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brucella cultures typed by the who brucellosis centre at the commonwealth serum laboratories, melbourne.results of the typing of brucella cultures received at the who brucellosis centre, csl, melbourne, from 1968-1976 are presented. the distribution of the biotypes of cultures recovered throughout australia is shown on a host and state basis and atypical cultures are discussed. cultures identified from australia were br. abortus, biotypes 1, 2 and 4 and strain 19; br. suis, biotype 1 and br. ovis. br. melitensis biotypes 1, 2 and 3 were recorded only as exotic human infections from the mediterrane ...1978105700
the epidemiology of ringworm in racehorses caused by trichophyton equinum var autotrophicum.the epidemiology of dermatomycocis due to trichophyton equinum var autotrophicum was studied in a number of thoroughbred stables in south-east queensland. the significant factors in the epidemiology were defined. the infection was readily transmitted, particularly by infected saddle-girths, on which the fungus could survive for 12 months. mild abrasion from the saddle during work favoured the development of lesions and prolonged the recovery period. a pronounced age and seasonal incidence of the ...1979543830
suspected cryptostegia grandiflora (rubber vine) poisoning in horses. 19902264814
isolation of brucella suis biotype 1 from a horse. 19883401168
investigation of equine infectious anaemia in queensland using gel diffusion.an antigen for the gel diffusion test for equine infectious anaemia (eia) was prepared from the spleen of a horse experimentally infected with the cq strain of the virus. the antigen produced a single, distinct line of precipitation when tested against a range of known positive serums, and did not react with pre-inoculation and known negative serums. extracts prepared from uninfected spleens displayed no reaction when similarly tested. serum from 34 of 451 queensland horses contained detectable ...1975173275
a survey of granulomatous and neoplastic diseases of equine skin in north queensland.a survey of granulomatous and neoplastic diseases of the skin of horses of tropical north queensland was carried out during the period 1970-1980. of 338 horses affected, 46.4% suffered from equine fibrosarcoma (sarcoid), 30.2% from phycomycosis, 7.4% from squamous cell carcinoma, 6.8% from other tumours, 4.7% from cutaneous habronemiasis and 4.4% from exuberant granulation tissue. most specimens were submitted during the first half of the year after the wet monsoonal season and significantly mor ...19827150129
birdsville disease in the central highlands area of queensland. 19836651679
studies on equine herpesviruses. 3. the incidence in queensland of three different equine herpesvirus infections. 19724335284
studies on equine herpesviruses. 1. characterisation of a strain of equine rhinopneumonitis virus isolated in queensland. 19704320127
an outbreak of japanese encephalitis in the torres strait, australia, 1995.to determine the distribution of virus infection during an outbreak of japanese encephalitis (je) in the torres strait, and to describe the environmental factors facilitating the outbreak.19968816682
prevalence and abundance of equine strongyles (nematoda: strongyloidea) in tropical australia.a postmortem survey of 57 horses in tropical northern queensland revealed 41 (89%) infected with intestinal strongyles. thirty-five strongyle species (8 large strongyles and 27 small strongyles [cyathostominae]) were recorded of which 9 species are reported from australia for the first time. the 14 most prevalent small strongyles were cyathostomum catinatum (in 76% of horses), cyathostomum coronatum (65%), cyathostomum pateratum (33%), cyathostomum labiatum (30%), cylicostephanus calicatus (70%) ...19902380857
a retrospective evaluation of the surgical management of equine carpal injury.records of 220 thoroughbred horses presented to the randwick equine centre or the university of queensland veterinary teaching hospital for surgical management of carpal injury were reviewed. details of racing performance were obtained, enabling evaluation of racing success following surgery. age and sex matched control horses not known to have suffered carpal injury were selected from the australian stud book and the australian racehorse register. control and treated populations were compared i ...19968894034
avocado (persea americana) poisoning of horses. 19912025211
equine infectious anaemia in queensland. 1978743064
an outbreak of swainsona poisoning in horses.on 6 properties in south-western queensland an outbreak of nervous disease occurred horses due to ingestion of swainsonia (darling pea). loss of condition, depression, hyperaesthesia and hyperexcitability were seen in affected horses. at autopsy of 2 horses generalised c ytoplasmic vacuolation was seen in the neurones of the central nervous system and in the liver, adrenal and thyroid. the clinical and pathological features were similar to those described in horses suffering from swainsona poiso ...1977588181
the epidemiology of equine strongylosis in southern queensland. 3. seasonal variation in arterial populations of strongylus vulgaris, and the prevalence of some helminths.the anterior mesenteric arteries of 138 horses slaughtered in southern queensland were examined for the presence of s. vulgaris larvae. seasonal differences were noted in the size of arterial populations of this parasite, with higher mean monthly numbers of worms per horse occurring in winter. there was an equally high incidence of severe verminous arteritis during the winter months of june, july and august, compared to arteries examined during the warmer months, when there were smaller numbers ...1979518433
the epidemiology of equine strongylosis in southern queensland. 2. the survival and migration of infective larvae on herbage.the seasonal changes in longevity on herbage of the infective larvae of strongylid nematodes of the horse were studied. during the summer months, 1% of the larvae survived on herbage for 2-3 weeks, with 0.2% still viable for a further 2-3 weeks. equivalent survival periods in winter were 7-11 weeks and over 11 weeks respectively. during spring and autumn, larvae survived for periods varying from 3-8 weeks. on rhodes grass (chloris gayana) growing vigorously in the summer of 1976, the majority of ...1979518432
the epidemiology of equine strongylosis in southern queensland. 1. the bionomics of the free-living stages in faeces and on pasture. 1979518431
equine onchocerciasis in queensland and the northern territory of australia.investigations were conducted on the taxonomy, distribution in the carcase, pathology and transmission of onchocerca spp. in equids from queensland and the northern territory. examination of small groups of horses and ponies revealed high infection rates with o. cervicalis, while lesser numbers were infected with o. gutturosa. o. reticulata was not found. neither of the australian species is likely to be of economic importance to the horsemeat industry. the findings support the belief that o. ce ...19836639515
enamel of yalkaparidon coheni: representative of a distinctive order of tertiary zalambdodont marsupials.the enamel of an incisor and a premolar of yalkaparidon coheni was examined by scanning electron microscopy in fractured and in sectioned, polished surfaces. the enamel of both teeth demonstrated: complete, ovoid and horse-shoe shaped prisms in a pattern 2 arrangement; a simple parallel prism course; and, enamel tubules in abundance in the premolar but restricted to the innermost enamel in the incisor. overall, the enamel ultrastructure supports the marsupial affiliation proposed for yalkaparido ...19883201196
assessment of copper and zinc status of farm horses and training thoroughbreds in south-east queensland.the copper and zinc concentrations in the blood of stabled thoroughbred horses and in australian stock horses mares at pasture, either late pregnant or lactating were determined by an atomic absorption spectroscopic method. the plasma concentration of the trace elements in these apparently normal horses were generally below the "normal" range. the plasma copper, caeruloplasmin copper, whole blood copper and plasma zinc concentrations in the stabled thoroughbreds were 0.76 +/- 0.19 micrograms/ml ...19883196250
prevalence and intensity of non-strongyle intestinal parasites of horses in northern queensland.a quantitative post-mortem study of 57 horses from northern queensland was done to determine the prevalence and intensity of non-strongyle intestinal parasites. the following species (% prevalence) were found: draschia megastoma (39%); habronema muscae (43%); gasterophilus intestinalis (34%), g. nasalis (30%); parascaris equorum (15%); strongyloides westeri (6%); probstmayria vivipara (2%); oxyuris equi (26%); anoplocephala magna (2%); a. perfoliata (32%). mean parasite numbers of individual spe ...19892930389
cattle tick (boophilus microplus) in victoria on horses from queensland. 200212180889
vector competence of australian mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) for japanese encephalitis virus.australian mosquitoes were evaluated for their ability to become infected with and transmit a torres strait strain of japanese encephalitis virus. mosquitoes, which were obtained from either laboratory colonies and collected using centers for disease control and prevention light traps baited with co2 and octenol or reared from larvae, were infected by feeding on a blood/sucrose solution containing 10(4.5 +/- 0.1) porcine stable-equine kidney (ps-ek) tissue culture infectious dose50/mosquito of t ...200312597658
seasonal translation of equine strongyle infective larvae to herbage in tropical australia.longevity in faeces, migration to and survival on herbage of mixed strongyle infective larvae (approximately 70% cyathostomes: 30% large strongyles) from experimentally deposited horse faeces was studied in the dry tropical region of north queensland for up to 2 years. larvae were recovered from faeces deposited during hot dry weather for a maximum of 12 weeks, up to 32 weeks in cool conditions, but less than 8 weeks in hot wet summer. translation to herbage was mainly limited to the hot wet sea ...19892815535
identification of gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis in queensland. 19892619658
control of equine infectious anaemia on a large northern queensland farm. 19892494979
osteodystrophia fibrosa in horses at pasture in queensland: field and laboratory observations.horses grazing manily cenchrus ciliaris and/or panicum maximum var. trichoglume pastures on over 30 properties in southern central queensland developed lesions of osteodystrophia fibrosa. horses on individual properties in coastal queensland grazing setaria anceps, brachiaria mutica or pennisetum clandestinum also developed the disease. ill-thrift, lameness, and fibrous swellings of nasal bones, maxillae and mandibles were observed. calcium and phosphorus levels of pasture were normal but all th ...19761267731
brown snake bite in horses in south-eastern queensland. 19751177238
the prevalence of antibodies to adenoviruses in horses from queensland and new south wales. 19744374922
the evolving story of the equine morbillivirus. 19968894036
negative findings from serological studies of equine morbillivirus in the queensland horse population. 19968894042
investigation of a second focus of equine morbillivirus infection in coastal queensland. 19968894043
the retrospective diagnosis of a second outbreak of equine morbillivirus infection. 19968894044
sero-surveying wildlife: a needle in a haystack? 19968894047
investigations into the biology of three 'phycomycotic' agents pathogenic for horses in australia.although 'phycomycosis' is a common disease of horses in northern australia little is known about the causative fungi. in this paper the laboratory methods for diagnosis are described. these revealed 38 cases caused by pythium sp. (hyphomyces destruens), 6 cases caused by basidiobolus haptosporus and 2 caused by conidiobolus coronatus. laboratory studies on the chemotatic behaviour of zoospores of pythium sp. showed that they were strongly attracted to both animal hairs and plant tissue. because ...19836682179
of viruses, horses and men. 19957603369
a survey of aged horses in queensland, australia. part 2: clinical signs and owners' perceptions of health and welfare.to describe the prevalence and risk factors for clinical signs of disease and owner-reported health or welfare issues of aged horses in queensland, australia.201021091457
infection of humans and horses by a newly described morbillivirus.to describe the clinical and epidemiological features of an outbreak of a viral infection affecting humans and horses.19957603375
clinical observations on equine phycomycosis.during a clinical study of equine phycomycosis in tropical northern australia 3 specific forms of phycomycosis were identified. of 266 cases diagnosed in 5 different laboratories, hyphomycosis caused by hyphomyces destruens was responsible for 76.7%, basidiobolomycosis caused by basidiobolus haptosporus for 18.0%, and entomophthoramycosis caused by conidiobolus coronatus for 5.3%. most cases of hyphomycosis were observed between march and july, that is after the monsoonal wet summer, but were ca ...19826890342
the prevalence and epizootiology of salmonellosis among groups of horses in south east queensland.over a 3-year period, 1178 faecal samples were cultured from 462 horses admitted to the equine clinic of the university of queensland; 185 samples were positive for salmonella yielding 213 isolations consisting of 21 serotypes. s. anatum was the predominant serotype isolated (54%) followed by s. ohio (11.27%) and s. typhimurium (9.4%). one hundred and ten horses (23.81%) were positive on one or more occasion, and 42 (9.09%) on more than one occasion. s. anatum was the most common serotype isolat ...19817236142
serologic evidence for the presence in pteropus bats of a paramyxovirus related to equine morbillivirus. 19968903239
a survey of antibody to 10 arboviruses (koongol group, mapputta group and ungrouped) isolated in queensland. 19705533929
hendra (equine morbillivirus)hendra has been recognized in australia as a new zoonotic disease of horses since 1994/5 and subsequent work has shown that the viral agent is endemic in certain species of fruit bat. the hendra virus is the type species of a new genus within the sub-family paramyxovirinae, which also contains another newly identified zoonotic bat virus, namely nipah. it is assumed that contact with bats has led to the hendra virus being transferred to horses on each of the three separate incidents that have bee ...200011061954
identification and molecular characterization of hendra virus in a horse in queensland. 200010840579
a morbillivirus that caused fatal disease in horses and humans.a morbillivirus has been isolated and added to an increasing list of emerging viral diseases. this virus caused an outbreak of fatal respiratory disease in horses and humans. genetic analyses show it to be only distantly related to the classic morbilliviruses rinderpest, measles, and canine distemper. when seen by electron microscopy, viruses had 10- and 18-nanometer surface projections that gave them a "double-fringed" appearance. the virus induced syncytia that developed in the endothelium of ...19957701348
characterisation of wongorr virus, an australian orbivirus.sequence analyses of vp3 gene segments of wongorr virus isolates from the northern territory of australia were compared with the cognate gene segments from picola and paroo river viruses. previous serological investigations had demonstrated some relationships between these viruses, however vp3 gene sequence and phylogenetic analyses placed these viruses within the same serogroup which was distinct from other described orbivirus serogroups. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was developed for the ...19968879140
a fatal case of hendra virus infection in a horse in north queensland: clinical and epidemiological features. 200010840578
clinicians and guidelines: leading a horse to water.. 200111297111
newly discovered viruses of flying foxes.flying foxes have been the focus of research into three newly described viruses from the order mononegavirales, namely hendra virus (hev), menangle virus and australian bat lyssavirus (abl). early investigations indicate that flying foxes are the reservoir host for these viruses. in 1994, two outbreaks of a new zoonotic disease affecting horses and humans occurred in queensland. the virus which was found to be responsible was called equine morbillivirus (emv) and has since been renamed hev. inve ...199910501164
clonal complex pseudomonas aeruginosa in horses.pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with infectious endometritis in horses. although infectious endometritis is often considered a venereal infection, there is relatively limited genotypic-based evidence to support this mode of transmission. the study sought to determine the relatedness between genital p. aeruginosa isolates collected from a limited geographical region using molecular strain typing. enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus pcr typing was performed on 93 isolates collecte ...201021183294
pimelea trichostachya poisoning (st george disease) in horses.a dense population of pimelea trichostachya plants (family thymelaeaceae) in pasture poisoned a horse herd in southern inland queensland in october-november 2005. plant density was 2 to 45 g wet weight/m(2) (mean 16 g/m(2)) from 5 to 69 plants/m(2) (mean 38 plants/m(2)) representing 3 to 20% (mean 9%) of the volume of pasture on offer. ten of 35 mares, fillies and geldings were affected. clinical signs were loss of body weight, profound lethargy, serous nasal discharge, severe watery diarrhoea a ...200717470070
cause of fatal outbreak in horses and humans traced. 19957701338
equine influenza in australia. 200717982150
a survey of aged horses in queensland, australia. part 1: management and preventive health care.to describe management practices and routine preventive care of aged horses in queensland, australia, including effects of owner characteristics, affiliation to an equestrian group and retirement of the horse.201020958281
analysis of local spread of equine influenza in the park ridge region of queensland.in 2007, an incursion of equine influenza (ei) occurred in australia. accurate maps of property boundaries were used to examine the pattern and mechanism of local spread of ei. this study focussed on a cluster of infected premises (ips) at park ridge, a peri-urban suburb 26 km south of brisbane, queensland. the cluster recorded 437 ips and 81% of these were not contiguous to a previously ip. the mean distance from each new ip to the closest previous ip was 0.85 +/- 1.50 km with a range of 0.01-1 ...200919200296
ava/eva members contribute to successful end to equine influenza crisis. 200818304045
undergraduate veterinary students' perceptions of the usefulness, focus, and application of epidemiology before and after epidemiology courses.student perception of the relevance of a topic is known to influence learning outcomes. to determine student perceptions of the usefulness, focus, and application of epidemiology, we conducted a study at two australian veterinary schools in 2005. veterinary students in year 3 at the university of sydney and in year 5 at the university of queensland completed a self-administered questionnaire at the commencement and conclusion of an epidemiology course. at both universities, while over 95% of stu ...200920054079
hendra virus under the microscope. 200515971804
Investigation of the climatic and environmental context of hendra virus spillover events 1994-2010.Hendra virus is a recently emerged bat-borne zoonotic agent with high lethality in horses and humans in Australia. This is a rare disease and the determinants of bat to horse transmission, including the factors that bring these hosts together at critical times, are poorly understood. In this cross-disciplinary study climatic and vegetation primary productivity variables are compared for the dispersed and heterogenic 1994-2010 outbreak sites. The significant occurrence of spillover events within ...201122145039
zoonoses control. equine morbillivirus in queensland. 19969238415
human hendra virus encephalitis associated with equine outbreak, australia, 2008.a recent hendra virus outbreak at a veterinary clinic in brisbane, queensland, australia, involved 5 equine and 2 human infections. in contrast to previous outbreaks, infected horses had predominantly encephalitic, rather than respiratory, signs. after an incubation period of 9-16 days, influenza-like illnesses developed in the 2 persons before progressing to encephalitis; 1 died. both patients were given ribavirin. basal serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels were 10-13 mg/l after intravenous adm ...201020113550
internet-based survey of horse owners for mortality and morbidity related to equine influenza in the 2007 australian epidemic.anecdotally, some sections of the horse community were under the impression that there was a high mortality rate in horses in 2007 because of the ei epidemic. a survey of horse deaths in the hunter valley of new south wales (nsw) in 2007 indicated that there were few infections and deaths attributable to equine influenza (ei) infections in foals, but other authors found a very high seroprevalence across all age classes. this study aimed to generate objective information on mortality and morbidit ...201121711277
alighting and feeding behaviour of tabanid flies on horses, kangaroos and pigs.successful mechanical transmission of surra between animals by tabanid flies (diptera: tabanidae) depends to a large extent on the blood-feeding behaviour of the tabanid species prevalent in the area. we studied tabanid-host interactions in australia to better predict risk of surra transmission and design intervention strategies. at least six tabanid species were observed alighting on horses, pigs and kangaroos, but the most abundant were tabanus pallipennis macquart, pseudotabanus silvester ber ...201020153116
equine influenza: a clinical perspective in centennial parklands equestrian centre.the clinical signs of horses diagnosed with equine influenza (ei) at centennial parklands equestrian centre (cpec) and the events surrounding their diagnosis are described. this was the site of the first case of ei diagnosed outside of the eastern creek animal quarantine station. the clinical data demonstrate the rapid spread of the disease after a sufficient viral load had developed from the initial cases within cpec.201121711272
emerging tropical diseases in australia. part 5. hendra virus.hendra virus (hev) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the brisbane suburb of hendra, australia. the affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. the virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus mo ...201121294944
epidemic curve and hazard function for occurrence of clinical equine influenza in a closed population of horses at a 3-day event in southern queensland, australia, 2007.the risk of individuals becoming infected during an epidemic of infectious disease can vary as the disease progresses. monitoring this risk may provide information about the dynamics of transmission. this study describes the epidemic curve for an epidemic of equine influenza (ei) in a closed population of horses predominantly immunologically na+»ve to ei at a 3-day event at morgan park in southern queensland, australia. the hazard function suggested that a subset of horses were at reduced risk o ...201121711298
zoonotic disease in australia caused by a novel member of the paramyxoviridae.twenty-three horses and three humans in queensland, australia, were infected with a novel member of the paramyxoviridae family of viruses in two geographically distinct outbreaks. two of the humans died-one died of rapid-onset respiratory illness, and the other died of encephalitis. the third infected human developed an influenza-like illness and made a complete recovery. all infected humans had close contact with sick horses. since the two outbreaks occurred at sites 1,000 km apart and no known ...19989675464
the august 2007 equine influenza response management framework.this section outlines the most important issues addressed in the management of the response in the two infected states, new south wales and queensland. there were differences in the management of the response between the states for logistic, geographic and organisation structural reasons. issues included the use of control centres, information centres, the problems associated with the lack of trained staff to undertake all the roles, legislative issues, controls of horse movements, the availabil ...201121711301
the first five days: field and laboratory investigations during the early stages of the equine influenza outbreak in australia, 2007.until august 2007, australia was one of only three countries internationally recognised to be free of equine influenza (ei). this report documents the diagnosis of the first cases of ei in australian horses and summarises the investigations that took place over the next 5 days. during that time, a multifocal outbreak was identified across eastern new south wales and south-eastern queensland. the use of an influenza type a pan-reactive real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction all ...201121711269
the role of land use patterns in limiting the spread of equine influenza in queensland during the 2007 epidemic.in 2007, an epizootic of equine influenza (ei) occurred in australia, involving parts of the states of queensland and new south wales. following an extensive control program, the disease was eradicated within 4 months, after infecting more than 75,000 horses on over 10,000 properties. in queensland, examination of land use patterns revealed that the majority of infected premises (89.5%) were located in one of three land use classes viz. rural residential, residential-unspecified or grazing natur ...200919486310
meteorological effects on the daily activity patterns of tabanid biting flies in northern queensland, australia.information on the daily activity patterns of tabanid flies is important in the development of strategies that decrease the risk of pathogens transmitted by them. in addition, this information is useful to maximize numbers of tabanids trapped during short-term studies and to target feeding behavior studies of certain tabanid species to their times of peak activity. the current study examined the effects of various meteorological factors on the daily activity patterns of common tropical species o ...201120636479
distances travelled by feral horses in 'outback' australia.the distance travelled by australian feral horses in an unrestricted environment has not previously been determined. it is important to investigate horse movement in wilderness environments to establish baseline data against which the movement of domestically managed horses and wild equids can be compared.201021059064
clinical impression of equine influenza at morgan park and the western region of brisbane, queensland, australia.the clinical signs of horses infected with equine influenza in two queensland locations, morgan park recreational grounds at warwick, and the western region of brisbane, are described and compared. clinical signs were observed to be more severe, and treatment more intensive, in horses in stressful settings.201121711273
the role of land use patterns in limiting the spread of equine influenza in queensland during the 2007 australian epidemic. 201121711299
clinical signs of equine influenza in a closed population of horses at a 3-day event in southern queensland, australia.this report describes the clinical signs of equine influenza (ei) during an epidemic in a closed, predominantly immunologically na+»ve population of horses. it included 254 study horses, few of which exhibited all three signs of pyrexia, nasal discharge and cough simultaneously. we conclude that although the majority of affected horses exhibit temperature patterns resembling those most often described in the published literature, clinicians should be aware that other profiles are quite common.201121711274
responding to the equine influenza outbreak: challenges from a laboratory perspective.the unique challenges that laboratories in queensland and new south wales faced during the response to the 2007 equine influenza outbreak and how these were managed are described.201121711281
significant features of the epidemiology of equine influenza in queensland, australia, 2007.an outbreak of equine influenza (ei) caused by influenza a h3n8 subtype virus occurred in the australian states of queensland and new south wales in august 2007. infection in the australian horse population was associated with the introduction of infection by horses from overseas. the first case of ei in queensland was detected on 25 august 2007 at an equestrian sporting event. infection subsequently spread locally and to other clusters through horse movements prior to the implementation of an o ...201121711297
equine herpesvirus infections in yearlings in south-east queensland.twelve nasal swabs were collected from yearling horses with respiratory distress and tested for equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equid herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) by real-time pcr targeting the glycoprotein b gene. all samples were negative for ehv-1; however, 3 were positive for ehv-4. when these samples were tested for ehv-2 and ehv-5 by pcr, all samples were negative for ehv-2 and 11 were positive for ehv-5. all three samples that were positive for ehv-4 were also positive for ehv-5. these three sam ...200818677574
surveillance and prevention in a non-affected state: victoria.the equine influenza outbreak detected in august 2007 in new south wales and queensland did not enter victoria, which was, however, considered at risk because of its sizable border with new south wales. accordingly, victoria implemented a response plan to prevent disease entry and enable early detection of any disease. horse movement restrictions, surveillance strategies and public awareness formed a large part of this response.201121711300
the equine influenza epidemic in australia: spatial and temporal descriptive analyses of a large propagating epidemic.australia experienced a large outbreak of equine influenza in august 2007. nearly 10000 premises were infected during the epidemic. we used spatial and temporal analytical techniques to describe the epidemic, to quantify important descriptors of the epidemic, and to generate hypotheses about how the epidemic progressed and which control tools assisted in eradication. spatio-temporal epidemic curves revealed three phases in the epidemic: dispersal, local spread and disease fade out. spatial dispe ...200919748691
Evidence of Endemic Hendra Virus Infection in Flying-Foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus)-Implications for Disease Risk Management.This study investigated the seroepidemiology of Hendra virus in a spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus) population in northern Australia, near the location of an equine and associated human Hendra virus infection in late 2004. The pattern of infection in the population was investigated using a serial cross-sectional serological study over a 25-month period, with blood sampled from 521 individuals over six sampling sessions. Antibody titres to the virus were determined by virus neutrali ...201122194920
evaluating the effectiveness of the response to equine influenza in the australian outbreak and the potential role of early vaccination.to use modelling and epidemiological analyses to assess the effectiveness of control strategies employed during the equine influenza outbreak and determine if early vaccination might have had a beneficial effect.201121711314
Experimental infection of horses with hendra virus/australia/horse/2008/redlands.Hendra virus (HeV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus harbored by Australian flying foxes with sporadic spillovers directly to horses. Although the mode and critical control points of HeV spillover to horses from flying foxes, and the risk for transmission from infected horses to other horses and humans, are poorly understood, we successfully established systemic HeV disease in 3 horses exposed to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands by the oronasal route, a plausible route for ...201122172152
Hendra virus infection dynamics in Australian fruit bats.Hendra virus is a recently emerged zoonotic agent in Australia. Since first described in 1994, the virus has spilled from its wildlife reservoir (pteropid fruit bats, or 'flying foxes') on multiple occasions causing equine and human fatalities. We undertook a three-year longitudinal study to detect virus in the urine of free-living flying foxes (a putative route of excretion) to investigate Hendra virus infection dynamics. Pooled urine samples collected off plastic sheets placed beneath roosting ...201122174865
equine influenza: patterns of disease and seroprevalence in thoroughbred studs and implications for vaccination.this study included 10 large thoroughbred horse studs in the upper hunter valley of new south wales and in southeast queensland, australia. the aims were to describe the ei epidemic in studs in the special restricted area (purple zone) of nsw, to estimate seroprevalence among different groups of horses on these studs and to look for evidence of exposure to ei virus in horses on 'vaccinated' studs in southeast queensland that were thought to have remained free of infection. as serology results fr ...201121711311
significant features of the epidemiology of equine influenza in new south wales, australia, 2007.equine influenza (ei) was first diagnosed in the australian horse population on 24 august 2007 at centennial park equestrian centre (cpec) in sydney, new south wales (nsw), australia. by then, the virus had already spread to many properties in nsw and southern queensland. the outbreak in nsw affected approximately 6000 premises populated by approximately 47,000 horses. analyses undertaken by the epidemiology section, a distinct unit within the planning section of the state disease control headqu ...201121711291
crotalaria medicaginea associated with horse deaths in northern australia: new pyrrolizidine alkaloids.crotalaria medicaginea has been implicated in horse poisoning in grazing regions of central-west queensland, which resulted in the deaths of more than 35 horses from hepatotoxicosis in 2010. liver pathology was suggestive of pyrrolizidine alkaloidosis, and we report here the isolation of two previously uncharacterized pyrrolizidine alkaloids from c. medicaginea plant specimens collected from pastures where the horses died. the first alkaloid was shown by mass spectometric and nmr analyses to be ...201121899365
The importance of location in contact networks: Describing early epidemic spread using spatial social network analysis.This paper explores methods for describing the dynamics of early epidemic spread and the clustering of infected cases in space and time when an underlying contact network structure is influencing disease spread. A novel method of describing an epidemic is presented that applies social network analysis to characterise the importance of both spatial location and contact network position. This method enables the development of a model of how these clusters formed, incorporating spatial clustering a ...201121852007
role of personal decontamination in preventing the spread of equine influenza.during the 2007 equine influenza (ei) outbreak, infected horses were quarantined at morgan park recreational grounds (mprg) near warwick, queensland. some individuals caring for horses were reported to have made return journeys between mprg and home properties containing other horses during the time there was active infection at mprg.201121711308
unexpected result of hendra virus outbreaks for veterinarians, queensland, australia.a qualitative study of equine veterinarians and allied staff from queensland, australia, showed that veterinarians are ceasing equine practice because of fears related to hendra virus. their decisions were motivated by personal safety and legal liability concerns.201222261152
hendra virus: what do we know?hendra virus infection is an emerging infectious disease that is not well understood. most cases of hendra virus infection have occurred in queensland, with one case in a horse in nsw. hendra virus infection has a high mortality rate in horses and humans and as cases could occur anywhere in australia it is important to be ready for prompt action should an outbreak occur in nsw. this paper: reviews the current knowledge on hendra virus infection including methods for preventing the disease; expla ...201121781619
overview of the epidemiology of equine influenza in the australian outbreak.this overview of the equine influenza (ei) epidemic as it occurred in two australian states, new south wales and queensland, in 2007 describes the functions and activities of the epidemiology teams that were engaged during the outbreak and also identifies key features of the epidemiology of ei during the outbreak.201121711290
nuisance flies on australian cattle feedlots: immature populations.species composition, seasonality and distribution of immature fly populations on a southern queensland feedlot during 2001-2003 were determined. similar data were collected on feedlots in central new south wales and central queensland. the fly species recovered in the highest numbers were musca domestica l. (diptera: muscidae), stomoxys calcitrans l. (diptera: muscidae) and physiphora clausa macquart (diptera: ulidiidae). houseflies were the dominant species at all feedlots. houseflies preferred ...201122035065
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