novel rickettsia in ticks, tasmania, australia.a novel rickettsia was detected in ixodes tasmani ticks collected from tasmanian devils. a total of 55% were positive for the citrate synthase gene by quantitative pcr. according to current criteria for rickettsia speciation, this new rickettsia qualifies as candidatus rickettsia tasmanensis, named after the location of its detection.200919861066
body temperatures and activity patterns of tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii) and eastern quolls (dasyurus viverrinus) through a subalpine winter.during a field study of carnivorous dasyurid marsupials in subalpine tasmania, the trapping success for tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii), but not for spotted-tailed quolls (dasyurus maculatus) or eastern quolls (dasyurus viverrinus), was significantly lower when winter weather conditions turned to sleet or snow or when deep snow lay on the ground. this field study was instigated to determine if devils and eastern quolls spend more time in burrows in severe weather conditions and if they e ...20089231376
genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered marsupial sarcophilus harrisii (tasmanian devil).the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) is threatened with extinction because of a contagious cancer known as devil facial tumor disease. the inability to mount an immune response and to reject these tumors might be caused by a lack of genetic diversity within a dwindling population. here we report a whole-genome analysis of two animals originating from extreme northwest and southeast tasmania, the maximal geographic spread, together with the genome from a tumor taken from one of them. a 3.3- ...201121709235
dietary partitioning of australia's two marsupial hypercarnivores, the tasmanian devil and the spotted-tailed quoll, across their shared distributional range.australia's native marsupial fauna has just two primarily flesh-eating 'hypercarnivores', the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) and the spotted-tailed quoll (dasyurus maculatus) which coexist only on the island of tasmania. devil populations are currently declining due to a fatal transmissible cancer. our aim was to analyse the diet of both species across their range in tasmania, as a basis for understanding how devil decline might affect the abundance and distribution of quolls through rel ...201729176811
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium and giardia from the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii).the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in tasmania, australia. tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in tasmania. to prevent extinction of tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the save the tasmanian devil program. this study aimed to assess if conservation management was a ...201728423030
organochlorine pesticide residues in animals of tasmania, australia-1975-77.animals taken in tasmania including duck (anas superciliosa), eel (anguilla australis), english perch (perca fluviatilis), white-faced heron (ardea pacifica), brown trout (salmo trutta), european starling (strunus vulgaris), cat (felis cattus), cormorant (phalacrocorax sp.), mutton bird (puffinus tenuirostris), tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii), rainbow trout (salmo gairdnerii), tasmanian raven (corvus mellori), tench (tinca tinca), and quail (coturnix sp.) were sampled for p,p'-dde, pp,p'- ...1979537866
the impact of disease on the survival and population growth rate of the tasmanian devil.1. we investigated the impact of a recently emerged disease, devil facial tumour disease (dftd), on the survival and population growth rate of a population of tasmanian devils, sarcophilus harrisii, on the freycinet peninsula in eastern tasmania. 2. cormack-jolly-seber and multistate mark-recapture models were employed to investigate the impact of dftd on age- and sex-specific apparent survival and transition rates. disease impact on population growth rate was investigated using reverse-time mar ...200717714271
genetic diversity and population structure of tasmanian devils, the largest marsupial carnivore.genetic diversity and population structure were investigated across the core range of tasmanian devils (sarcophilus laniarius; dasyuridae), a wide-ranging marsupial carnivore restricted to the island of tasmania. heterozygosity (0.386-0.467) and allelic diversity (2.7-3.3) were low in all subpopulations and allelic size ranges were small and almost continuous, consistent with a founder effect. island effects and repeated periods of low population density may also have contributed to the low vari ...200415245394
disease-induced decline of an apex predator drives invasive dominated states and threatens biodiversity.apex predators are important in protecting biodiversity through top-down influence on food webs. their loss is linked with competitive release of invasive mesopredators and species extinctions. the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) has experienced severe declines over a 15-yr period as a novel transmissible cancer has spread across its current geographic range. we surveyed the mammalian community, using hair traps, across the spatial extent of the devil's progressive population decline. we ...201627145614
determination of polybrominated biphenyls in tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii) by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture negative ion tandem mass spectrometry or electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry.two gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (gc/ms) methods for the determination of polybrominated biphenyls (pbbs) by isotope dilution analysis (ida) using (13)c(12)-pbb 153 in the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) were compared. recovery of (13)c(12)-pbb 153 which was added to the extracted lipids before sample purification was commenced ranged from 88-117% (mean value 98.2 +/- 8.9%). nevertheless, ida analysis of pbbs using (13)c(12)-labelled congeners is limited by the potenti ...200819034893
evidence that disease-induced population decline changes genetic structure and alters dispersal patterns in the tasmanian devil.infectious disease has been shown to be a major cause of population declines in wild animals. however, there remains little empirical evidence on the genetic consequences of disease-mediated population declines, or how such perturbations might affect demographic processes such as dispersal. devil facial tumour disease (dftd) has resulted in the rapid decline of the tasmanian devil, sarcophilus harrisii, and threatens to cause extinction. using 10 microsatellite dna markers, we compared genetic d ...201120216571
allorecognition in the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii), an endangered marsupial species with limited genetic diversity.tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii) are on the verge of extinction due to a transmissible cancer, devil facial tumour disease (dftd). this tumour is an allograft that is transmitted between individuals without immune recognition of the tumour cells. the mechanism to explain this lack of immune recognition and acceptance is not well understood. it has been hypothesized that lack of genetic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) allowed the tumour cells to grow in genetically ...201121811598
reduced effect of tasmanian devil facial tumor disease at the disease front.pathogen-driven declines in animal populations are increasingly regarded as a major conservation issue. the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) is threatened with extinction by devil facial tumor disease, a unique transmissible cancer. the disease is transmitted through direct transfer of tumor cells, which is possible because the genetic diversity of tasmanian devils is low, particularly in the major histocompatibility complex genes of the immune system. the far northwest of tasmania now hol ...201221978020
genome sequencing and analysis of the tasmanian devil and its transmissible cancer.the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii), the largest marsupial carnivore, is endangered due to a transmissible facial cancer spread by direct transfer of living cancer cells through biting. here we describe the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the tasmanian devil genome and whole-genome sequences for two geographically distant subclones of the cancer. genomic analysis suggests that the cancer first arose from a female tasmanian devil and that the clone has subsequently genetically dive ...201222341448
evolution in a transmissible cancer: a study of the chromosomal changes in devil facial tumor (dft) as it spreads through the wild tasmanian devil population.tasmanian devils (sarcophilus harrisii) are the largest extant marsupial carnivores. this species, now confined to tasmania, is endangered from the emergence of a transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (dftd). in the present study, we use cytogenetic and molecular techniques to examine the stability of devil facial tumor (dft) cell lines across time and space. this article describes disease progression from february 2004 to june 2011. we demonstrate evolutionary changes in the disease, ...201222469509
new insights into the role of mhc diversity in devil facial tumour disease.devil facial tumour disease (dftd) is a fatal contagious cancer that has decimated tasmanian devil populations. the tumour has spread without invoking immune responses, possibly due to low levels of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) diversity in tasmanian devils. animals from a region in north-western tasmania have lower infection rates than those in the east of the state. this area is a genetic transition zone between sub-populations, with individuals from north-western tasmania displaying ...201222701561
biting injuries and transmission of tasmanian devil facial tumour disease.the tasmanian devil is threatened with extinction by devil facial tumour disease (dftd), a unique infectious cancer in which the tumour cells themselves, which derive from a single long-dead host devil, are the infective agent and the tumour is an infectious parasitic cell line. transmission is thought to occur via direct inoculation of tumour cells when susceptible and infected individuals bite each other or by fomitic transfer of tumour cells. the nature of transmission and the extent to which ...201322943286
extensive population decline in the tasmanian devil predates european settlement and devil facial tumour disease.the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) was widespread in australia during the late pleistocene but is now endemic to the island of tasmania. low genetic diversity combined with the spread of devil facial tumour disease have raised concerns for the species' long-term survival. here, we investigate the origin of low genetic diversity by inferring the species' demographic history using temporal sampling with summary statistics, full-likelihood and approximate bayesian computation methods. our r ...201425376800
diversity in the toll-like receptor genes of the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii).the tasmanian devil is an endangered marsupial species that has survived several historical bottlenecks and now has low genetic diversity. here we characterize the toll-like receptor (tlr) genes and their diversity in the tasmanian devil. tlrs are a key innate immune gene family found in all animals. ten tlr genes were identified in the tasmanian devil genome. unusually low levels of diversity were found in 25 devils from across tasmania. we found two alleles at tlr2, tlr3 and tlr6. the other se ...201525563844
immunology of a transmissible cancer spreading among tasmanian devils.devil facial tumor disease (dftd) is a transmissible cancer that has killed most of the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrissii) population. since the first case appeared in the mid-1990s, it has spread relentlessly across the tasmanian devil's geographic range. as tasmanian devils only exist in tasmania, australia, dftd has the potential to cause extinction of this species. the origin of dftd was a schwann cell from a female devil. the disease is transmitted when devils bite each other around th ...201526092814
leptospirosis in tasmanian devils ( sarcophilus harrisii ) in tasmania, 2014, we performed a diagnostic study of leptospirosis in tasmanian devil ( sarcophilus harrisii ) samples collected between 2008 and 2012 from wild and captive animals. tasmanian devil populations have been declining because of a facial tumor disease since the 1990s, with ongoing investigations examining potential causative agents. identifying other causative pathogens that may contribute additively to their decline is important to preserve current and future populations. we tested 81 tasman ...201627243149
the role of mhc genes in contagious cancer: the story of tasmanian devils.the tasmanian devil, a marsupial species endemic to the island of tasmania, harbours two contagious cancers, devil facial tumour 1 (dft1) and devil facial tumour 2 (dft2). these cancers pass between individuals in the population via the direct transfer of tumour cells, resulting in the growth of large tumours around the face and neck of affected animals. while these cancers are rare, a contagious cancer also exists in dogs and five contagious cancers circulate in bivalves. the ability of tumour ...201728695294
patterns of detection and capture are associated with cohabiting predators and prey.avoidance behaviour can play an important role in structuring ecosystems but can be difficult to uncover and quantify. remote cameras have great but as yet unrealized potential to uncover patterns arising from predatory, competitive or other interactions that structure animal communities by detecting species that are active at the same sites and recording their behaviours and times of activity. here, we use multi-season, two-species occupancy models to test for evidence of interactions between i ...201323565172
trophic cascades following the disease-induced decline of an apex predator, the tasmanian apex predators disappear worldwide, there is escalating evidence of their importance in maintaining the integrity and diversity of the ecosystems they inhabit. the largest extant marsupial carnivore, the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) is threatened with extinction from a transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (dftd). the disease, first observed in 1996, has led to apparent population declines in excess of 95% in some areas and has spread to more than 80% of their range. we a ...201424024987
a second transmissible cancer in tasmanian devils.clonally transmissible cancers are somatic cell lineages that are spread between individuals via the transfer of living cancer cells. there are only three known naturally occurring transmissible cancers, and these affect dogs, soft-shell clams, and tasmanian devils, respectively. the tasmanian devil transmissible facial cancer was first observed in 1996, and is threatening its host species with extinction. until now, this disease has been consistently associated with a single aneuploid cancer ce ...201626711993
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