevalence of disease in geriatric (⩾30years old) horses and ponies in north-west england and north wales. of 128 questionnaires mailed to horse owners, 87 useable responses were received and 69 horses were subject to veterinary examination. of the animals examined, 16% were underweight with body condition scores (bcs)<2/5, and 10% were overweight (bcs>3/5). this contrasted with the owner responses that reported 23% of the animal ...201121550271
investigation and management of an outbreak of abortion related to equine herpesvirus type 1 in unvaccinated ponies. 200717369481
the prevalence of gasterophilus intestinalis in horses in northern england and wales.the stomachs of 448 horses from northern england and wales were examined for gasterophilus larvae, and 237 (52.7%) were found to be infected with g. intestinalis. larvae were present in stomachs examined during each month of the year except august. second instar larvae occurred from september through february and third instars were present from november through july. adult fly activity began in august as indicated by the presence of eggs on horses. the life-cycle of g. intestinalis in northern e ...19826891853
equine lymphocyte antigens in a welsh pony family.lymphocytes from an extended family of welsh ponies were tested in a microcytotoxicity test against thoroughbred and arabian horse-derived antisera, which defined 4 and 6 equine lymphocyte antigen (ela) specificities, respectively. mixed leukocyte culture (mlc) tests were also performed. welsh pony lymphocytes reacted to the thoroughbred antisera. most of the ponies' lymphocytes showed reactivity to 2 of the thoroughbred ela specificities, the offspring inheriting 1 antigen from each parent. ant ...19826216833
salmonella infection in horses in england and wales, 1973 to 1979.during the period 1973 to 1979 the number of recorded incidents of equine salmonellosis increased from 23 in 1973 to a peak of 111 incidents in 1976, but has since decreased to 32 in 1979. of the 416 incidents recorded during the period of the survey 292 were caused by salmonella typhimurium and 121 by 33 different serotypes; in three instances rough strains of salmonella were involved. the number of incidents caused by serotypes other than s typhimurium increased from one in 1973 to 32 in 1976. ...19817041408
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