propagule size and predispersal damage by insects affect establishment and early growth of mangrove seedlings.variation in rates of seedling recruitment, growth, and survival can strongly influence the rate and course of forest regeneration following disturbance. using a combination of field sampling and shadehouse experiments, we investigated the influence of propagule size and predispersal insect damage on the establishment and early growth of the three common mangrove species on the caribbean coast of panama: avicennia germinans, laguncularia racemosa, and rhizophora mangle. in our field samples, all ...200312684857
mangrove forest composition and structure in las perlas archipelago, pacific panama.mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. this study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, isla del rey and isla san jose, of las perlas archipelago (lpa), pacific panama. assessment of landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangrov ...201020737843
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