texas is the overwintering source of fall armyworm in central pennsylvania: implications for migration into the northeastern united states.fall armyworm, spodoptera frugiperda (j. e. smith) (lepidoptera: noctuidae), infestations in most of north america arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern texas and florida. cytochrome oxidase i haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn strain, the subgroup that preferentially infests corn (zea mays l.), can differentiate the texas and florida populations. we use this molecular metric to show that fall armyworms in central pennsylvania originate from texas, ...200920021748
verification of a european corn borer (lepidoptera: crambidae) loss equation in the major corn production region of the northeastern united states.field studies in pennsylvania and maryland were conducted during 2000, 2001, and 2002 to test the applicability of published yield loss relationships developed in central pennsylvania for european corn borer, ostrinia nubilalis (hübner), management in warmer, longer season corn, zea mays l., grain production regions of the northeastern united states. both isoline hybrids and non-bt lead hybrids were compared against bacillus thuringiensis (bt) hybrids to measure effects of the pest on yield. the ...200515765671
contamination of fresh and ensiled maize by multiple penicillium mycotoxins.toxins produced by penicillium species are reported in maize silage and have been associated with health problems in cattle. our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence and dynamics of patulin (pat), mycophenolic acid (mpa), cyclopiazonic acid (cpa), and roquefortine c (roc) in fresh and ensiled maize. to achieve these objectives we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with mass spectrometry to detect all four toxins simultaneously in silage. in addition we collec ...200818944084
environmental and economic comparisons of manure application methods in farming systems.alternative methods for applying livestock manure to no-till soils involve environmental and economic trade-offs. a process-level farm simulation model (integrated farm system model) was used to evaluate methods for applying liquid dairy (bos taurus l.) and swine (sus scrofa l.) manure, including no application, broadcast spreading with and without incorporation by tillage, band application with soil aeration, and shallow disk injection. the model predicted ammonia emissions, nitrate leaching, a ...201121520751
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