Publications

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epidemiological studies on schistosoma bovis in iringa region, tanzania.various aspects of the epidemiology of schistosoma bovis were studied over a one-year period in iringa region, tanzania. an abattoir survey revealed an overall prevalence rate of 30.8% in cattle and 3.8% in goats in the area, and field studies on two dairy farms both providing good opportunities for schistosome transmission provided information concerning the transmission ecology of s. bovis in relation to different types of grazing and water supply. the traditional management system on one farm ...19862874712
liverfluke survey in zebu cattle of the iringa region of tanzania and the first finding of the small fluke dicrocoelium hospes (looss). 19705525864
effect of parity, season and fsh treatment on the calving interval of ayrshire cows in the tropics.a total of 607 calving intervals on 99 ayrshire cows with parities from 1 to 10 and belonging to one dairy herd at iringa in the southern highlands of tanzania were analysed to study the effect of parity and season or month of calving on the subsequent calving interval. in addition, 22 calving intervals incorporating a superovulatory cycle were compared with those of 52 controls that had calved around the same period. the average (mean +/- sem) age at first calving was 985 +/- 16 days. the effec ...200010907292
mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of cattle and goats in tanzania.a microbiological study of the mycoplasma flora in the respiratory tracts of cattle and goats in selected regions of tanzania is described. in the examination of cattle, mycoplasmas were isolated from 60 (17.8%) of the 338 examined lung samples, 8 (47.1%) of the 17 lymph nodes, 4 (13.3%) of the 30 pleural fluid samples and 4 (3.9%) of the 103 nasal swabs examined. all the isolates were identified as mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type except for one isolate from pleural fluid ...200011126579
gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous zebu cattle under pastoral and nomadic management systems in the lower plain of the southern highlands of tanzania.this study aimed to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal nematode infections in indigenous zebu cattle in the lower plain (lowland zone) of the southern highlands of tanzania. gastrointestinal tracts were randomly purchased at the iringa regional abattoir and at kihesa and ipogolo slaughter slabs in different seasons of the year. the contents of the abomasum, small intestine and large intestine were processed separately to recover the worms. the results indicated that 140 o ...200314509451
cross-sectional estimation of babesia bovis antibody prevalence in cattle in two contrasting dairying areas in tanzania.the crude prevalence of antibodies to babesia bovis infection in cattle was estimated by serology using indirect elisa during the period january to april, 1999. sera were obtained from 1,395 dairy cattle (of all ages, sexes and breeds) on smallholder farms, the majority being kept under a zero grazing regime. the crude prevalence of antibodies to babesia bovis was 6 % for tanga and 12 % for iringa. the forces of infection based on the age sero-prevalence profile, were estimated at six for iringa ...200415580770
risk factors for tick attachment to smallholder dairy cattle in tanzania.a cross-sectional study was conducted in tanga and iringa regions of tanzania, and a longitudinal study in tanga, to investigate tick-control methods and other factors influencing tick attachment to the cattle of smallholder dairy farms. most farmers reported applying acaricides at intervals of 1-2 weeks, most used acaricides that require on-farm dilution and most farmers incorrectly diluted the acaricides. rhipicephalus appendiculatus and boophilus spp. ticks were those most-frequently encounte ...200415737429
spatial and management factors associated with exposure of smallholder dairy cattle in tanzania to tick-borne pathogens.a cross-sectional study of serum antibody responses of cattle to tick-borne pathogens (theileria parva, theileria mutans,anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina and babesia bovis) was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in tanga and iringa regions of tanzania. seroprevalence was highest for t. parva (48% in iringa and 23% in tanga) and b. bigemina (43% in iringa and 27% in tanga) and lowest for b. bovis (12% in iringa and 6% in tanga). we use spatial and non-spatial models, fitted using classical ...200516023121
seroprevalence estimation and risk factors for a. marginale on smallholder dairy farms in tanzania.a cross-sectional serological survey of a. marginale was conducted on 200 randomly selected smallholder farms in each of the tanga and iringa regions of tanzania between january and april 1999. sera, from dairy cattle of all ages, sexes and breeds were tested for antibodies against a. marginale using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. antibodies to a. marginale were present in cattle throughout the study areas and the overall prevalence was 20% for tanga and 37% for iringa. the force ...200516619876
a comparison of seroprevalence and risk factors for theileria parva and t. mutans in smallholder dairy cattle in the tanga and iringa regions of tanzania.a cross sectional serological survey was carried out in two geographical small-scale dairying areas of tanzania to determine the distribution and prevalence and to quantify risk factors for theileria parva and t. mutans during the period january to april 1999. the prevalence of serum antibodies to these two theileria parasites was determined using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) technique. the results suggest that the parasites are widely distributed through out the two stu ...200717015024
seroprevalence of babesia bigemina in smallholder dairy cattle in tanzania and associated risk factors.variations in the seroprevalence of antibody to babesia bigemina infection by farm and animal level risk factors were investigated for 2 contrasting regions of tanga and iringa in tanzania. tanga is situated in the eastern part of the country and has typical tropical coast climate while iringa is situated in the southern highlands and has a tropical highland climate. two hundred farms from each region were selected using simple random sampling procedure and visited once between january 1999 and ...200717665760
prevalence and determinants of cryptosporidium spp. infection in smallholder dairy cattle in iringa and tanga regions of tanzania.the prevalence of cryptosporidium spp. infection in a cross-sectional study of dairy cattle, from two contrasting dairying regions in tanzania, were determined by staining smears of faecal samples with the modified ziehl-neelsen technique. of the 1 126 faecal samples screened, 19.7% were positive for cryptosporidium spp. the prevalence was lower in tanga region than in iringa region. the prevalence of affected farms was 20% in tanga and 21% in iringa. in both regions, the probability of detectin ...200717708150
prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors in smallholder dairy cows in tanzania.a cross-sectional study was carried out on 200 randomly selected farms in each of the iringa and tanga regions of tanzania to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in dairy cows kept by smallholders. subclinical mastitis was assessed using the california mastitis test (cmt), and by the bacteriological culture of 1500 milk samples collected from 434 clinically normal cows. the percentages of the cows (and quarters) with subclinical mastitis were 75.9 per cent (46.2 per ...200818603630
effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treatments in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and fasciola gigantica in cattle in iringa region, tanzania.a longitudinal field trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treatments in the control of gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes and fasciola gigantica in cattle. a total of 167 cattle (6-18 months) from three large-scale dairy farms, four traditional farms and nine small-scale dairy farms were randomly selected. the selected animals on each farm were ear tagged and allocated into three groups based on live weight and treated as follows: group t4 was treated with al ...200919052899
Spatiosurvival analysis of mortality on smallholder dairy farms in Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania.A combination of survival and spatial analyses was applied to a dataset containing cattle mortalities on smallholder dairy farms in two separate regions (Tanga and Iringa) of Tanzania. Cattle mortality data for the year 1998 were collected retrospectively during the period January to April 1999. The objectives of the current study were, firstly, to quantify the hazard of mortality and, secondly, to investigate whether there was a spatial pattern in the variation that was unaccounted for in the h ...201121935662
risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in tanzania.a retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (iringa and tanga) of tanzania during the period of january to april 1999. a total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from iringa and tanga regions) were included in the study. these animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for tanga and iringa, respectively. the overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 ...201021526740
effectiveness of a community-based strategic anthelmintic treatment programme in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and fasciola gigantica in cattle in kilolo district, tanzania.a longitudinal demonstration project was carried out in 2005/2006 for thirteen months to determine the effectiveness of a strategic community-based worm control (cbwc) programme in the control of gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes and fasciola gigantica in cattle. two villages namely, a cbwc village (ilula-masukanzi) and a village without cbwc (kilolo-luganga) were randomly selected in kilolo district, iringa region of tanzania. animals in both villages were under the traditional management system ...200919190995
clinical and subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy farms in tanzania: risk, intervention and knowledge transfer.in a cross-sectional study of 400 randomly selected smallholder dairy farms in the tanga and iringa regions of tanzania, 14.2% (95% confidence interval (ci)=11.6-17.3) of cows had developed clinical mastitis during the previous year. the point prevalence of subclinical mastitis, defined as a quarter positive by the california mastitis test (cmt) or by bacteriological culture, was 46.2% (95% ci=43.6-48.8) and 24.3% (95% ci=22.2-26.6), respectively. in a longitudinal disease study in iringa, the i ...200616488030
cross-sectional prevalence of helminth infections in cattle on traditional, small-scale and large-scale dairy farms in iringa district, tanzania.a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes and flukes (fasciola and amphistomes) infection in communally grazed traditional cattle, zero-grazed small-scale dairy cattle and intensively grazed large-scale dairy cattle through examination of helminth eggs in faeces. results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit, has a significant influence on the prevalence and intensity of gi nematodes and flukes. the preval ...200616362610
epidemiology of fasciola gigantica and amphistomes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in the southern highlands of tanzania.a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of flukes (fasciola gigantica and amphistomes) on traditional, large-scale and small-scale dairy cattle farms in iringa district, southern highlands of tanzania. coprological examinations of different cohorts for the presence of fluke eggs were recorded monthly. results indicated a significant influence of the type of management on the prevalence of both fasciola and amphistomes. the prevalence of flukes ...200515934638
epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in iringa district, tanzania.a longitudinal study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution and intensity of gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes in traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy cattle farms in iringa district, southern highlands of tanzania. coprological examination of cohorts for gi nematode eggs in faeces, tracer worm counts and pasture larval counts were performed monthly for 1 year. results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit has a significant influence ...200415710529
worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in traditional and dairy cattle farms in the southern highlands of tanzania.worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in 177 cattle farms in iringa district in the southern highlands of tanzania was determined through a questionnaire survey. a total of 76 traditional, 92 small-scale dairy and 9 large-scale dairy cattle farms were included in the survey. results indicated that 87.7% traditional, 97.8% small-scale dairy and 100% large-scale farmers relied solely on the use of anthelmintics, 2.7% traditional farmers used traditional medicines while 9.6% traditional far ...200312732466
distribution, prevalence and intensity of schistosoma bovis infection in cattle in iringa district, tanzania.monthly abattoir, farms and village surveys were carried out to determine the distribution, prevalence and intensity of schistosoma bovis infection in cattle in iringa district in the southern highlands of tanzania between august 1991 to august 1992. abattoir surveys were conducted at the iringa regional abattoir and age, sex, live animal grade and livestock market of origin of each of 342 animals examined were recorded. five grams of the central part of the jejunum were collected from each anim ...19989566095
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