drainage a factor in anthrax outbreak. 19979196812
anthrax explodes in an australian summer.anthrax occurred on 83 properties in an area of north central victoria between 26 january and 26 march in the summer of 1997. anthrax had not been recorded in the outbreak area since records were initiated in 1914, although anthrax did occur in the general area in the 1880s to 1890s. standard australian control measures were applied to the properties, including quarantine, tracing movements of animals on and off affected properties, secure disposal of carcases by burning, enhanced surveillance o ...199910475947
experiences with vaccination and epidemiological investigations on an anthrax outbreak in australia in 1997.between january and february 1997, there was a severe outbreak of anthrax on 83 properties in north-central victoria, australia. vaccination was used as a major tool to control the outbreak by establishing a vaccination buffer zone 30 km by 20 km. in all, 78, 649 cattle in 457 herds were vaccinated in a three week program. in the face of the outbreak, there was a delay before vaccination was able to stop deaths. in the 10 days following vaccination 144 cases of confirmed anthrax occurred and 38 ...199910475972
australia's notifiable diseases status, 2001: annual report of the national notifiable diseases surveillance 2001 there were 104,187 notifications of communicable diseases in australia reported to the national notifiable diseases surveillance system (nndss). the number of notifications in 2001 was an increase of 16 per cent of those reported in 2000 (89,740) and the largest annual total since the nndss commenced in 1991. in 2001, nine new diseases were added to the list of diseases reported to nndss and four diseases were removed. the new diseases were cryptosporidiosis, laboratory-confirmed influen ...200312725505
disease control during the colonial period in australia.the first permanent european settlers of australia arrived in 1788 to establish a penal colony at sydney, new south wales (nsw). as the colony grew and wool production increased, more free settlers and emancipists developed farming in inland australia. during the 1840s veterinarians commenced arriving in small numbers but they were not closely associated with the development and execution of disease control programs, which was left to lay inspectors of stock. the arrival of william tyson kendall ...201121696369
background frequency of bacillus species at the canberra airport: a 12 month study.anthrax, caused by bacillus anthracis, is a naturally occurring disease in australia. whilst mainly limited to livestock in grazing regions of victoria and new south wales, movement of people, stock and vehicles means b. anthracis could be present outside this region. of particular interest is the "background" prevalence of b. anthracis at transport hubs including airports. the aim of this study was to determine the background frequency of b. anthracis and the commonly used hoax agent bacillus t ...201526298416
redefining the australian anthrax belt: modeling the ecological niche and predicting the geographic distribution of bacillus anthracis.the ecology and distribution of b. anthracis in australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast queensland through the centre of new south wales and into northern victoria. this definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the ...201627280981
a case of human anthrax in victoria.a human case of anthrax was identified through surveillance of knackery workers who had been exposed to infected cattle. the outbreak in cattle has affected 38 herds in the stanhope/tatura area of central northern victoria. the human case, a 39 year old male, was treated in hospital and is recovering. surveillance of other knackery workers has now been completed, and no other cases were found. public health measures are in place to prevent further human cases.19979079594
bacillus anthracis evolution and epidemiology.bacillus anthracis is a pathogen that is widely distributed around the globe. however, this great distribution is not accompanied by great genetic diversity. although subtle morphological and biochemical differences exist, the underlying genetic basis for this plasticity is not known. indeed, very few single nucleotide differences have been detected among isolates and the only documented high variable sequences are associated with variable number tandem repeated (vntr) sequences. the differences ...200212224522
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