effects of cadmium, mercury, and selenium on reproductive indices in male lesser scaup (aythya affinis) in the western boreal forest.combined lesser scaup (aythya affinis) and greater scaup (a. marila) populations decreased from the 1980s to the 1990s and have not recovered. factors limiting reproduction, including effects of contaminants and trace elements, have been highlighted as a concern in female scaup, but no studies have examined possible effects on male scaup. we examined the effects of cadmium, mercury, selenium, and corticosterone on pair status and on male reproductive indices, including testosterone, testes mass, ...200817968482
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