Publications

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observations on rinderpest in kenya, 1986-1989.rinderpest was confirmed in kenya in 1986, 1987, 1988 and 1989. three epidemiologically distinct events appear to have occurred: repeated outbreaks in west pokot district related to cross-border movement of stock, an outbreak in marsabit district in 1987 (thought to have been caused by illegal movement of cattle, possibly in vehicles, from countries further north) and a series of related outbreaks in and near nairobi between 1988 and 1989 due to the unauthorized movement from abattoirs and holdi ...19921472724
estimation of heritability of susceptibility to infection with theileria parva in the tick rhipicephalus appendiculatus.heritability of susceptibility to infection with theileria parva was estimated from full sib families of rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. male and female ticks of 2 stocks were mated singly. nineteen full sib families of the muguga stock and 17 full sib families of the kiambu stock were obtained. nymphae of these families were fed on cattle infected with t. parva so that the ticks became replete on days 16 and 17 after infection when the blood was parasitaemic with intraerythrocytic piroplasm ...19957609988
antibiotic residues in milk received by dairy cooperative societies in kiambu district, kenya.a survey of antibiotic inhibitors in milk received by dairy cooperative societies in kiambu district was done qualitatively using microbiological assay method. no antibacterial inhibitors were detected in all the samples tested. informal discussions indicated a high level of awareness of the withdrawal requirement of veterinary drugs after animal treatment in both farmers and the management staff of dairy cooperative societies. the results show that milk from this area is free of antibiotic resi ...19947821239
coliform counts and escherichia coli in raw commercial milk from dairy farmers in kiambu district, kenya.the rate of contamination with coliforms and incidence of escherichia coli (e. coli) in raw milk supplied by farmers to dairy cooperative societies for marketing was investigated. about forty two (42.2%) percent of the milk samples from farmers cans and 10.3% of samples from cooperative cans were found to be free of coliforms, while 89.5% of the samples from farmers cans and 50% samples from cooperative cans could be considered to be of good quality with no more than 50,000 coliforms/ml of milk. ...19947821241
variations in the prevalence of antibody to brucella infection in cattle by farm, area and district in kenya.variations in the sero-prevalence of antibody to brucella infection by cow, farm and area factors were investigated for three contrasting districts in kenya: samburu, an arid and pastoral area: kiambu, a tropical highland area; and kilifi, a typical tropical coastal area. cattle were selected by a two-stage cluster sampling procedure and visited once between august 1991 and 1992. schall's algorithm, a statistical model suitable for multi-level analysis was used. using this model, older age, free ...19979042033
assessing infections at multiple levels of aggregation.the patterns of sero-prevalence of antibodies to four infectious diseases, representing a broad range of pathogens (bacteria: brucellosis; mycoplasma: contagious bovine pleuropneumonia; viruses: infectious bovine rhinotracheitis; protozoa: trypanosomosis) were investigated at three levels of organization (farm, area and district). three contrasting districts in kenya were compared: an arid and pastoral area (samburu); a tropical highland area (kiambu), and a tropical coastal area (kilifi). cattl ...19979234402
the prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in cattle in smallholder dairy farms in murang'a district, kenya; a cross-sectional study.the most important tick-borne disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern africa is east coast fever (ecf) caused by theileria parva and transmitted by the tick rhipicephalus appendiculatus. other less-important tick-borne diseases in cattle are benign theileriosis caused by theileria mutans, babesiosis caused by babesia bigemina, anaplasmosis caused by anaplasma marginale and cowdriosis caused by cowdria ruminatum. in murang's district, central province of kenya, five agroecological zone ...19979234414
assessment of bovine hoof conformation and its association with lameness, animal factors and management practices on small-scale dairy farms in kiambu district, kenya.digital health and conformation were assessed in 216 dairy cattle on 78 randomly selected small-scale farms. for each cow, gait was assessed and the digits examined in detail. hoof measurements (angle and length of the dorsal hoof wall, heel depth and hoof-base area) were also made. hoof measurements varied most between individual cattle. dorsal angle was correlated with heel depth (r = 0.53; p = 0.001) and dorsal length (r = -0.40; p = 0.001). the hoof-base area was correlated with the dorsal l ...19979352562
a comparison of different models for assessing variations in the sero-prevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by farm, area and district in kenya.the relative variability of the sero-prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) due to cow, farm, and agroecological area levels were investigated for three contrasting districts in kenya: samburu, an arid and pastoral area; kiambu, a tropical highland area; and kilifi, a typical tropical coastal area. cattle were selected by two-stage cluster sampling and visited once between august 1991 and 1992. data on animal, farm, and area factors were analyzed using schall's algor ...19979443329
cost analysis of immunisation against east coast fever on smallholder dairy farms in kenya.a spreadsheet model was developed and used to estimate the total cost of immunising cattle against east coast fever (ecf) based on the infection-and-treatment method. using data from an immunisation trial carried out on 102 calves and yearlings on 64 farms in the githunguri division, kiambu district, kenya, a reference base scenario of a mean herd of five animals, a 10% rate of reaction to immunisation and a 2-day interval monitoring regimen (a total of 10 farm visits) was simulated. under these ...19989618743
efficacy of ivermectin delivered from a sustained-release bolus against gastrointestinal nematodes in field grazing calves in nyandarua district of kenya.the effect of ivermectin delivered by an orally administered prototype sustained-release (ivm sr) bolus was evaluated over a period of 140 days using 12 steers aged approximately 8-10 months and ranging in weight from 150 to 175 kg. they were allocated to two groups of 6 steers each by restricted randomization based on their liveweight. each of the treatment group received an ivm sr bolus designed to deliver 12 mg of the ivermectin/day for 135 days. the other group was designated as non-medicate ...19989653995
an abattoir survey of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in the central highlands of kenya.the gastrointestinal tracts of 672 crossbred cattle were obtained from various abattoirs in kiambu district, kenya from august 1992 to july 1993, and examined for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. eight nematode species were found in 583 (86.8%) of the animals. the nematodes were, in order of prevalence: haemonchus placei (67.0%), cooperia pectinata (53.0%), cooperia punctata (41.7%), oesophagostomum radiatum (38.4%), trichostronglyus axei (24.3%), nematodirus helvetianus (19.6%), tric ...19989778778
impact of mastitis control measures on milk production and mastitis indicators in smallholder dairy farms in kiambu district, kenya.bovine mastitis and mastitis control were investigated on smallholder farms in central kenya. after an initial observational study, a clinical trial to assess the impact of three different mastitis control strategies--(1) improved udder hygiene, (2) treatment of subclinical cases, and (3) a combination of these--was conducted on 100 randomly selected farms with 332 lactating cows. before the implementation of control measures, the milk yield was low (mean 6.5 kg/day; median 6 kg/day) and somatic ...199910599130
the prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccidial infections in dairy cattle in central kenya.a survey of gastrointestinal parasite infections of young (< 6 months old), immature (6-12 months old) and adult (> 12 months old) dairy cattle on 16 farms in kiambu district, kenya was conducted during a dry season (september 1991 to january 1992) and during a wet season (march to july 1992). the survey was based on monthly coproparasitological examination of cohorts and worm counts in tracer calves. the effects of age, sex, farm and season on the prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccid ...200010703753
teat lesions and their relationship to intramammary infections on small-scale dairy farms in kiambu district in kenya.mammary gland quarters of 139 lactating dairy cows from small-scale dairy herds were examined visually and by palpation for teat lesions and by california mastitis test (cmt) and bacterial culture for subclinical mastitis. teat lesions were observed in 97 teats. these included teat chaps (39.2%), teat papillomas (23.7%), teat erosions (22.7%), teat fistulae (5.1%), inverted teats (5.1%) and blocked teats (4.2%). according to the cmt, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 33.4% in all the ma ...199910855839
the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy cattle in central kenya.the epidemiology of h. placei and of other gastrointestinal nematodes in yearling dairy cattle was examined on two farms in kiambu district, central kenya during each of 13 one-month periods from april 1993 to april 1994. on each farm, 32 newly weaned dairy calves were given a single dose of albendazole and then placed on experimental pastures. twelve of the animals were designated for bimonthly slaughter (n = 2) and analysis of worm population characteristics and 20 were designated for blood an ...200111360797
the prevalence and economic importance of bovine fasciolosis in kenya--an analysis of abattoir data.a retrospective study covering a period of 10 years (1990-1999) was carried out using post mortem meat inspection records at the veterinary department headquarters at kabete to determine the prevalence and economic importance of bovine fasciolosis in kenya. meat inspection records from abattoirs in 38 districts distributed over seven out of the eight provinces of kenya were examined. prevalence of fasciolosis was calculated as the number of cattle found to be infected with fasciola, expressed as ...200212625377
antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and meat.to determine the frequency of resistance of staphylococcus aureus to various antimicrobial agents, and the relationship between antimicrobial resistance of the isolates and carriage of plasmids.200012862134
characterisation of theileria parva isolates from kiambu district, kenya.four theileria parva isolates from muguga area of kiambu district, kenya, were used to establish schizont-infected cell lines. their protein antigens were then separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds page). the isolates were subsequently subjected to protein analysis and characterisation by the western immunoblotting technique. probing for the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (pim) was done using monoclonal antibody no. 4. sds page detected up to 20 protei ...200415135864
rift valley fever outbreak in livestock in kenya, 2006-2007.we analyzed the extent of livestock involvement in the latest rift valley fever (rvf) outbreak in kenya that started in december 2006 and continued until june 2007. when compared with previous rvf outbreaks in the country, the 2006-07 outbreak was the most extensive in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels affecting thousands of animals in 29 of 69 administrative districts across six of the eight provinces. this contrasted with the distribution of approximately 700 human rvf cases in the country, whe ...201020682907
factors that determine use of breeding services by smallholder dairy farmers in central kenya.this study examined the determinants of smallholder dairy farmers' use of breeding services in nyandarua and kiambu districts, central kenya. data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 140 randomly selected respondents. the breeding services considered were artificial insemination (ai), natural bull service, or a combination of ai and bull services. a multinomial logit econometric model was used fitting ai as the base category. there was a negative relationship between higher lev ...201120703810
the influence of supplementation with urea-molasses blocks on weight gain and nematode parasitism of dairy calves in central kenya.the effect of feeding urea-molasses blocks (umb) on the growth and gastrointestinal nematode parasitism of dairy weaner calves grazing on the same pasture was investigated on a farm in thika district, central kenya. twenty-six female calves, with an average age of 9 months, were initially treated orally with albendazole (10 mg/kg body weight) and assigned into two groups: animals in group i were fed urea-molasses blocks (umb) prepared using a cold process and those in group ii were the controls. ...200415222735
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